How are traits controlled by dominant and recessive alleles?
The dominant allele masks the recessive allele. What ever the dominant allele is it shows up in the offspring.
How are traits controlled with co-dominant alleles?
The offspring has traits from both dominant alleles. As a redult of codominance, neither allele is masked in the offspring. If the genotype was RB(R=Red Hair, B=Brown hair) the offspring would have a mixture of red and brown hair.
Explain how the alleles of two parents combine to express traits in offspring?
Geneticists use Punnet Squares to show all the possible outcomes of a genetic cross and to determine the probability of a particular outcome.
Human Genome Project
When did the project start and how did scientists hope to use this information(what were the goals in the begining)?
The project began in 1990 and was initially headed by Ari Patrinos, head of the Office of Biological and Enviornmental Research in the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Science. The scienctists goal was to determine the sequence of chemical base pairs which make up DNA and to identify and map the approximately 20,000-25,000 genes of the human.
What are the implications of the Human Genome project in regards to Ethical,Legal, and Social implications?
Ethical- Fairness in the use of genetic information by insurers, employers, courts, schools, adoption agencies, and the military, among others.
Legal- Privacy and confindetiality of genetic information.
Social- Psychological impact and stigmatization due to an individual's genetic differences.
How did the human genome project change current laws such as GINA (Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act of 2008)?
"It prohibited discrimination based on gentic information by health insurers and employers."- The Gentic Information Nondiscrimination Act of 2008
Single Gene Disorders
Gentic disorders are casued by mutaions, or changes in a person's DNA. Some single gene disorders are Cystic Fibrosis, Sickle-Cell Disease, and Hemophilia.
Chromosomal abnormalities usually result from an error that occurs when an egg or sperm cell develops. It is not known why these errors occur. As far as we know, nothing that a parent does or doesn’t do before or during pregnancy can cause a chromosomal abnormality in his or her child. Some abnormalities are Turner syndrome where you only have 1 X chrmosome instead of 2, Kleinfelter syndrome where a male has an extra chromosome,instead of having 1 X chromosome he has 2.
Multifactorial disorders are disorders that arise when multiple genes have a mutation.
Argument 1 I think that one advantage of harvesting stem cells is that they can make more of any body cell that you are lacking.According to Dr. Lauren Percorino one of the advantages of stem cells are that they have the potential to make more of any body cell.
Argument 2 In 2003, Dr. Songtao Shi, a pediatric dentist at the NIH, discovered that discarded baby teeth are an excellent new source of stem cells. Stem cell research is the most promising path to curing many severe diseases and disabling medical conditions. It may yield remedies for such conditions as Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s diseases, juvenile diabetes, spinal cord injury, MS, ALS, and certain forms of cancer and heart disease.
Argument 2 continued
Argument 3 According to experts at ExploreStemCells.co.uk umbilical cord blood stem cells are considered the 'freshest' and 'youngest' stem cells available. They also avoid the ethical debate surrounding embryonic stem cells because cord blood cells do not involve the destruction of an embryo. In addition, cord blood stem cells hold an advantage over adult stem cells because they do not have the DNA mutations that the 'older' adult stem cells may have developed over time.
Argument 3 continued
Argument 4 According to scientists are Non- Hodgkins Lymphoma Cyberfamily there is little or no pain to the donor during the collection procedure. Although the Neupogen to mobilize the stem cells usually causes mild to severe bone pain as the marrow goes into overdrive producing more blood and stem cells. This bone pain can be quite severe for some, but is usually managed quite well with Tylenol or other OTC pain medications for most.
Conclusion I think that they should spend the federal governments money on harvesting stem cells. They should spend the money because it could save the life and less people a year will die from disease or illnesses that could have been stop with stem cells.
Works Cited ..., March Of. "Chromosomal Abnormalities | Baby | March of Dimes." Pregnancy, Baby, Prematurity, Birth Defects | March of Dimes . Web. 21 Mar. 2011. http://www.marchofdimes.com/baby/birthdefects_chromosomal.html . "Ethical, Legal, and Social Issues --Genome Research." Oak Ridge National Laboratory . Web. 21 Mar. 2011. <http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources/Human_Genome/elsi/elsi.shtml >. Pecorino, Dr. Lauren. "Stem Cells for Cell-Based Therapies (ActionBioscience)." ActionBioscience - Promoting Bioscience Literacy . Aug. 2001. Web. 24 Mar. 2011< http://www.actionbioscience.org/biotech/pecorino2.html >. "Harvest Stem Cells from Baby Teeth – Affiliate Niche Pays 100." 5 Star Affiliate Blogs . Web. 24 Mar. 2011. http://affiliate-blogs.5staraffiliateprograms.com/823/harvest-stem-cells-from-baby.html . "Cord Blood Stem Cells - Explore Stem Cells (UK)." Understanding Stem Cell Research and Treatments at Explore Stem Cells (UK) . Web. 24 Mar. 2011. <http://www.explorestemcells.co.uk/CordBloodStemCells.html>.