Pesticides & Common Structural
Pests

By Morgan Nilsen
We continue on the
road of study
You gain new experience daily.

What's something you learned this week?
We are expected to know about
chemistry and even entomology!
We want to have an understanding
to be ready for the exam
KNOW
WHAT
YOU NEED
TO KNOW
1.Control
KNOW
WHAT
YOU NEED
TO KNOW
1.Control
KNOW
WHAT
YOU NEED
TO KNOW

2. ID
1.Control
KNOW
WHAT
YOU NEED
TO KNOW

2. ID
3. Don't
Trip Up
You need to know control methods
You need to know control methods
Like what?
You need to know control methods
Like pesticides, yes, but also …
Sanitation, exclusion, education, etc.
Let's start with the general concepts
Let's start with IPM and examples
of non-chemical control
Let's start with IPM and examples
of non-chemical control






Mechanical: examples are door sweeps,
caulking cracks a...
Pesticides are used as a last resort
but what are they exactly?
Pesticides are used as a last resort
but what are they exactly?
Chemical families
are categorized by target pest
Target pest + ICIDE = ?
Chemical families
are categorized by target pest
Insecticide = kills insects
acaracides/miticides = kills spiders/mites
ro...
Categorizing pesticides can be
confusing business
Categorizing pesticides can be
confusing business
- By the target pest
- By their chemical structure
- By the application ...
Here are the 5 most common
chemical groups of insecticides
Groups:
Botanicals

Examples:

Pyrethrins (from chrysanthemums)...
Common Pesticide Formulations
Another way of categorizing
pesticides is Mode of Action
Another way of categorizing
pesticides is Mode of Action
Example: Insect Growth Regulator IGRs
- stops the production of C...
Now let's look at all the types of
equipment we can use
(1) Tank (2 gal)
(2) Siphon tube
(3) Adapter - hose
(4A) Tank Top
(4D) Tank bottom
(5) Tip holder
(6) Hose - 4 ft. red
(7)...
Know about pests

???
Know about pests
But what is a pest?
A destructive insect or other animal
that attacks crops, food, livestock, etc.
In fac...
And now for a little biology
Man
Plants
Life

Animals
Fungi

Vertebrates
Invertebrates

Rodents

Arthropods
Know the
characteristics of arthropods
Know the
characteristics of arthropods
- jointed appendages
- segmented body
- exoskeletons
- open circulatory system
- he...
Let's list some characteristics of
insects
Let's list some characteristics of
insects
The three parts of an insect:
Head, thorax, abdomen (in correct order)
Types of...
Let's talk life cycles and
metamorphosis

Gradual

Complete
Let's review the needs of pests
Food, water, harborage sites, and entry points
Let's review the needs of pests
Examples of food sources
- human food or trash
- debris on the floor
- unsealed food conta...
Let's review the needs of pests
Examples of water sources
- leaky pipes
- overwatered plants
- drains
- host
Shelter is also know as harborage
Examples of harborage sites
- secluded areas
- cracks and crevices
- gaps in the baseboa...
Entry points may be structural
deficiencies
Finally! Let's talk about some pests
The test will include questions about specific
insects and pests.
Unfortunately, the ...
5 most common pests:

Termites

Ants

Cockroaches

Mice

Rats
The test has a specific focus on
Non-termite wood-destroying pests
Don't trip up on the test!
LD50 will certainly be on the test
What is it?
Lethal dose to 50% of the population
(research done on rats)
measurement = ...
LD 50 is a ratio
mg of poison / kg of body weight
Ratio's are tricky!
So the smaller the LD50 number is,
the MORE toxic it...
Examples
Most dangerous compound:
Botulinum LD50 (0.000009) = 9 ng / kg
Cyanide LD50 (6.8)
Comparing:
Atrazine herbicide L...
Know your
Minimal Exposure Pesticides (MEPs)
Make sure your body is exposed to these as
little as possible.They can hurt y...
MATH
Proper mixing and application of pesticides
can be accomplished by
understanding proportions

fractions

percentage...
Area = height x width

50

?

100
A proportion is a ratio

A
B

C
=

D

1
2

=

4
8
Converting units will be on the test
Math conversions (gallons = quarts, cups to ounces, feet to yards, etc.)
3 teaspoons
...
Converting units will be on the test
Example:
The label indicates that 2 lbs. of granular insecticide are to be applied
pe...
Converting units will be on the test
Example:
The label indicates that 2 lbs. of granular insecticide are to be applied
pe...
So we've worn a few hats today
Remember to keep studying
Get Your Applicator's License 2: Formulations & pests
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  • good transition to tricky test areas
  • Remembered to study in different places ?
    That was one of our study tips
  • 3 key points!
    Control methods (What's a control method?)
    about the pests too
    trip
    IN ORDER TO KNOW WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW
    Ask questions! Someone wrote to a newspaper: "There is no such thing as a stupid question if its sincere.Better to ask and risk appearing stupid than to continue on your ignorant way and make a stupid mistake”
    To help you organize your thoughts
    Here is a HO (a tip is to organize lists and tables)
    Make tables and lists to better organize the information
    Recap at the end: Control, pests and don't trip!
  • 3 key points!
    Control methods (What's a control method?)
    about the pests too
    trip
    IN ORDER TO KNOW WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW
    Ask questions! Someone wrote to a newspaper: "There is no such thing as a stupid question if its sincere.Better to ask and risk appearing stupid than to continue on your ignorant way and make a stupid mistake”
    To help you organize your thoughts
    Here is a HO (a tip is to organize lists and tables)
    Make tables and lists to better organize the information
    Recap at the end: Control, pests and don't trip!
  • 3 key points!
    Control methods (What's a control method?)
    about the pests too
    trip
    IN ORDER TO KNOW WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW
    Ask questions! Someone wrote to a newspaper: "There is no such thing as a stupid question if its sincere.Better to ask and risk appearing stupid than to continue on your ignorant way and make a stupid mistake”
    To help you organize your thoughts
    Here is a HO (a tip is to organize lists and tables)
    Make tables and lists to better organize the information
    Recap at the end: Control, pests and don't trip!
  • 3 key points!
    Control methods (What's a control method?)
    about the pests too
    trip
    IN ORDER TO KNOW WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW
    Ask questions! Someone wrote to a newspaper: "There is no such thing as a stupid question if its sincere.Better to ask and risk appearing stupid than to continue on your ignorant way and make a stupid mistake”
    To help you organize your thoughts
    Here is a HO (a tip is to organize lists and tables)
    Make tables and lists to better organize the information
    Recap at the end: Control, pests and don't trip!
  • Control methods
    like pesticides, yes but many other types as well like and
    And your equipment too
    Forms of pesticides (AKA pesticide formulations)
  • Control methods
    like pesticides, yes but many other types as well like and
    And your equipment too
    Forms of pesticides (AKA pesticide formulations)
  • Control methods
    like pesticides, yes but many other types as well like and
    And your equipment too
    Forms of pesticides (AKA pesticide formulations)
  • What are some examples of each?
    Mechanical: door sweeps and caulking cracks and crevices to exclude the pest
    Cultural: changing human behavior, obviously putting food in sealable containers, picking up trash and dirty dishes all work to deter pests.
    Biological: some pests have natural predators like aphids are eaten by ladybugs. Set natural predators to do the work for you.
  • What are some examples of each?
    Mechanical: door sweeps and caulking cracks and crevices to exclude the pest
    Cultural: changing human behavior, obviously putting food in sealable containers, picking up trash and dirty dishes all work to deter pests.
    Biological: some pests have natural predators like aphids are eaten by ladybugs. Set natural predators to do the work for you.
  • Are pesticides = insecticides?
    Does not refer to just insecticides
  • Remember, IPM says to use as a last resort
  • Does not refer to just insecticides
    What are some other targets (not just insects)
    (insecticide, acaracides/miticides, rodentacide, fungacide, avicide, herbicide, nematicides (roundworms), etc.)
  • Does not refer to just insecticides
    What are some other targets (not just insects)
    (insecticide, acaracides/miticides, rodentacide, fungacide, avicide, herbicide, nematicides (roundworms), etc.)
  • How are pesticides categorized?
    - By the target pest
    - by their chemical structure
    - by the application method
    - or by their mode of action (by molting, IGRs, nervous system)
    What do you think chemical groups are?
    Yes, they are chemicals that have a similar chemical make up
  • How are pesticides categorized?
    - By the target pest
    - by their chemical structure
    - by the application method
    - or by their mode of action (by molting, IGRs, nervous system)
    What do you think chemical groups are?
    Yes, they are chemicals that have a similar chemical make up
  • - Botanicals - plant derived
    Pyrethrins are the best example from chrysanthemum “chris-sand... or mums”
    Association – go see plants at the botanical garden
    - Chlorinated Hydrocarbons - old and accumulate
    Association – no one likes chlorine, neither DDT
    (mention: Biodegradable / persistent)
    - Organophosphates – replaces chlorinated hydrocarbons, breaks down quickly, breaks down in water. Permanently blocks receptors
    Malathion = organophosphate
    relatively low toxicity to humans
    - Carbamates - Carbamic acid – similar to Organophosphates. Also long time use. Less toxic because enzymes aren't permanently blocked
    car-BAM
    - Minerals - oldest pesticide
  • What is a formulation?
    Association: Advil caplets vs. gel caps
    Emulsifiable concentrates
    A concentrate in the form of a thick syrup or crystal that is made into an emulsion (looks like milk + water)
    Emulsion - Putting two or more liquids together creates an emulsion if the liquids do NOT mix (ex: oil and
    water)
    Wettable powder – like cool aid
    WDG also WG
    Granules and Dusts don't mix with water – like diatomaceous earth
    Aerosols, like raid
  • Mode of Action
    - prevent / delay molting
    - Insect Growth Regulator IGRs - stops the production of Chitin
    - Juvenile Hormone Analogs (JHAs)
    - Neurotoxin effects the nervous system
    Prevent resistance by rotating modes of action
  • Mode of Action
    - prevent / delay molting
    - Insect Growth Regulator IGRs - stops the production of Chitin
    - Juvenile Hormone Analogs (JHAs)
    - Neurotoxin effects the nervous system
    Prevent resistance by rotating modes of action
  • Tell me about some equipment you use on the job
  • Different surfaces are effected differently. Of course residuals will not last on porous rock (absorption) or places that get a lot of rain. (Label will say)
    An important thing to remember is a product cannot be used on a location not specified on the label
    Chemicals can stain, so try a test patch first
    Dusts = residue
    Spot treatment is defined as putting treatment in a house for two square feet
    Odor is strongest after application and may cause headaches and other bad effects
    Types of property damage from pesticide application
    - Pesticides can stain carpets and wallpaper
    - Pesticides have a strong odor
    - Pesticides may drift
  • This section focuses on the second step of IPM, Identification!
    You're going to need to know categories of pests, their characteristics, and some specific facts about each
    So what is a pest?
    A destructive insect or other animal that attacks crops, food, livestock, etc.
    In fact, anything that competes with humans for food and fiber, or attacks us directly, may be defined as pests.
  • This section focuses on the second step of IPM, Identification!
    You're going to need to know categories of pests, their characteristics, and some specific facts about each
    So what is a pest?
    A destructive insect or other animal that attacks crops, food, livestock, etc.
    In fact, anything that competes with humans for food and fiber, or attacks us directly, may be defined as pests.
  • From Chemistry in the last section and then into the science of Biology, the science of life and then moving on to entomology
    Different kingdoms
    Exoskeleton
    - provides an anchoring point for muscle attachments and support, protection and sensing functions.
    - hard cover = protection
    - some even have wax coating
    - provides opportunity for some unique pesticides
    - death from desiccation = removal of water
    - the exoskeleton only has so much flexibility. For the insect to grow it must cast off its old cuticle through the process of molting
  • (the word arthropod means “jointed leg”)
    Arthropods → Crustaceans, Spiders and insects (millipedes and centipedes)
    General characteristics of arthropods:
    - jointed appendages
    - segmented body
    - exoskeletons
    - open circulatory system
    - heart located on dorsal side (back)
    - nervous located on the front (the opposite of vertebrates)
  • (the word arthropod means “jointed leg”)
    Arthropods → Crustaceans, Spiders and insects (millipedes and centipedes)
    General characteristics of arthropods:
    - jointed appendages
    - segmented body
    - exoskeletons
    - open circulatory system
    - heart located on dorsal side (back)
    - nervous located on the front (the opposite of vertebrates)
  • Insects are the largest with 800,000 species or types
    they have survived and flourished with very little evolutionary change
    What is the three parts of an insect (in correct order)? Head, thorax, abdomen
    What are the various types of mouthparts?
    chewing, rasping-sucking, piercing-sucking, sponging, siphoning, and chewing-lapping.
    Three body pars: head, thorax, and abdomen
    wings (not all)
    six legs
    antennae (not all)
    spiracles (air holes in the body wall for breathing
    simple or compound eyes
  • Insects are the largest with 800,000 species or types
    they have survived and flourished with very little evolutionary change
    What is the three parts of an insect (in correct order)? Head, thorax, abdomen
    What are the various types of mouthparts?
    chewing, rasping-sucking, piercing-sucking, sponging, siphoning, and chewing-lapping.
    Three body pars: head, thorax, and abdomen
    wings (not all)
    six legs
    antennae (not all)
    spiracles (air holes in the body wall for breathing
    simple or compound eyes
  • Molts
    - a series of complex interactions of hormones, enzymes, cells, and organs of in insects.
    - begins when the brain receives the message it's time to molt
    Without – series of molts (no change), like silverfish
    Gradual – 3 stages: egg, nymph (sev molts / instars), adult
    Complete most insects go through egg, larva (several molts/instars), pupa, and adult stages.
  • Food, water, harborage sites, and entry points
    Examples of food sources
    - human food or trash
    - debris on the floor
    - unsealed food containers
    - grease traps
    Examples of water sources
    - leaky pipes
    - overwatered plants
    - drains
    - host
  • Food, water, harborage sites, and entry points
    Examples of food sources
    - human food or trash
    - debris on the floor
    - unsealed food containers
    - grease traps
    Examples of water sources
    - leaky pipes
    - overwatered plants
    - drains
    - host
  • Food, water, harborage sites, and entry points
    Examples of food sources
    - human food or trash
    - debris on the floor
    - unsealed food containers
    - grease traps
    Examples of water sources
    - leaky pipes
    - overwatered plants
    - drains
    - host
  • Examples of harborage sites
    - secluded areas
    - cracks and crevices
    - gaps in the baseboard
    - behind cabinets
    - clutter
  • What are some examples of structural deficiencies?
    There is a heavy emphasis on this point
    Examples of entry points
    - hole size 1/2-3/4 inch mouse
    - building deficiencies
    - leaving doors or windows open
    - gaps under doors
    - cracks in foundations
    - utility openings
    - internal utility access points like
    - radiators
    - water pipes
    - electrical conduits
  • The test will include questions about specific insects and pests. Unfortunately, the test changes so there is no guarantee you will see any specific pest on the test.
    Let's look at what you have seen in your experience, the most common pests, and some specific ones
  • Probably going to talk about bed bugs and rates / mice
    Bed bugs:
    Ask what they look like?
    How do you know you have a problem?
    How fast do they mature, how long do they live?
    21 days mature, live about a year
    Habits:cracks and crevices during the day (preferring paper or wood to stone and plaster).
    Control: look for the harborage, Vacuum. Residuals applied to C&C, Dusts will work for voids and attics.
  • Cockroaches – American is obviously the biggest, German is the most common,
    do you see the brown band?
    Mice vs rats
    Ants vs. Termites
    Let's look up this info in your books (every book is different)
    See PCT Notes – Print outs?
  • Carpenter ants
    Residual spray / dust at the nest
    boring holes in hollow wood or near ceiling voids
    apply liquid or dust
    Carpenter bees
    bore into wood and then makes a gallery along the side
    replace infested lumber with treated wood
    apply dust, wettable powder, or aerosol directly in the galleries
    leave it for a few days
    then seal the hole
  • Something you find on every Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)
    What is it?
    Lethal dose to 50% of the population
    (research done on rats)
    measurement = mg / kg of body weight
  • Ratio's are tricky!
    So the smaller the LD50 number is, the more toxic it is
    Most dangerous compound = Botulinum 9 ng / kg = .000009 mg /kg
    Cyanide 6.8 mg / kg
    Acute (one exposure) vs. Chronic (many exposures over time)
    Hazard = toxicity x exposure
  • Atrazine herbicide = 3000 mg / kg
    Caffeine = 200 mg / kg
    so it would take 15 more times atrazine to kill you than caffeine
    (Source = “Farm Basics: LD50” (3:21) by Ag PhD TV show)
    http://youtu.be/flKJ5Iqfl9Q
  • Make sure your body is exposed to these as little as possible
    They can hurt you in ways you may not notice right away
    bromoxynil (buctril, bronate): effects pregnant women and child (could bring the pesticide home)
    Metasystox-r and Injectacide: kills mites. Exposed to a little bit and will effect your ability to have children (aka oxydemeton-methyl)
    propargite (omite, omite cr, comite)
    folpet
  • Proper mixing and application of pesticides can be accomplished by understanding proportions, fractions, and percentages.
  • 1. If you have an unknown value (N) in your ratio, cross multiply the two terms diagonal to each other
    2. and then divide by the number with the unknown (N) to get the value of N
    Also mention changing 7% to decimal or ratio
    Pure is going to 100%
  • Focus on cups, quarts, ounces
    So how many fluid ounces are in a cup?
    36 ounces will be how many cups? 4.5
    80? 10 cups how many quarts is that? 2.5 quarts
    How many cups are in 2.5 gallons? 40
  • When using proportions to determine pesticide application rates, the units on the top and bottom of one ratio have to match the units on top and bottom of the other ratio.
  • Cross multiply:
    1,000 x N = 2 x 5,000
    1,000N = 10,000
    Divide by the number with the unknown (N) to get the value of N:
    10,000 / 1,000 = 10
  • http://youtu.be/plAwCTf9ID0
    You need to make 4 gallons of a 7% solution of pesticide to spread on an area of 40x60. How many ounces of pesticide are needed?
    7% 4 gallons 40x60 area
    7/100 = .07 x 128 oz = 8.96
    8.96 x 4 gallons = 35.84 (round down bc can't use more pesticides)
  • Get Your Applicator's License 2: Formulations & pests

    1. 1. Pesticides & Common Structural Pests By Morgan Nilsen
    2. 2. We continue on the road of study
    3. 3. You gain new experience daily. What's something you learned this week?
    4. 4. We are expected to know about chemistry and even entomology!
    5. 5. We want to have an understanding to be ready for the exam
    6. 6. KNOW WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW
    7. 7. 1.Control KNOW WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW
    8. 8. 1.Control KNOW WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW 2. ID
    9. 9. 1.Control KNOW WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW 2. ID 3. Don't Trip Up
    10. 10. You need to know control methods
    11. 11. You need to know control methods Like what?
    12. 12. You need to know control methods Like pesticides, yes, but also … Sanitation, exclusion, education, etc.
    13. 13. Let's start with the general concepts
    14. 14. Let's start with IPM and examples of non-chemical control
    15. 15. Let's start with IPM and examples of non-chemical control    Mechanical: examples are door sweeps, caulking cracks and crevices. Cultural: changing human behavior, like putting food in sealable containers, picking up trash and doing dirty dishes. Biological: pests have natural predators like aphids are eaten by ladybugs. Let natural predators do the work.
    16. 16. Pesticides are used as a last resort but what are they exactly?
    17. 17. Pesticides are used as a last resort but what are they exactly?
    18. 18. Chemical families are categorized by target pest Target pest + ICIDE = ?
    19. 19. Chemical families are categorized by target pest Insecticide = kills insects acaracides/miticides = kills spiders/mites rodentacide fungacide avicide (birds) herbicide nematicides (roundworms)
    20. 20. Categorizing pesticides can be confusing business
    21. 21. Categorizing pesticides can be confusing business - By the target pest - By their chemical structure - By the application method - Or by their Mode of Action (by molting, IGRs, nervous system)
    22. 22. Here are the 5 most common chemical groups of insecticides Groups: Botanicals Examples: Pyrethrins (from chrysanthemums) Chlorinated Hydrocarbons DDT Organic Phosphates Malathion Carbamates Carbaryl Minerals Borax
    23. 23. Common Pesticide Formulations
    24. 24. Another way of categorizing pesticides is Mode of Action
    25. 25. Another way of categorizing pesticides is Mode of Action Example: Insect Growth Regulator IGRs - stops the production of Chitin (molting)
    26. 26. Now let's look at all the types of equipment we can use
    27. 27. (1) Tank (2 gal) (2) Siphon tube (3) Adapter - hose (4A) Tank Top (4D) Tank bottom (5) Tip holder (6) Hose - 4 ft. red (7) Hose washer (8) Pump Handle (9) Pump Lock Spring (10) Pump Cap (11) Plunger rod (12) Back plate (13) Polypropylene cup (14) Cup spreader plate (15) Lock Washer (16) Plunger nut (17) Pump Gasket (18) Pump tube - 1/2 Gallon (19) Check Valve
    28. 28. Know about pests ???
    29. 29. Know about pests But what is a pest? A destructive insect or other animal that attacks crops, food, livestock, etc. In fact, anything that competes with humans for food and fiber, or attacks us directly, may be defined as pests.
    30. 30. And now for a little biology Man Plants Life Animals Fungi Vertebrates Invertebrates Rodents Arthropods
    31. 31. Know the characteristics of arthropods
    32. 32. Know the characteristics of arthropods - jointed appendages - segmented body - exoskeletons - open circulatory system - heart located on dorsal side (back) - nervous located on the front (the opposite of vertebrates)
    33. 33. Let's list some characteristics of insects
    34. 34. Let's list some characteristics of insects The three parts of an insect: Head, thorax, abdomen (in correct order) Types of mouthparts: chewing, rasping-sucking, piercing-sucking, sponging, siphoning, and chewing-lapping.
    35. 35. Let's talk life cycles and metamorphosis Gradual Complete
    36. 36. Let's review the needs of pests Food, water, harborage sites, and entry points
    37. 37. Let's review the needs of pests Examples of food sources - human food or trash - debris on the floor - unsealed food containers - grease traps
    38. 38. Let's review the needs of pests Examples of water sources - leaky pipes - overwatered plants - drains - host
    39. 39. Shelter is also know as harborage Examples of harborage sites - secluded areas - cracks and crevices - gaps in the baseboard - behind cabinets - clutter
    40. 40. Entry points may be structural deficiencies
    41. 41. Finally! Let's talk about some pests The test will include questions about specific insects and pests. Unfortunately, the test changes so there is no guarantee you will see any specific pest on the test.
    42. 42. 5 most common pests: Termites Ants Cockroaches Mice Rats
    43. 43. The test has a specific focus on Non-termite wood-destroying pests
    44. 44. Don't trip up on the test!
    45. 45. LD50 will certainly be on the test What is it? Lethal dose to 50% of the population (research done on rats) measurement = mg / kg of body weight
    46. 46. LD 50 is a ratio mg of poison / kg of body weight Ratio's are tricky! So the smaller the LD50 number is, the MORE toxic it is
    47. 47. Examples Most dangerous compound: Botulinum LD50 (0.000009) = 9 ng / kg Cyanide LD50 (6.8) Comparing: Atrazine herbicide LD50 (3000) Caffeine LD50 (200) So it would take 15 more times atrazine to kill you than caffeine
    48. 48. Know your Minimal Exposure Pesticides (MEPs) Make sure your body is exposed to these as little as possible.They can hurt you in ways you may not notice right away. Bromoxynil (buctril, bronate): effects pregnant women and child (could bring the pesticide home) Metasystox-r and Injectacide: kills mites. Exposed to a little bit and will effect your ability to have children (aka oxydemeton-methyl)
    49. 49. MATH Proper mixing and application of pesticides can be accomplished by understanding proportions  fractions  percentages 
    50. 50. Area = height x width 50 ? 100
    51. 51. A proportion is a ratio A B C = D 1 2 = 4 8
    52. 52. Converting units will be on the test Math conversions (gallons = quarts, cups to ounces, feet to yards, etc.) 3 teaspoons = 1 tablespoon 2 tablespoons = 1 fluid ounce = 6 teaspoons 4 tablespoons = 12 teaspoons = 1/4 cup = 2 fluid ounces 1 cup = 16 tablespoons = 8 fluid ounces 2 cups = 32 tablespoons = 1 pint = 16 fluid ounces 2 pints = 64 tablespoons = 1 quart = 4 level cups 4 quarts = 8 pints = 1 gallon = 16 cups 16 ounces = 1 pound 6 tablespoons (level) = approx. 1 oz. of dry weight (for WP only)
    53. 53. Converting units will be on the test Example: The label indicates that 2 lbs. of granular insecticide are to be applied per 1,000 sq. ft. How much do you need to apply to an area that is 5,000 sq. ft.?
    54. 54. Converting units will be on the test Example: The label indicates that 2 lbs. of granular insecticide are to be applied per 1,000 sq. ft. How much do you need to apply to an area that is 5,000 sq. ft.?
    55. 55. So we've worn a few hats today
    56. 56. Remember to keep studying
    1. A particular slide catching your eye?

      Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.

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