By Paul Wilkinson and Billy Wilkinson Period 6 and 9 Organ Cloning
-Alleles are different forms of genes. Dominant alleles and recessive alleles control the inheritance of traits because dominant alleles mask the recessive alleles. -Traits are controlled with co-dominant alleles when there is neither a dominant or recessive allele both alleles will show in the organism. -The alleles of two parents combine to express traits in offspring by passing on either homozygous of heterozygous traits. A pedigree is a diagram representing family relationships of individuals. Basic Principles of Genetics
Human Genome Project -This project was started officially in October 1990. The main goals of this project was to identify the sequence of every DNA base pair in the human genome. The project was supposed to end in 2005 but ended in 2003. -The legal implications of the human genome project were privacy so no one steals their genetic information and makes a clone and also so insurers and employers will not have access to genetic test results. Another implication is legislation because they have to make laws to make sure nobody tries to steal or use somebody's genetic information. -Some social implications are the fairness and use of genetic information like who should have access to personal genetic information and how would it be used. Also who owns your genetic information? Another implication is how does personal genetic information affect an individual and society‘s of that individual.
HUMAN GENOME (CONTINUED) -Some ethical implications of the Human Genome Project are reproductive issues such as, do healthcare personnel properly counsel parents about the risks and limitations of genetic technology? Also should testing be performed if no treatment is available? -The human genome project changed current laws such as GINA because they needed to make new laws that protect someone's genetic information.
GENETIC DISORDER -A gene is a segment of double-stranded DNA that is the unit of heredity in chromosomes. DNA is a large double-stranded, spiraling molecule that contains genetic instructions for growth, development and replication. It is organized into bodies called chromosomes and found in the cell nucleus. A Genetic Disorder is a disease caused by change in part or all of this DNA sequence. -Genetic Disorders can be grouped into three categories Single Gene Disorders, Chromosome abnormalities, and Multifactorial disorders.
SINGLE GENE DISORDERS <ul><li>-Single gene disorders are genetic conditions that cause a mutation of defect in just one gene. A mutation is a permanent change in DNA sequence. Single Gene disorders differ from Multifactorial Disorders and Chromosome Abnormalities because one gene contributes to causing a disease in an individual. Single Gene Disorders can be classified as dominant or recessive based on their pattern of inheritance. For a dominant disorder only one parent has to be carrying the defective gene for the child to inherit the disease, on the other hand with a recessive disorder both parents have to be carrying a defective gene for the child to inherit the disease. </li></ul><ul><li>-Some examples of single gene disorders are sickle cell disease, cystic fibrosis, polycystic kidney disease, and Tay-Sachs disease. </li></ul>
CHROMOSOME ABNORMALITIES <ul><li>-Chromosome Abnormalities are caused by an increase or decrease of the number of chromosome or by structural changes within the chromosome. The chromosome is a long coiled strand in the cell nucleus made up of DNA and protein. There are 46 chromosomes, each containing DNA for thousands of individual genes. Most genetic abnormalities occur when there is an error in cell division that results in too many or too few copies of a chromosome. Chromosome abnormalities can be new to an individual, which is different than inheriting a disorder as in single gene disorders. </li></ul><ul><li>-Some examples include Down syndrome which is caused by an extra copy of chromosome 21, and Prader-Willi syndrome which is caused by an absence of genes on chromosome 15. </li></ul>
MULTIFACTORIAL DISORDERS <ul><li>-Multifactorial Disorders are caused by a combination of small inherited variations in genes, often acting together with environmental factors. Heredity is the passing of traits from parent to offspring. The disorder involves multiple genes that are affected by a variety of environmental factors such as drinking alcohol, chewing tobacco, smoking cigarettes, and poor dietary habits. Multifactorial Disorders are different than Single Gene Disorders and Chromosome Abnormalities because it involves environmental factors. </li></ul>
Genetic Disorders (continued) <ul><li>-Genetic counseling can help perspective parents who have a genetic disorder regarding future children by identifying the genetic disorder prior to pregnancy. The genetic disorder can be identified in single gene disorders. </li></ul><ul><li>-Karyotypes are photographs of a cells chromosomes, arranged in order from largest to smallest. A picture of all 46 chromosomes is called a karyotype. When chromosomes are examined under the microscope they need to be stained. Once stained, the chromosomes look like strings with light and dark bands and their picture can be taken. Karyotypes can be used to predict genetic disorders by identifying chromosome abnormalities that are evident in either the structure or the number of chromosomes. This karyotype can be used to help identify a chromosome that has a genetic mutation. </li></ul>
SCIENTIFIC ADVANCEMENTS IN CLONING <ul><li>- There are many scientific advancements in cloning. Cloning is the process of creating a genetically identical group of cells from a single ancestor. Genetic engineering is the technology used to genetically manipulate living cells to produce new chemicals or to perform new functions. A three dimensional scaffold(see picture top right) is created first. It is then coated with cells and placed in an environment where the cells continue to multiply and gradually cover the scaffold. The key to regeneration is to isolate them then multiply those cells until there is enough to cover the scaffold. According to Dr. Atala who runs the Wake Forest Institute for Regenerative Medicine, “The cells know exactly what to do. Every single cell in your body has all the genetic information to create a whole new you. So if you place that cell in the right environment, it’ll will be programmed to do what it’s supposed to do.” </li></ul>
ARGUMENT 1 -There are many different uses for organ cloning besides transplants such as being used to repair injuries from trauma, infections, structural defects, and birth defects. Most recently on March 8, 2011 research scientists at Wake Forest University have reported that they have for the first time successfully created and transplanted a urethra that has worked in five human patients over a period of six years.
ARGUMENT 2 -Another pro about organ cloning is when you get a donated organ you have to take anti-rejection medications for the rest of your life. Five to ten pills have to be taken daily so your body will not reject the donated organ. Current research at Wake Forest Institute for regenerative medicine are using cells from the human body and growing them into cloned organs that are genetic matches to the cell donor. The cloned organ can be transplanted without a risk of tissue rejection and anti-rejection medication will not be needed.
ARGUMENT 3 -The third pro about organ cloning is that there will not be a long organ donation list, because people would rather have a cloned organ then waiting for a donated organ. Once you have a shorter organ donation list you wont have to worry of people dieing on the donation list like in the past.
ARGUMENT 4 -Most recently in the news on March 12, 2011 there was a documented incident of HIV transmission via organ donation. With every organ donation this is a risk of disease transmission to the recipient. This occurs because blood screening tests are not always 100% accurate. If you clone an organ there is no risk of disease transmission because it is made out of the same cells of the recipient.
CONCLUSION <ul><li>-Imagine new technology where we will be growing body parts. This technology is no longer in the future. The world’s largest lab devoted to bioengineering body parts is Wake Forest Institute for Regenerative Medicine in North Carolina. Scientific advancements have so far created heart valves,livers, bladders, and everything from fingers to kidneys. Currently the institute is working on over 22 different tissues and organs. The hope for the future is that someday the bioengineering of body parts can provide replacement tissues and organs that can be used to help people survive. </li></ul>
WORKS CITED Works Cited Atala, Anthony. "Engineering Organs." Current Opinion in Biotechnology 20 (2009): 575-92. Print. Atala, Anthony. "Tissue Engineering of Human Bladder." British Medical Bulletin 2011, 15 Feb. 2011. Web. 24 Mar. 2011. <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21324973>. "Ethical, Legal, and Social Issues --Genome Research." Oak Ridge National Laboratory . Web. 24 Mar. 2011. <http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources/Human_Genome/elsi/elsi.shtml>. Furth, Mark E., and Anthony Atala. "Producing Organs in the Laboratory." Current Urology Reports 9.6 (2008): 433-36. Print.
Works Cited (Continued) <ul><li>"Genome.gov | FAQ About Genetic Disorders." Genome.gov | National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) - Homepage . Web. 24 Mar. 2011. <http://www.genome.gov/pfv.cfm?pageID=19016930>. </li></ul><ul><li>Size, Font. "Growing Body Parts - 60 Minutes - CBS News." Breaking News Headlines: Business, Entertainment & World News - CBS News . Web. 24 Mar. 2011. <http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2010/07/21/60minutes/main6698375.shtml>. </li></ul><ul><li>"X-Linked, Single Gene Disorders, NCBDDD, CDC." Centers for Disease Control and Prevention . Web. 24 Mar. 2011. <http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/single_gene/x-link.htm>. </li></ul>