Designer Babies
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Cordelia Mutter, Period 6, Anna Stern, Period 9, Genetic Research Project, 21 slides

Cordelia Mutter, Period 6, Anna Stern, Period 9, Genetic Research Project, 21 slides

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  • heyyyy im here
  •            
  • this is so hard :(
  • << i think your getting way to over the top with these. she said the 9 Qs are supposed to be simply answered and short
  • is this for expert? yes wataya think?   AWESOME just did some minor corrections :)
  • <<note to self (anna): must find back up on this said/ done by scientists
  •        << you like? =)
  • is this for expert?
  • there all these sites that they arent allowing

Designer Babies Designer Babies Presentation Transcript

  • Designer Babies Why it is Ethicly, Legally, and Socially Wrong By Anna Stern, Period 8 and Cordelia Mutter, Period 6
  • Basic Principles of Gentics Three Questions and Answers
      • Traits are contolled by Dominant and Recessive alleles. Recessive alleles are masked when Dominant alleles are present so they can only show up as a trait in an organism when there are two of them. 
    •  
      • Traits are also controlled with co-dominant alleles. Co-dominant alleles can not be masked; they are neither dominant nor recessive. This means that both alleles show up in the organism. 
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      • The alleles of two parents combine to express traits in offspring. The offspring recieves half of its alleles (traits) from one parent and half from the other. 
  •                      Punnett Square                     (example of Basic Princliples of Gentics)
    •                              
  • Human Genome Project When it started and Why
    • The Human Genome Project started in 1990 by the U.S. Department of Energy and the National Institutes of Health. It continued for 13 years, until 2003. Although it is officially over, much of the data collected during the project will be used in generations to come. It was created to complete a number of goals; to identify all the genes in human DNA, determine the sequences of the chemical base pairs that make up human DNA, and improve tools for data analysis. During the time it was running, Wellcome Trust from the U.K. became a partner and multiple countries (such as Japan, France, Germany, and Chine) contributed to the research. 
    •  
  • Human Genome Project Ethical, Legal, Social
    •      There are several ethical problems relating to the Human Genome project, such as who really owns your genetic information? If doctors have access to your genetic information, should they be allowed to use it in tests and experiments? There are many different opinions regarding these matters; as people often say, there are two sides to every story. 
    •      Legal issues also need to be taken into consideration regarding the Human Genome Project. There are major court cases over property rights for DNA, many of which relate to wether or not to patent or develop products from human DNA. An example of a serious case regarding this is the Duamond vs Chakrabarty case of 1980.
    •      The Human Genome project changes some laws rearding DNA and genetics, and most likely will continue to do so. GINA (Genetic Information Nondescrimination Act) is one example. It was passed in 2008 and it "prohibits employers from making adverse employment decisions based on a person's genetic code and forbids insurers and employers from demanding a genetic test." This means that you can go in to test for a genetic disorder without having to worry about being judged by your boss depending on your results, and that your boss cannot force you into testing for genetic diseases. This realtes to the Human Genome Project because one reason that it was created was to figure out if your DNA effects you as a person. With the information it gathered, the government made the decision to pass GINA. With this law passed, you cannot be judged on "peculiar" DNA.
  • Genetic Disorders
    • Single gene disorder     -A disorder that is caused by a mutant allele of a single gene.     Chromosome abnormalities
    •     -A chromosome abnormality is a result of a different number of chromosomes than normal or a mutation in a chromosome. These are both called chromosome anomalies. Chromosome anomalies usually appear when there is an error in the cell division step after meiosis or mitosis. There are many types of chromosome anomalies, but for example, one that is very well known is Down Syndrome. It is caused by a human being born with an extra chromosome on a pair. 
    • Multi-Factorial Disorders
    •      -Multi-Factorial Disorders are related to the effects of many genes in association with a person's lifestyle. An example of a multifactorial disorder is diabetes. Multifactorial disorders are known to sometimes occur to several people in one family, but they don't have a specific pattern of inheritance. 
    • How can genetic counseling help perspective parents who have a genetic disorder regarding future children?     - When you go to genetic counceling, you talk to a doctor about your DNA-transmittable disease and recieve advice on if your children will get the disease and what you can do to prevent it. The geneticists help a couple expecting a child  be prepared, not suprized, for their newborn. It clears up the possibilites so you can be confident. So far, it has helped expecting couples with several problems regarding DNA overcome their fears.   How are karyotypes used to predict genetic disorders?
    •      -Karyotypes are the amount and appearance of chromosomes in an eukaryotic cell.  We can use karyotypes to figure out how human cells end up with an odd amount of chromosomes that can result in a genetic disease. 
    •  
  • Scientific Advancements in Cloning
    •      The first clones were created in the 1800's by Hans Dreisch. He used hair to brake apart the cell of a salamander, and the result was two identical salamanders. This was extraordinary for the time, but not a very useful way to clone an animal. 
    •      The first major cloning advancement was in 1951. A few scientists found a way that November to clone a frog embryo. It was the first nuclear transplant in the world. The experiment was extremely important, because their process is still being used today by scientists (with a few updates in technology). Their process was to first take the nucleus out of a frog cell and use it to replace the nucleus of an unfertilized frog egg cell, creating a soon-to-be-born clone. 
    •      Many other attempts at this were tried and failed, and after a few years the concept of cloning was yet again unthinkable. But in 1986, the first cloned mammal was born, Dolly the lamb. 
    •      Dolly was the first animal cloned from an adult sheep, which was a big leap forward. The experiment that resulted in her failed several times, but from the results of the first few trials, Dolly's "creator" Ian Wilmut found out a lot of useful information. He was able to figure out why his first tries had no success, and improve the ways to ensure a cloned creature lived. He froze the DNA from the adult sheep, forcing it to go into a hibernation called the G0 phase. When you inject this, the DNA will not have changed since it was taken out of the adult animal, therefore ensuring the life of the offspring. 
    •      Scientists are still working on ways to improve cloning, but there is no question on wether or not it can be done.
    •     
  • Issues related to Cloning and Genetic Engineering
    •      There are many issues related to genetic engineering and cloning. First off, it is much more likely for a sexually reproduced embryo to survive than a cloned or transferred embryo. Also, several studies have shown that organisms born as clones have side effects and defects that show up in their later life, like Dolly the lamb (the first cloned mammal) had arthritis. Another issue is regarding how the clone will act. It may be identical to its "twin," but that doesn't mean in any way that it will have the same soul, feelings, opinions, or talents. For example, you could clone Albert Einstein, but the clone may not be a genius at all. A very serious issue relates to wealth in society. If the rich engineer their children to be perfect, then how will the lower classes feel about their own imperfect, natural children? This can make it so people are not only separated by income in society classes, but by beauty. Depending on how you look, you may be judged unfairly. 
    •      Besides the beauty part of it, these issues also deal with the cloning and/or genetic engineering of food. Some chickens and cows are engineered to have the best meat, which may not seam so bad at first. But if the animals have birth defects from the cloning, will it effect the humans who eat the meat? 
    •      The Government also discusses a lot about the loss of identity in terms of a clone. As I mentioned before, even as an exact DNA clone, you will be different from your "twin" in personality. But in technical terms, you are exactly the same. What does this mean? What will it do for you in terms of a job? 
    •      These are just a couple of the topics gone over when you talk about cloning issues. There are many more, which is why the federal government is not hasty to go forward with cloning and genetic engineering. Some of the results could be very difficult to deal with. 
  • Pictures Relating to Designer Babies
  • Argument 1-Against
    •      A lot of the magic in having a child is the mystery of how it will look, who it resembles. People say all the time, "Aww! He looks just like you! It's so adorable." Through the generations, though, people have learned through magazines and other publicity than there is a perfect person. An image that everyone has to look up to and live up to. The funny thing is, this person never actually existed. But in order to change ourselfes to be this perfect image, doctors have figured out a way to affect how babies will look. The parents are able to choose the hair color, skin color, eye color, and other physical traits. Your baby will be like a customizable American Girl doll. There will be no suprise in the traits, you'll know exactly everything that will happen.
    •      Not only that, but pedigrees would get messed up, and every child after the "Designer" Baby on the pedigree would be wrong.
    •      This concept can seem great, but in truth, it is terrible. Having your baby "designed" is expensive, to say the least, and a lot of people won't be able to afford such a procedure. The poor and rich will be classified separate even more, through the beauty of the person.
    •      If you grew up in a poor town and weren't "designed," your chances of getting a good job will be extremely diminished, even if you're smart.
    •      Your baby may not end up seeming like yours. If it doesn't look like you, will that effect the way you love it?
    •      Will genetically engineered babies have problems when they get older? Will their life be shortened from the engineering?
    •      These questions cannot be answered until we create a genetically engineered baby. But the risk of all of the effects is to great to try. "It's inhuman to create a perfect person," says TIME magazine. "There shouldn't be a world where certain people seem better than everyone else." TIME is absolutely right. Just because someone may look beautiful doesn't mean that they will be such a flawless person on the inside. 
  • Argument 2-Against
    •      Science moves fast, and now Designer Babies are not just created for the safety of the newborn, but for the parent's and the public's idea of a 'perfect child'. It is not right for parents to be able to make such precious decisions about the genetics of their child. It is messing with the genetic engineering of the child and it is not safe. Marcy Darnovsky, scientist and professor who works with the Exploratory Initiative on the New Human Gentic Technologies agrees.
    •      People are jumping at the idea of a 'perfect child', before they do any research on the procedure or think about the concequences of the dangerous procedure. It may seem great in the begining, but nobody knows what mutations could end up happening to the "Designer" Baby when it grows older. 
  • Argument 3-Against
    •      If "Designer" Babies was present in a country such as China, the population would massively decrease. Most people know that China has issued a law that no family can have more than one child. Many people have also heard of the the fact that Chinese culture makes families wants to carry on their last name forever. And because of this, girl children have an illigal abortion or are put up for adoption. 
    •      This is terrible, and it would just get worse if there was a "Designer" Baby option. If there was the option of "Designer" Babies, the mass majority of prospective parents would choose to have a male baby. If that happend, the female-male ratio would go down immensely, making the population decrease by atleast half. It is very important to have an about even ration of girls and boys, so it is possible to reproduce in the future, and keep humanity alive. Countries with these cultures are already getting rid of a certain gender, because it is not proffered, and "Designer" Babies would make matters worse. Marcy Darnovsky, scientist and professor who works with the Exploratory Initiative on the New Human Gentic Technologies agrees. 
    •      There is also a large problem regarding mutations. You can never know for sure at birth if a child will have a defect, especially if it shows up in later life. There could be major problems that could be passed down from a grown-up "Designed" baby to its offspring by heredity. The stakes are too high to try something this dangerous.
  •       Population Sex Ratios for China, India & Selected Countries
  • Argument 4-Against
    •       I understand why prospective parents would want a blue-eyed, blond haired baby with a high intelegence and an 87% chance of getting into an Ivy League,and that is possible with "Designer" Babies. But what about looking past that? Even though the child might be beautiful with an above average intelegence, you can not change a person's soul. That is just something you can not decide on.     
    •      Technology is quickly moving science forward, and now there are so many extaordinary steps that science is making, but "Designer" Babies is going one step to far. "It is selfish and not moral," says Marcy Darnovsky, a scientist and professor who works with the Exploratory Initiative on the New Human Gentic Technologies.
    •   
  • Argument 1-For      When you walk down the sidewalk of a large city, you can't help but notice the homeless people on the side. The ones with the torn up clothes, the messy gro wn out hair, and the toothless gums. They let themselves get to a state where they can't be helped back on their feet.      This probably started way back in elementary school. They probably didn't do as well as everyone else, and instead of trying harder, decided that they were to cool for school and failed their way through the grades. Then, at the end of middle school, they were introduced to drugs, and got hooked, all through high school and beyond. Not being able to get into college with their grades and not being able to get a good job without college, they ended up on the streets, as you see them today.      What if we could prevent this from the very beginning. What if everyone was smart enough to learn and do well in school, that nobody would fall behind and get caught in the wrong group. If we were able to do this, we could prevent several disasters regarding homelessness, the economy, and unemployment. And we could do it all when they were a baby, so they would grow up being extremely well-educated for your generation. We could change the whole future of the world with just a few alterations. 
  • Argument 2-For
    •      "Designer" Babies is a possible way to rid our population of deadly deseases, and help keep our children healthy, which is extremely important for our nations future devoplement.
    •      There is a lot of technology to rid people of deseases and prevent them, but "Designer" Babies is the first that gets rid of deseases before the baby is even born. It ensures that the child will grow up strong and healthy, which is very important for parents to know.
    •      Scientists have been trying for decades for a way to eleminate deseases from our lives, and they finally had a break through with "Designer" Babies. Researchers at Cambridge University agree.
    •      After all of scientist's hard work, "Designer" Babies should atleast eb given a try. it has a mazing potential and could change the lives of humans forever.
    •  
    •  
  • Argument 3-For
    •      In other countries, certain body types are needed for the work that must take place to keep the country's economy going. Countries that depend on agriculture for their economy need people with strong builds to help them work in the fields because it is the most common job. 
    •      "Designer" Babies would help that. It would ensure that everybody had a job and that people would not be straining their bodies with the day's labor.
    •      It would not only help and keep people safe, but also help many countries economies, which is extremely important for the future. Researchers at Cambridge University agree.
    •      It is an amazing opportunity that should not be ignored. It would not only save lives, but countries too.
    •  
  • Argument 4-For
    •      With just a few slight alters of a gene at birth, we would give the world  a smart human being that would treat others with respect. We could make everyone like this; 
    •      We're always taught in school not to make fun of kids who are different. The teachers repeat the "Golden Rule" over and over. But unfortunately, there are still many situations where children and even adults are being excluded for the reason of only being a little different. We could change this by making Designer Babies. If everyone was similar enough, there would be no reason for exclusion resulting from differences. Several wars have been started because of differences, and we could make it so that never happens again. 
    •      People have different beliefs, but solving all these world issues at birth seems like a great way to change the next generation's future in the right way. 
    •     
  • Conclusion
    •      Our conclusion is that the concept of Designer Babies, under any circumstance, is very wrong. The government should not fund it because it can be very dangerous, and have unknown side-affects and concequences. It is just plain wrong for human beings to be in the power to make such decisions about another living creature, let alone another human being.
  • Works Cited
    • 1) &quot;Single-gene Disorder - Glossary Entry - Genetics Home Reference.&quot;  Genetics Home Reference - Your Guide to Understanding Genetic Conditions . Web. 08 Mar. 2011. <http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/glossary=singlegenedisorder>.    
    • 2) &quot;Human Genome Project Information.&quot; Oak Ridge National Laboratory . Web. 15 Mar. 2011. http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources/Human_Genome/home.shtml.
    • 3) http://www.righthealth.com/topic/chromosome_abnormalities#
    • 4) Cantwell, Lynn. &quot;Genetic Counseling Helps Prepare Parents for the Future - Washington, DC.&quot; Georgetown University Hospital - Washington, DC . Web. 15 Mar. 2011. <http://www.georgetownuniversityhospital.org/body.cfm?id=556426>.
    • 5) Using Karyotypes to Predict Genetic Disorders.&quot;  Learn.Genetics™ . Web. 15 Mar. 2011. <http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/begin/traits/predictdisorder/>
    • 6) &quot;History of Cloning.&quot;  ORACLE ThinkQuest . Web. <http://library.thinkquest.org/20830/Frameless/Manipulating/Experimentation/Cloning/longdoc.htm>.
    • 7) &quot;Primer on Ethics and Human Cloning (ActionBioscience).&quot;  ActionBioscience - Promoting Bioscience Literacy . Web. 15 Mar. 2011. <http://www.actionbioscience.org/biotech/mcgee.html>
  • Works Cited (Continued)
    • 8)   &quot;An HSUS Report: Welfare Issues with Genetic Engineering and Cloning of Farm Animals.&quot; The Humane Society . Web. <http://www.humanesociety.org/assets/pdfs/farm/hsus-welfare-issues-with-genetic-engineering-and-cloning-of-farm-animals.pdf>.
    • 9)  &quot;Designer Babies Will Be Godless Achievement Machines.&quot; Institute for Ethics and Emerging Technologies. Web. 16 Mar. 2011. <http://ieet.org/index.php/IEET/more/munkittrick20110228>.
    • 10)  &quot;How Far Would YOU Go to Choose the Sex of Your Child? | Mail Online.&quot;  Home | Mail Online . Web. 16 Mar. 2011. <http://www.dailymail.co.uk/femail/article-1366672/How-far-YOU-choose-sex-child.html?ito=feeds-newsxml>.
    • 11)  &quot;Designer Babies - TIME.&quot;  Breaking News, Analysis, Politics, Blogs, News Photos, Video, Tech Reviews - TIME.com . Web. 16 Mar. 2011. <http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,989987,00.html>.