Genetics Research

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Genetics Research

  1. 1. By Mark Gottlieb Period 1 Ms. Morgan HUMAN CLONING
  2. 2. Basic Principles of Genetics <ul><li>Individual alleles control the inheritance of traits. Some are recessive some are dominant. Dominant covers up recessive when present. </li></ul><ul><li>In co-dominance neither allele is masked, they mix together. </li></ul><ul><li>One allele from each parent per trait is passed on. The alleles combine. Then if one allele is dominant the offspring inherits that trait. If both alleles are recessive the offspring inherits that trait. </li></ul>Punnett square-can be used to predict outcome of genetic cross
  3. 3. Human Genome Project <ul><li>The project started in 1990. The original goal was for scientists to look at a patient’s genetic profile or DNA, and to treat or prevent diseases before they came up by replacing genes with diseases (genetic diseases) with genes that don’t contain the disease. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>The ethical concerns are whether or not insurance companies should be allowed or prohibited from discriminating against patients with genetic diseases or disorders. </li></ul><ul><li>The legal implications are whether or not people should be able to buy other people’s information, what might happen if people's genes are put into someone else (safety concerns), and should companies be allowed to deny coverage based on genetic diseases or disorders in a patient. </li></ul><ul><li>Social implications are the possible reproductive issues and physiological impact of genetic modification and testing. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>The human genome project created a need for laws such as GINA (Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act of 2008) to protect people from genetic discrimination. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Genetic Disorders <ul><li>single gene disorder- affects only one particular gene(ex. Sickle cell disease) </li></ul><ul><li>chromosome abnormalities- two types- numerical (too many or too few) and structural (part is missing, extra duplication, translocations-portion of one is transferred to another, inversion-flip) (ex. Turner Syndrome) </li></ul><ul><li>multifactorial disorders- disorders caused by mutation in multiple genes (ex. scoliosis) </li></ul>
  7. 7. Genetic disorders (continued) <ul><li>It can help them because they can find out the risks of a genetic disorder based on their family history, and direct them to counseling; and tell them the odds of their children having a genetic disorder from genetic counseling. One way is by using the scientific study of heredity. Genetic counselors can also use a pedigree to help determine risks of having children. </li></ul><ul><li>A karyotype is the total chromosome complement of an organism. Karyotypes are often determined to detect abnormalities in the chromosomes that may cause disease. A cytogeneticist takes a picture of the chromosomes through a microscope and then analyzes them against a known control. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Scientific Advancements in Cloning <ul><li>early 1800s-Sea Urchin cloned </li></ul><ul><li>1902-Salamander cloned </li></ul><ul><li>1986-sheep and cow embryos cloned </li></ul><ul><li>1996-first adult mammal cloned(Dolly) success rate of 277:1 </li></ul><ul><li>1997 to 1998-3 generations of mice cloned success rate of 50:1 </li></ul>
  9. 9. Cloning Good or Bad Video link http://news.discovery.com/videos/tech-human-cloning.html <ul><li>Good </li></ul><ul><li>Can be used to get organ transplants for people that are sick. </li></ul><ul><li>Bad </li></ul><ul><li>Can be used by terrorist groups to create an army of suicide bombers </li></ul>
  10. 10. Genetic Engineering Good or Bad <ul><li>Scientists can use Genetic Engineering to: </li></ul><ul><li>treat some diseases </li></ul><ul><li>create better crops </li></ul><ul><li>create better animals to be eaten or be used for transplants </li></ul><ul><li>create better people by eliminating bad or unwanted genes such as gene for cancer in the future </li></ul><ul><li>Can create some people that are better than others in the future </li></ul><ul><li>Can benefit people with more money who can pay to get certain genes that are unwanted removed in the future </li></ul><ul><li>Rich people can have unwanted traits removed to make themselves the way they want to be </li></ul>
  11. 11. Argument #1Human Cloning Con <ul><li>I am against cloning because in studies done on animal cloning, most of the clones die suddenly. The first cloned animal, Dolly the sheep died at about 6 years old and suffered from lung disease and arthritis, both prematurely, while a normal sheep lives to be about 12 years old. </li></ul><ul><li>These diseases appeared in a sheep. While in humans the clones could have brain or growth disorders among worse things. If the DNA is extracted from someone with diseases that they don’t know about a person could be cloned and have a new disease as a result of diseases combining. </li></ul>Why people are against cloning survey(above).
  12. 12. Argument #2 <ul><li>Another reason I’m against this issue is that very few clones survive to birth and that most suffer from severe genetic abnormalities. Also, most clones might only be used for body parts. Also, if a person with a genetic disorder such as cancer is cloned, then more people will have the disease. The cloned individuals are people to. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Argument #3 <ul><li>Another reason I am against this issue is that if you clone a person, the clone might not have the same characteristics as the original person so people would be upset who made the clone. Also, if the clone goes to school he or she might feel lesser to their classmates because they are not their own person, they are a genetic copy of someone else. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Argument #4 <ul><li>Another reason I am against this issue is that by cloning people the population will increase creating a need for more jobs. The US unemployment rate currently in February 2011 was 9.5% with the current population according to the US Bureau of Labor Statistics. Imagine if human cloning was perfected and even more people came about, it would raise the unemployment rate and raise national debt and taxes to pay for shelters, and ruin the economy. </li></ul>
  15. 15. What about human cloning for body parts? <ul><li>Most body parts can be taken from other animals such as kidneys from pigs if scientists eliminate a gene that coats pig organs with a sugar </li></ul>
  16. 16. Conclusion <ul><li>I believe the government should not fund human cloning because, there are already lots of people in the US that need transplants. If you clone someone to get body parts and the person has a bad disease then you are creating another person with that. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Works Cited <ul><li>Primary sources </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Genome.gov | Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act of 2008.&quot; Genome.gov | National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) - Homepage . Web. 12 Mar. 2011. <http://www.genome.gov/24519851>. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Dolly the Sheep Dies Young - 14 February 2003 - New Scientist.&quot; Science News and Science Jobs from New Scientist - New Scientist . Web. 23 Mar. 2011. <http://www.newscientist.com/article/dn3393-dolly-the-sheep-dies-young.html>. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Genome.gov | Chat Q&A: Is Scoliosis a Genetic Disorder?&quot; Genome.gov | National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) - Homepage . Web. 24 Mar. 2011. <http://www.genome.gov/DNADay/q.cfm?aid=5929&year=2006>. </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary sources </li></ul><ul><li>Cooper, Mary H. &quot;CQ Researcher Online - Entire Report.&quot; CQ Press Electronic Library . Web. 09 Mar. 2011. <http://library.cqpress.com/cqresearcher/document.php?id=cqresrre2000051200&type=hitlist&num=0&PHPSESSID=ncruqau0crm86qjve7cmtgdch3>. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Genome.gov | Chromosome Abnormalities Fact Sheet.&quot; Genome.gov | National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) - Homepage . Web. 12 Mar. 2011. <http://www.genome.gov/11508982>. </li></ul>Secondary sources
  18. 18. Citation continued <ul><li>Pictures </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Google Image Result for Http://www.publicagenda.org/files/charts/pcc_medresearch_oppose_cloning_religious_beliefs.png.&quot; Google . Web. 21 Mar. 2011. <http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.publicagenda.org/files/charts/pcc_medresearch_oppose_cloning_religious_beliefs.png&imgrefurl=http://www.publicagenda.org/charts/people-who-oppose-human-cloning-are-divided-their-reasons-one-third-americans-cite-religious-beliefs&usg=__WrkK6b6VuPpsNYSRqs3F96ZZt84=&h=387&w=483&sz=22&hl=en&start=0&zoom=1&tbnid=iTrCM_qH4rhSNM:&tbnh=133&tbnw=166&ei=9D2HTbCULY-90QHWz9XQCA&prev=/images?q=human+cloning&hl=en&safe=active&biw=1049&bih=578&gbv=2&tbs=isch:1&itbs=1&iact=hc&vpx=241&vpy=266&dur=5943&hovh=201&hovw=251&tx=173&ty=175&oei=9D2HTbCULY-90QHWz9XQCA&page=1&ndsp=16&ved=1t:429,r:11,s:0>. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Google Image Result for Http://lukevi.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/02/human-cloning.jpg.&quot; Google . Web. 21 Mar. 2011. <http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://lukevi.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/02/human-cloning.jpg&imgrefurl=http://lukevi.com/tag/god-and-human-cloning/&usg=__zUHj5DCGeTQlI0c7xnkkVLekJho=&h=299&w=400&sz=21&hl=en&start=0&zoom=1&tbnid=s-o3-9iVLqRzIM:&tbnh=137&tbnw=183&ei=9D2HTbCULY-90QHWz9XQCA&prev=/images?q=human+cloning&hl=en&safe=active&biw=1049&bih=578&gbv=2&tbs=isch:1&itbs=1&iact=rc&dur=1857&oei=9D2HTbCULY-90QHWz9XQCA&page=1&ndsp=16&ved=1t:429,r:0,s:0&tx=56&ty=60>. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Google Image Result for Http://blog.savcds.org/swanson/files/2011/02/Punnett_square_PSF.png.&quot; Google . Web. 21 Mar. 2011. <http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://blog.savcds.org/swanson/files/2011/02/Punnett_square_PSF.png&imgrefurl=http://blog.savcds.org/swanson/2011/02/24/the-truth-about-punnett-squares/&usg=__LIZ7yI4LJpE9XsSwxsFh6OoLa88=&h=2176&w=2192&sz=267&hl=en&start=0&zoom=1&tbnid=a1tzyDdB3OjyOM:&tbnh=135&tbnw=136&ei=3TqHTfmUCKbk0gGmkfDECA&prev=/images?q=punnett+square&hl=en&safe=active&biw=1049&bih=578&gbv=2&tbs=isch:1&itbs=1&iact=hc&vpx=654&vpy=76&dur=514&hovh=224&hovw=225&tx=96&ty=131&oei=3TqHTfmUCKbk0gGmkfDECA&page=1&ndsp=16&ved=1t:429,r:3,s:0>. </li></ul>
  19. 19. &quot;Tech: Human Cloning : Video : Discovery News.&quot; Discovery News: Earth, Space, Tech, Animals, Dinosaurs, History . Web. 24 Mar. 2011. <http://news.discovery.com/videos/tech-human-cloning.html>.

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