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Thesis Proposal Simon Fraser University


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  • Cartageologica e modellodigitale del terreno
  • Al contattotra Basement e Terrane
  • LinearfeturescorrispondonoallefaglieestensionalilungoMonashee Complex1 fasecompressione, Monashee Complex compressed and pushed upwards (A,B)1 fasedilatazione, Monashee Complex in extension and creation of semivertical faults that can be seen as linear fetures along the valley
  • Debutressing = rilasciotensionale ongoing=in atto Little age age 1600 a.d.The glacial history can be summerized in
  • 2° cross section not in great detail
  • Palm PC
  • To chose if to use a continuum or a discontinuum model
  • Transcript

    • 1. A Deep-seatedGravitationalSlopeDeformation in the northernMonasheeComplex, Monashee Mountains, British Columbia, Canada
      Danilo Moretti
      Earth Science Department
      Universityof Bologna
    • 2. Presentation Outline
      What is a deep-seated gravitational slope deformation?
      Methods of studying DsGSD
      Different approaches to and representations of DsGSD
      Objectives for this study
      Field site description
    • 3. What is a deep-seated gravitational slope deformation?
      DsGSD: hugegravitationalphenomenaaffecting mountain slopes
      • Area extent
      “Largelandslides”: Stini, 1952
      • Thicknessof the involvedslopeportion
      “Deepseatedgravitationaldeformations”: Jahn, 1964
      “Deep-reachinggravitationaldeformations”: Neemcock, 1972
      • Time-intervalofactivity
      “Long termgravitationaldeformations”: Ghigira, 1992
      • The allegedcauses
      “Gravitytectonicphenomena”: Engelen, 1963
      “Glacialvalleystressrelease”: Ferguson, 1967
      • Deformational styles
      “Sackung”: Zishinsky, 1969;
      “Deepcreep”: Ter-Stepanian , 1966;
      “Lateralspreading”: Nemcock and Rybar, 1968;
      “Large block sliding”: Zaruba and Mecl, 1969,
      “Gravitationalspreadingofridges”, Varneset al., 1989
      After Agliardi et al. (2001)
    • 4. Twomainrepresentations
      Lateral Spreading
      open fractures
      toe bulging
      of brittle formations on ductile units
      homogeneous rocks
      Bisci et al. (1996)
      Varnes (1978)
    • 5. Landslide vsDsGSD
      • Single phenomenon << involved slope
      • 6. High variable ratio run-out/volume
      • 7. Deformations “need” a failure/sliding
      • Phenomenondimension =
      • Low ratiorun-out/volume
      • 8. A slidingsurfaceisnotanessential
      feature (the deformational
    • 9. Traditionalapproachesto the studyofDsGSD
      The geomorphological method:
      Double ridges
      Elongated depressions
      Sliding steps
      Isolated rock walls
      Up hill facing scarps
      Slope bulgings
      Talus sheets
      The structural method:
      Shear zones
      Fault scarps
      Collapse zones
      Horst and Graben
      Gravitational Thrusts
    • 10. “Regional Geological Approach” (RGA), Giardino et al. 2009
      RGA analyses:
      • large scale, long-term features
      • 11. geomorphological, lithological and structural features
      as general factors of instabilities in the mountain
      RGA allows interpretation of:
      • evolutionary stages of the mountain relief
      • 12. regional variables, offering a “static”
      conditioning to the system (e.g. lithology as an
      “internal” cause of DsGSD controlling shear strenght)
      Mathews and Monger, 2005
      © Google 2009
    • 13. “Local Morphodinamic Approach” (LMA), Giardino et al. 2009
      LMA analyses the characteristic landforms and processes of natural instability, relevant to understand mechanism of one specific DsGSD
      LMA allows:
      • the control on dynamic factors of natural
      instabilities (e.g. the increase of slope gradient
      as an “external” cause of DsGSD,
      increasing shear stress )
      • Process modelling and hazards assessment
      © Google 2009
    • 14. Methods of study
      - Formation of DsGSD may be influenced by many factors
      • Shape/height of slope, lithology, structure, tectonics, groundwater conditions,
      glacial history
      - Necessary to integrate different techniques for a detailed characterization
    • Objectives of my Thesis
      Establish a conceptual framework for a database of deep-seated gravitational slope deformations in British Columbia and apply it to my case study in the North of the MonasheeComplex, in the Seymour Valley (SE British Columbia) (Clague, Giardino, Stead).
      Develop and integrate the database with the main case studies
      already described in Europe (in Italy especially) (Giardino, Ghirotti).
      Perform a field investigation to evaluate the history of slope deformation close to Blais Creek with respect to the tectonic and glacial history of the Seymour Valley (Clague, Giardino, Gibson).
      Record geotechnical properties of the deforming rock mass for use in numerical models (Stead, Ghirotti).
      5. Investigate the failure mechanism at Blais Creek through finite and/or discrete element modeling (Stead, Ghirotti).
    • 18. Site Description
      © Google 2009
    • 19. The Blais Creek Area
      • Site suggested by Derek Kinakin
      • 20. No previous works on DSGsD in this area
      • 21. Area inside the Northern Frenchman
      Cap Dome, Omineca Belt, Canadian Cordillera,
      SE British Columbia
      • Area between the Aphebian Basement
      Terrane (gneiss, paragneiss, amphibolite) and
      the Mantling Metasedimentary Cover
      (quartzite, marble)
      • Area within the
      MonasheeDecollment (MD and CRF)
      • Area between the Okanagan-
      Eagle River Fault Zone and the
      Columbia River Fault Zone,
      both in extension
      • Area on the Kymberville Anticline
      J. Murray Journeay, 1986
    • 22. The Geology of Blais Creek
      5 km
      J. Murray Journeay, 1986
    • 23. Main lithostructural characteristics of instability
      in the Blais Creek Area
      • Structural weakness (low angle “Decollment”)
      • 24. Contact between the Aphebian Basement Terrane and
      the Mantling Metasedimentary Cover
      (contrast of competence)
      • Regional schistosity parallel to the slope
      (Basement Terrane over the Metasedimentary Cover)
      • Brittle structures in the Basement Terrane (related
      probably to the extensional tectonic)
      • Possible presence of Paleoregolith between the
      Metasedimentary Cover and the Basement Terrane
      (fractured, altered and weak material)
      • Similarity of regional variables conditioning
      the slope instability of the Downie Slide: lithology and
      structural setting
    • 25. “Heritage” of the
      Evolution of the continental crust in the Monashee Complex
      R. L. Brown and J. M. Journeay, 1987
    • 26. Glacial history in the Seymour Valley
      • Last major glaciation ended
      11,500 years ago
      (ice free from main valleys)
      • Slope debuttressing after deglaciation
      cited as important cause of DsGSD and
      • Ongoing glacier loss in the upper slopes
      after end of Little Ice Age caused active
      slope instabilities.
      © Google 2009
    • 27.
    • 28. Linear features in the Blais Creek Area
      “Passive” origin:
      Old tectonic
      linear features
      “Active” Origin:
      Release of energy
      after deglaciation
      or neotectonic or
    • 29. L
      Cross Sections
      J. Murray Journeay, 1986
      Da = marble
      Db = quartize
      Geological Survey
      Of Canada, 1964
    • 30. Methods summary
      Field methods:
      Mapping of surface features
      Geotechnical investigation
      Trench ?
      Laboratory techniques
      Yield strength of samples collected in the field
      Remote sensing and software-aided data analysis
      GIS database
      Geotechnical analysis for numerical modeling
    • 31. Field methods 1: Surface features
      Map geomorphological features:
      Double ridges
      Elongated depressions
      Sliding steps
      Isolated rock walls
      Antislope scarps
      Slope bulging
      Talus sheets
      Flow of water into and out of slope
      Glacial features and interaction with DsGSD features
      Data entered into handheld GPS unit
      SRG2 toolbar for ArcPad (modified for this project)
    • 32. SRG2 toolbar
    • 33. Field methods 2: Geotechnical
      Detailed geotechnical characterization of the rock mass:
      Intact rock strength (Schmidt hammer)
      Rock mass quality (GSI)
      Weathering grade and
      Discontinuities (ISRM)
      Spot measurements, scanlines in select locations
      Stereo-couple photographs for later photogrammetry
    • 34. Field methods 3: trenching ?
      • Trench excavated perpendicularly to feature but
      the antislope scarps are rocky, not the best
      material for trenching.
      • Examine stratigraphy of sediment infills if
    • 35. Laboratory methods
      • Point load testing of intact
      rock samples
      • Strength parameters
      derived using RocLab
    • 36. Remote sensing
      • Surface feature mapping on aerial
      Help with field planning
      • Photogrammetry
      Joint mapping at 2-3 outcrops
      Software: ENVI and 3DM CalibCam and 3DM Analyst (ADAM Technology)
    • 37. DsGSD database
      In concert with Gabriel Hensold
      Format based on Giardino et al. (2004)
      First phase: Inventory of data from past published studies in B.C.
      Naming and localization of sites
      Geospatial and geotechnical data
      Second phase: add the main data from the European (especially Italian) past published studies
      Third phase: application of database format to detailed new studies
      Blais Creek (me)
      Handcar Peak (Gabriel Hensold)
    • 38. Outline of data entry format
      General inventory metadata (ID, data source, date, reporter)
      Geographical position of feature
      Geomorphology of DsGSD
      DsGSD geometry
      Slope morphology
      Surface deformation features
      Other landforms
      Structural geomorphology of Valley slopes
      Slope and bedding/schistosity relationship
      Orientations of structural discontinuities (foliation, joints, faults)
      Structural units
      Lithological units
      Geotechnical properties
      Intact rock
      Rock mass
    • 39. Numerical modelling?
      • Evaluate failure mechanism at Blais
      • Possible kinematic analysis using DIPS
      • 40. Possible RocPlane prelim analysis
      • 41. Possible Phase2 analysis
      • 42. Explicit model (FLAC or UDEC)
      Continuum or discontinuum?
      Depends on stress conditions and
      the rock mass.
      Agliardi et al. (2001)
    • 43. Timeline: Summer 2009
      Photogrammetry short course with MatthieuSturzenegger
      Office work:
      Complete inventory of previous DsGSD studies in B.C.
      Obtain GIS shape files and Digital Elevation Models from Turin
      Map surface features at Blais Creek through GIS and Google Earth using digitized aerial photos
      Plan logistics for field work in Blais Creek and Handcar Peak
      Field work:
      Field research at Blais Creek (3-4 weeks)
      Field research in Handcar Peak (3-4 weeks)
    • 44. Timeline: Fall/Winter 2009
      • Office work:
      • 45. Compilation, organization and analysis of spatial and geotechnical data gathered in the field in a GIS database
      • 46. Point load strength testing on rock samples from Blais Creek
      • 47. Creation of initial numerical models
      • 48. Departure for Italy (around 20th of September 2009)
      • 49. Course:
      • 50. Final course – Matlab Class at the University of Bologna
      • 51. Office work:
      • 52. Creation of initial numerical models
      • 53. Begin writing Thesis
    • Timeline: Spring 2010
      Spring Semester 2010
      Office work:
      Finish numerical modelling analysis of Blais Creek
      Finish writing thesis
      Thesis Defence (hopefully....)
    • 54. References
      Agliardi F, Crosta G, Zanchi A. 2001. Structural constraints on deep-seated slope deformation kinematics. Engineering Geology 59(1-2):83-102.
      Bovis MJ. 1982. Uphill-facing (antislope) scarps in the Coast Mountains, Southwest British Columbia. Geological Society of America Bulletin 93(8):804-812.
      Bovis MJ, Evans SG. 1996. Extensive deformations of rock slopes in the southern Coast Mountains, southwest British Columbia, Canada. Engineering Geology 44(1-4):163-182.
      Giardino M, Giordan D, Ambrogio S. 2004. G.I.S. technologies for data collection, management and visualization of large slope instabilities: Two applications in the Western Italian Alps. Natural Hazards and Earth System Science4(2):197-211.
      Holm K, Bovis M, Jakob M. 2004. The landslide response of alpine basins to post-Little Ice Age glacial thinning and retreat in southwestern British Columbia. Geomorphology 57(3-4):201-216.
      Jahn A. 1964 Slopes morphological features resulting from gravitation. Annals of Geomorphology 1964:59.
      Kinakin D. 2004. Occurrence and Genesis of Alpine Linears Due to Gravitational Deformation in South Western, British Columbia. MSc thesis, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC.
      Monger JWH, Journeay JM. 1994. Geology of the Southern Coast and Intermontane Belt. Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 2490, map, scale 1:500,000
      Nichol SL, Hungr O, Evans SG. 2002. Large-scale brittle and ductile toppling of rock slopes. Canadian Geotechnical Journal 39:773-788.
      Savage WZ, Varnes, DJ. 1987. Mechanics of gravitational spreading of steep-sided ridges. Bulletin of the International Association of Engineering Geology 35(1):31-36.
      Stepanek M. 1992. Gravitational deformations of mountain ridges in the Rocky Mountain foothills. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Landslides 6:231-236.
    • 55. Thankyou!
      John Clague
      Doug Stead
      Marco Giardino
      Dan Gibson
      And toeveryone in the EarthSciencesDepartmentofSFU….