Endangered and Extinct Animal Cloning Sydney Nelson and Lucy Plowe
The Basics of Genetics• Genes controlled by recessive alleles are masked when the dominant allele is present.• When the genes are controlled by co-dominant alleles the outcome is a mixture of the two genes. For example, skin tone genes are co- dominant. So if one parent has dark skin, and your other has light skin, your skin tone will be in the middle.• Genes are either recessive, dominant, or co-dominant. The dominant allele’s gene is usually present in the offspring, and the recessive only shows up if both alleles for that trait are present. This is a punnett square. It shows he possible outcomes of offspring. The offspring can be either homozygous or heterozygous, or purebred or hybrid. For example, say G stands for green leaves. Then if you are GG you are purebred. But if you are Gg, then you are hybrid for that trait.
Goals• To identify all the approximately 20,000-25,000 genes in human DNA• To determine the sequences of the 3 billion chemical base pairs that make up human DNA• To store this information in databases• To improve instruments in this field of science• To transfer related technologies to the private sector, and• To address the ethical, legal, and social issues come from the project.
Ethical, Legal, & Social Issues• Social: Society could change from genetic changes, like cloning, or designer babies. People could try to create a perfect race of children for example, tall, intelligent, athletic, or other traits that would be more preferable.• Ethical: There are ethical issues discussed in a conversation about genetics. People think that we shouldn’t alter genes, because the way they are, they are. Some people think that this is against god, and we shouldn’t seem like we can change the way things are.
Legal: Who should have access to the genetic info, and how will itbe used? Who owns the genetic information? The person, or thescientists? This is a debate that has been talked about a lot, similarto John Moore, who’s cells had been taken and sold by doctors.Insurance agencies, employers, courts, schools, adoption agencies,and the military all might want access to genetic information, orthink that it belongs to them.
GINA• GINA, or the Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act of 2008, protects Americans against discrimination based on their genetic code.• It is related to the human genome project because when the human genome project was taking place, it required lots of research that involved screening the genes of people. This would make their genes visible to insurance companies, and employers. GINA was passed because of the human genome project.• GINA makes sure that these peoples newly exposed genetic code will not make them discriminated against. Companies would be less likely to hire workers with a past of genetic disorders that would make them likely to take more sick leaves or retire early. GINA was signed by President George W. Bush in 2008.
Genetic DisordersA genetic disorder is an abnormal condition that a person inherits from it’s heredity and chromosomes. It can vary from Down’s Syndrome to obesity, two very different disorders that can immensely affect people’s lifestyles.
Chromosome Abnormalities• Some genetic disorders are caused by too many or too few chromosomes.• One genetic disorder caused by chromosome abnormalities is Down Syndrome. It’s when the chromosomes do not separate correctly during meiosis; a person will have an extra copy of chromosomes and have a distinct physical appearance.
Single Gene Disorders•Single gene disorder is when a gene carries a disorder to the offspring. Someexamples cystic fibrosis, sickle-cell disease, and hemophilia.• Cystic fibrosis is when mucus in the body is thicker, and causes the lungs andintestines to become clogged.•Hemophilia is a disorder that causes the blood to clot extremely slowly, or sometimesnot at all. This causes bruises and cuts serious, and could result in bleeding to deathfrom minor things.•Sickle-cell disease is when the hemoglobin, a protein that carries oxygen, is abnormaland causes the cells have a mutation when the oxygen level is low. The cell on the left is a red blood cell with sickle cell disease.
Multifactorial Disorders•Multifactorial disorders are disorders that that are not caused bya single cell, like cystic fibrosis or hemophilia.•Multifactorial disorders are disorders that are caused by morethan one factor, such as heart disease and diabetes.•These can be resulted from environmental factors, such as anarea with bad air, or lifestyle, such as not eating enough nutrientsand too many unhealthy foods.
Genetic Counseling• Genetic counseling is a process that tests to see if an offspring will have a genetic disorder. If a family has a history of hereditary genetic disorders, such as breast cancer, that disorder may continue to develop in the upcoming child.• The genetic counselor looks at family history, pedigrees, and medical records, orders genetic tests, and help the parents decide about the possibly genetically disordered offspring. The genetic counselor deciphers the genetic tests, figuring out if the baby will have a birth defect.
Karyotypes and Genetic Diseases• A normal human karyotype has 46 chromosomes: 22 pairs of autosomes and 2 sex chromosomes.• Sometimes chromosomes are incorrectly put into the egg or sperm cells during meiosis. When this happens, one cell can get two copies of a chromosome, while another cell gets none.
Deletions• Sometimes, genetic material is missing from a chromosome, which is called a deletion. Deletions of the tips of chromosomes are called terminal deletions. Internal deletions, where a chromosome has broken, lost material, and rejoined, are called interstitial deletions.• Deletions big enough to be seen in a karyotype result in the losing lots of genes. In humans, these aren’t as common as deletions that get rid of small parts of a chromosome.Open in new window
Translocations• A translocation is when the chromosomes rearrange and part of a chromosome breaks off and reattaches to another chromosome.• A reciprocal translocation is an even trade between two chromosomes.
CloningCloning animals has been possible for many years by splitting the embryo.Lately cloning has become possible using adult cells, by copying the DNA and inserting it into anegg.Using this technology, we can create exact replicas of living animals.This may allow us to clone endangered or animals. This is Noah. He is a gaur that was cloned in 2001. Gaurs are endangered animals that live in the woodland of Asia.
History of Cloning• DATE EVENTOct. 1990 National Institutes of Health launched the Human Genome Project.Year 1993 Creation of calves by transfer of nuclei of embryonic cellsLater 1933 Human embryos were ﬁrst clonedJul. 1995 Two sheep were cloned, Megan and Morag.Feb. 1997 Dolly the Lamb was bornJul. 1997 The scientists who created Dolly made Polly- a Poll Dorset lamb.Aug. 1997 President Clinton proposed legislation to ban cloning of humans for at least 5 yearsJan. 1998 Nineteen nations from Europe signed a ban on human cloningJan. 1998 The FDA proclaimed its authority over human cloningNow Where will cloning take us?
Pros In the opinion of Jose Folch, a scientist at the University of Zaragoza, cloning isa way we can preserve the unique genetic code of endangered animals.The cloned endangered animals can be used for boosting the population of thatspecies in the wild.These animals are endangered, and if they go away, we can never see them, studythem, or learn from them. Dr. Mark Westhusin, a Nuclear Transfer Specialist,thinks that cloning can help us understand the biology of endangered animals.Having extinct species alive again could help us understand why they wentextinct, and what we can do to keep species alive. Michael Archer and his teamhave been trying to bring back the Tasmanian Tiger, an animal that went extinct73 years ago.
Cons• Not all clones are successful. It took 277 tries before Dolly was born successfully. Cloning costs a lot of money, so failures would be a waste of money, time, and hope. A better way to keep the species from going extinct is to preserve their habitats.• Even if the cloning is successful, the clone may have birth defects or other sicknesses. Dolly the sheep suffered from arthritis and showed other signs of premature aging.• Since cloning is creating identical genes, cloning gets rid of genetic diversity. When there is less diversity in genes, it weakens the ability to adapt to our environment.• Clones often have a much shorter life span, due to the age of the cells used when they make the clone. A reproductive scientist Panos Zavos believes that even if we can’t tell there are problems caused by cloning now, we will be able to see them generations from now.
Our Opinion...• We believe that we should clone endangered animals. The amount of good that cloning does for the endangered species overrules the bad side of it. Although the cloned animal may have a shorter life span, suffer from diseases or birth defects, farther down the road we might find that there is a way to prevent that from happening. We can never know until we try.
Works Cited• Trivedi, Bijal P. "Scientists Clone First Endangered Species: a Wild Sheep." Daily Nature and Science News and Headlines | National Geographic News. National Geographic. Web. 10 Mar. 2011. <http:// news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2001/10/1025_TVsheepclone.html>.• Science Textbook• "Timeline of Cloning History." Agnosticism / Atheism - Skepticism & Atheism for Atheists & Agnostics. Web. 15 Mar. 2011. <http://atheism.about.com/library/chronologies/blchron_sci_cloning.htm>.Clemmitt, M. (2011, January 21). Genes and health. CQ Researcher, 21, 49-72. Retrieved from http://library.cqpress.com/cqresearcher/• Drell, Daniel. "HGP: What a Legal Assistant Needs to Know." Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Aug. 2000. Web. 10 Mar. 2011. <http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources/Human_Genome/publicat/miscpubs/legalasst.html>.• Yanagimachi, R. "ScienceDirect - Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology : Cloning: Experience from the Mouse and Other Animals." ScienceDirect - Home. 22 Feb. 2002. Web. 10 Mar. 2011. <http://www.sciencedirect.com/science? _ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6T3G-44CN31M-2&_user=10&_coverDate=02/22/2002&_rdoc=1&_fmt=high&_orig=gateway&_origin=gat eway&_sort=d&_docanchor=&view=c&_searchStrId=1673800623&_rerunOrigin=scholar.google&_acct=C000050221&_version= 1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=e361994808c62e947364794e6c0060e4&searchtype=a>.• "What Are Complex or Multifactorial Disorders? - Genetics Home Reference." Genetics Home Reference - Your Guide to Understanding Genetic Conditions. 6 Mar. 2011. Web. 10 Mar. 2011. <http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/ mutationsanddisorders/complexdisorders>.Oak, Manali. "Pros and Cons of Cloning." Buzzle Web Portal: Intelligent Life on the Web. Web. 15 Mar. 2011. <http://www.buzzle.com/articles/pros-and-cons-of- cloning.html>.• Interview with Panos Zavos in the Cloning video we watched in science class.• Connor, Steve. "The Big Question: Could Cloning Be the Answer to Saving Endangered Species from Extinction? - Science, News - The Independent." The Independent | News | UK and Worldwide News | Newspaper. Web. 24 Mar. 2011. <http://www.independent.co.uk/news/science/the-big-question-could-cloning-be-the-answer-to-saving- endangered-species-from-extinction-1543657.html>.