Adler migge genetics research march 13-templatePresentation Transcript
Genetic Modification of Foods for Example Golden Rice or Cows Producing More Milk Jessica Migge & Sydney Adler Period 3
Basic Principles of Genetics Genetics is the scientific study of heredity. Heredity is the passing of traits There are two types of traits Dominant alleles Recessive alleles Dominant alleles are traits that always show up in the organism when the allele is present and recessive alleles are traits that are masked/ covered up when the dominant allele is present.
Neither of the alleles are dominant nor recessive. Geneticists use Punnett squares to show all the possible outcomes of a genetic cross and to determine the probability of a particular outcome.
Human Genome Project The Human Genome Project started in 1990, was a planned 15 year study controlled by two different parts of the US Government The project was finished in 13 years because of new technology that was developed. With this project, scientists hoped to find new ways to diagnose, to find, treat and someday prevent the 1000’s of disorders.
Goal of the Human Genome Project Identify all genes in human DNA (between 20,000-25,000), Determine the sequences of the 3 billion chemical base pairs in human DNA, Store this information in computers for later use Improve the tools for data analysis, Transfer the technology used to companies Address the ethical, legal, and social issues (ELSI) that may arise from the project.
The Implications of the Human Genome Project Ethical implications There are two types of ethical implications: Genetic engineering consists of issues regarding genetic manipulation Genetic information Consists of questions regarding to the collection and the use of genetic information
Genetic Engineering is the changing of the actual DNA code of an individual. There are many different types. Therapeutic engineering is when genetic engineering is used to treat diseases Enhancement engineering is when science attempts to increase some traits more than their normal level Somatic cell intervention changes the body cells Germline intervention changes reproduction cells
The ethical questions include What if genetic engineering is used for non-medical reasons? With germline engineering, changes made to the reproduction cells will be passed down to the next generation, the results are unknown. What if enhancement engineering does not produce the desired results?
Genetic Information After scientists know exactly what in the human genome causes diseases and other problem traits having this information could help avoid problems that could develop later. Genetic screening is a way in which some of this information could be gotten.
Ethical questions regarding genetic information include: What are the rules for the collection and use of this information? What should we do with the results when it creates difficult situations for the people and their families? Can we make everyone in the USA give in their genetic information?
Legal and social Implications Once the genetic information is collected, there are many questions that have both legal and social implication, some of these include: Who should have access to personal genetic information? Who owns and controls this information? How does this information affect the perception of that individual?
Should testing be performed when no treatment is available? Should parents have the right to have their minor children tested for diseases that occur in adults? How reliable and useful is fetal genetics testing?
Laws that have changed as a result of the Human Genome Project In August 1996, President Clinton signed the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability ( HIPAA) This law was created to protect American’s medical information. The law made a person’s genetic information part of their protected medical information.
In 2003, some addition rules where added to HIPAA. These rules involved the use and disclosure of a person’s protected health information. One of these rules was called the Privacy Rule. This rule has to do with the release of medical information which could include the results of genetic testing when there is serious threat to the health or safety of a person.
In 1998, President Bush signed a law called, Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act (GINA). This law protected Americans from being discriminated against based on the results of their genetic information. This law only applied to their health insurance and employment.
Genetic Disorder Single Gene Disorder is different to Chromosome Abnormalities in different ways. For example, when you are born you are born with 46 chromosomes. This means that one chromosome contains thousands of genes, a person can have a normal amount of chromosomes and structure. But you can still have a disease or condition caused by a mutation in one or more of the genes on the chromosomes. A single gene can defect usually does not cause the chromosome structure or number to be abnormal. Single Gene Disorder is different and similar to Multifactorial Disorders. Multifactorial disorders are similar to single-gene disorders because they both result from errors directly within the genes in our cells. They are different because multifactorial genetic disorders arise when multiple genes have a mutation and single-gene disorders, just one gene has a mutation.
Genetic Disorders There are three different types of genetic disorders: Single gene disorder Chromosome abnormalities Multifactorial disorders
Single gene disorder is a disorder that is caused by a defect in only one gene. A chromosome abnormality reflects an change in the normal number or structure of a chromosomes. Multifactorial disorder is a disorders that arise when multiple genes have a mutation.
Compare and Contrast the different Genetic Disorders Single gene disorder, Chromosome Abnormalities and Multifactorial Disorders are types of genetic disorders which cause some type of change in the human genome. All three will lead to some type sickness, disease or condition in a person.
The result of each genetic disorder varies form single gene disorder, which causes 10,000 different diseases and could be passed down through families. Examples would are cystic fibrosis and sickle cell anemia. Chromosome abnormalities can occur as an accident in the egg or sperm. Therefore, the abnormality is present in every cell of the body. Chromosome abnormalities can be passed down from a parent. An example would be Down Syndrome Multifactorial disorders are the effects of multiple genes in combination with lifestyle and environmental factors. Scientists are not sure if they can be passed down from a parent. These disorders are harder to study because of the fact that so many factors could be involved. Examples would be heart disease, and cancer.
Genetic counseling can help parents find out if they have any genetic disorders that they either know about or don’t know about. The counseling will give the parents a chance to find out more information and discuss the possible genetic disorders in any future children. Genetic Counseling
What are Karyotypes? Karyotypes are used to predict genetic disorders by seeing if they have the right amount of chromosomes, autosomes and sex chromosomes. A normal human karyotype has 46 chromosomes: 22 pairs of autosomes and 2 sex chromosomes. These karyotypes are found in the nucleus of the eukaryotic cell. This term is also used to describe a complete set of chromosomes.
Argument 1 We are against genetic modification of food because if people in Africa were starving and scientists combined rice with chromosomes for peanuts, it would grow and make more rice for people. The people ate the rice and some people started to swell up but the scientists didn’t know why. This was because the people were allergic to peanuts and had a allergic reaction.
Argument 2 Another reason we are against genetically modified food is because it endanger small families or even people. This can shorten their lives and you never know if the plant had a could be contaminated and the people could get sick.
Argument 3 Another reason we are against genetically modified food is because they contain chemicals that can give you diseases. Also, the chemicals can be toxin and the environment they grew in.
Argument 4 Another reason why we are against genetically modified food is because certain genetically modified foods have been changed on the molecular level in ways that may be extremely dangerous to health and medical situations.
Conclusion I think that government should be against genetic modification food because people can get sick by getting chemicals in their body from the food in their bodies. Also from the food that they eat could have something there allergic to. Also it is now getting to be extremely dangerous to health and medical situations.
Works Cited "The Difference Between a Chromosome Abnormality and a Single Gene Defect." REDIRECTING. Web. 12 Mar. 2011. <http://www.chp.edu/CHP/P02119>. "Benefits of the Human Genome Project." Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Web. 12 Mar. 2011. <http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources/Human_Genome/project/benefits.shtml>. "Ethical, Legal, and Social Issues --Genome Research." Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Web. 12 Mar. 2011. <http://www.ornl.gov/hgmis/elsi/elsi.shtml>.