Uploaded on

 

  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Be the first to comment
    Be the first to like this
No Downloads

Views

Total Views
453
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0

Actions

Shares
Downloads
1
Comments
0
Likes
0

Embeds 0

No embeds

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
    No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. Employee Fitness Programs: Their Impact on the Employee and the Organization Author(s): Loren E. Falkenberg Source: The Academy of Management Review, Vol. 12, No. 3 (Jul., 1987), pp. 511-522 Published by: Academy of Management Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/258517 Accessed: 13/05/2009 18:49 Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of JSTOR's Terms and Conditions of Use, available at http://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jsp. JSTOR's Terms and Conditions of Use provides, in part, that unless you have obtained prior permission, you may not download an entire issue of a journal or multiple copies of articles, and you may use content in the JSTOR archive only for your personal, non-commercial use. Please contact the publisher regarding any further use of this work. Publisher contact information may be obtained at http://www.jstor.org/action/showPublisher?publisherCode=aom. Each copy of any part of a JSTOR transmission must contain the same copyright notice that appears on the screen or printed page of such transmission. JSTOR is a not-for-profit organization founded in 1995 to build trusted digital archives for scholarship. We work with the scholarly community to preserve their work and the materials they rely upon, and to build a common research platform that promotes the discovery and use of these resources. For more information about JSTOR, please contact support@jstor.org. Academy of Management is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve and extend access to The Academy of Management Review. http://www.jstor.org
  • 2. of Management Review, 1987, Vol. 12, No. 3, 511-522. ?Academy Employee Fitness Programs: Their Impact on the Employee and the Organization LOREN E. FALKENBERG University of Calgary Employers are investing large amounts in employee fitness programs; unfortunately, the value of physical exercise and lifestyle piograms has yet to be established. This paper provides a critique of the ap- plied and experimental research related to the impact of employee fitness programs on work-related variables and discusses future re- search directions. will reflect the concern an organization has for More and more companies either are plan- its employees. Employee fitness programs also ning or have developed physical fitness pro- are viewed as a mechanism for recruiting and grams for their employees. In Canada approxi- retaining employees (Debats, 1981). The major mately 1,000 companies are involved in employ- increase in participation in fitness programs has ee fitness, and in the U.S. it is estimated that occurred among young, well-educated members 50,000 business firms promote physical activity of the higher socioeconomic groups (Dishman, (Cox, 1984; Driver & Ratliff, 1982). The scope Sallis, & Orenstein, 1985; Stephens et al., 1985); of employee fitness programs ranges from thus, fitness programs may be important in hir- company-paid memberships at private fitness ing and retaining those individuals companies clubs to complete on-site facilities; these pro- find most desirable. grams cost from two thousand dollars to millions. A second rationale is that employee fitness pro- Organizations that support these programs con- grams may reduce the impact of stress. Corpora- sider them an inexpensive benefit that produces tions are becoming more concerned with stress the following returns: (a) increased ability to at- since it has been perceived that high stress lev- tract competent employees; (b) improved atti- els result in poorer work performance, lower tudes and loyalty; (c) a reflection of the firm's productivity, higher turnover, absenteeism, and concern for the nonwork aspects of the employ- ees' lives; and (d) indirectly, increased produc- accidents (Galt, 1985). Employee fitness programs tivity (Howard & Mikalachki, 1979). are thought to reduce the impact of stress by improving the health of the employees through Three lines of reasoning underlie these beliefs. higher fitness levels (Driver & Ratliff, 1982), and First is the assumption that fitness centers are improved health from fewer stress symptoms has attractive to employees. It is estimated that 20 been assumed to reduce absenteeism (Perks, percent of the North American population exer- cise intensely and regularly enough to produce 1985). The third line of reasoning is indirectly related cardiovascular fitness, while another 40 percent to the first two; that is, increasing the fitness level exercise enough to receive at least some benefit (Stephens, Jacobs, & White, 1985). As more indi- of employees should improve productivity. The viduals recognize the benefits of exercise, the latter is achieved in part through reduced absen- ability to do so during the work day will become teeism and turnover. Also, it is assumed that the more important; thus, employee fitness centers increased capacity for physical work from im- 511
  • 3. tion. For any given physical workload, more proved fitness levels will transfer to an ability to physically fit individuals demonstrate less mus- work harder and longer in the office. This trans- cular activity, slower respiration, a lower resting fer from physical to mental capacity is expected heart rate, and less accumulation of the acid to improve an individual's ability to maintain by-products of exercise (Ledwidge, 1980). Thus, higher levels of concentration and mental effort. physical training may help to reduce extreme Since the value of implementing fitness pro- activation both during physical activity and grams has not yet been established, these large stressful situations (Michael, 1957; Selye, 1975; investments are being made on the basis of lim- Terjung, 1979). ited research. The experimental and applied re- Both exercise 'and reactions to physiological/ search on physical exercise and work-related psychological stressors also involve increased se- variables suffers from poor design and method- cretion of catecholamines. Edington and Edger- ology; therefore, results are inconclusive (How- ton (1976) hypothesized that extending the capac- ard & Mikalachki, 1979; Hughes, 1984). The re- ity of the adrenal medulla to generate catechola- search used to support the models primarily has mines through exercise may help to reduce the been taken from physical fitness research; no experience of stress. Specifically, it appears that attempts have been made to integrate related an increased hormonal response capacity is as- variables from the stress, cognitive processes, sociated with a calmer, more stress tolerant hu- and organizational behavior research domains. man temperament (Dienstbier et al., 1981). In This lack of appropriately designed research has support of this hypothesis, Frankenhaeuser (1979) limited the development of scientifically based found that more emotionally stable and conser- models upon which a focused research pattern vative school children demonstrated higher lev- can proceed: Without reliable results, many fit- els of catecholamines in response to classroom ness programs may be based on erroneous challenges than less emotionally stable class- assumptions, leading to poorly designed pro- grams and undesired outcomes. mates. The second action is that aerobic or anaerobic Exercise and the Individual exercise during a stressful event may reduce the physiological severity of the immediate stress Relationship Between Stress and Exercise response. Both during or immediately after stress, Exercise has been viewed as a coping mecha- exercise will metabolize the fatty acids released nism which may be employed prior to or during into the blood stream; in general, it will discharge a stressful situation (Gal & Lazarus, 1975; Mobily, the physical excitation built up in a reaction to a 1982). As a coping mechanism it is theorized to stressor (Everly & Rosenfield, 1981). Although this reduce the physiological consequences of stress- potential action has not received as much atten- ful situations through one of three actions. The tion as the first, it may play a more critical role in first action is that long-term aerobic exercise may reducing the negative consequences of stress. decrease the level of physiological arousal that The physiological changes that occur during normally occurs during stressful situations. The stressful situations bring about a rapid mobiliza- physiological response to stressful situations in- tion of energy, that in previous time periods volves increased muscle tension, increased res- would have allowed an individual to respond to piration rate, sympathetic stimulation of sweat- the threat physically. Today, however, most ing, increased heart rate, dilation of blood ves- stressful situations do not involve a physical sels and coronaries of the heart, and release of response; thus, an individual under stress mobi- glucose by the liver. The physiological changes lizes his/her system for physical effort, but does that develop with long-term aerobic exercise oc- not expend the built up energy. Physical exer- cur in the same systems that are activated dur- cise may be a vehicle by which the mobilized ing a physiological/psychological stressful situa- energy either can be discharged or, at least, 512
  • 4. cally fit demonstrated greater emotional stability can be more evenly dispersed among body sys- and security than those who were less physi- tems (Selye, 1975). cally fit. The third action is that either after or during a Also, long-term exercise has been found to be stressful experience, exercise (aerobic or anaer- associated with decreases in trait (general dis- obic) may bring about a state of relaxation. This position across situations) depression and anxie- hypothesis is based on a study by deVries and ty. Kavanagh and Shephard (1973) found signifi- Adams (1972) which compared the effects tran- cant decreases in depression in subjects who quilizers and exercise had on anxiety. They found continued to exercise four years after complet- that if an individual engaged in 15 minutes of ing a formal exercise program. In another study, walking, at a heart rate of 100 beats per minute, highly trained (physically fit) individuals had sig- there was a significant decrease in the electro- nificantly lower levels of anxiety and depres- myographic activity in the muscles (their mea- sion than nontrained subjects (Tharp & Schlegel- sure of anxiety) while tranquilizers did not ap- mich, 1977). Testing on a short-term orientation pear to have an effect on anxiety/tension. of five or six months, however, did not produce Relationship Between Mental Health and differences in anxiety levels (Morgan & Pollock, Exercise 1978; Stern & Cleary, 1982). It appears that the effects of physical exercise Studies examining state (situational experi- on mental health are dependent on the duration ences) depression and anxiety levels before and of participation. Long-term participation has after exercise have produced equivocal results, been found to change personality traits, while both within studies as well as across studies. In short-term participation affects mood states (Folk- two of the studies, subjects reported the exercise ins, Lynch, & Gardner, 1972; Lichtman & Poser, sessions to be exhilarating; however, the state 1983; Young & Ismail, 1977). Much of the re- depression and anxiety measures did not differ search, though, has been limited by poorly de- prior to or after the exercise sessions (Bahkre & signed methodologies. In their review, Folkins Morgan, 1978; Morgan, Roberts, & Feinerman, and Sime (1981) found that only 15 percent of the 1971). Part of the inconsistency in results between studies qualified as true experiments, and most studies may be related to the type of exercise were on clinical populations. used in the studies. After reviewing a series of The impact that long-term exercise has on per- studies, Dishman (1982) concluded that reduc- sonality traits was examined by Young and tions in state anxiety are associated most consis- Ismail, who tested subjects during a four-year tently with jogging and/or vigorous exercise. period (Ismail & Young, 1973, 1976; Young & When highly trained subjects were tested, lev- Ismail, 1976a, 1976b, 1977). Their subjects were els of anxiety and depression were found to be classified according to exercise converts (those lower after exercise periods (Greenberg, cited in who did not exercise prior to the formal program, Lichtman & Poser, 1983; Dienstbier et al., 1981). but continued after the program), and long-term In particular, Dienstbier et al. compared highly exercisers (those who regularly exercised prior to trained subjects' reactions to stressors on exer- the formal program). In the initial testing, prior cise and nonexercise days; they found subjects to the formal exercise program, the exercise con- demonstrated lower anxiety scores on exercise verts demonstrated a more conservative tem- days. These results indicated that even when perament than the long-term exercisers; however, subjects are highly trained, physiccal exercise can this difference ceased after four years, with the further reduce anxiety levels. exercise converts demonstrating a less extreme It has been noted that the level of fitness, at score. In addition, those who were more physi- least in short-term measures of mood, may not 513
  • 5. be as important as engaging in the physical ac- generally accepted that complex motor and/or cognitive tasks are best performed under low tivity itself (Dishman, 1982; Heaps, 1978; Killip, arousal levels. Thus, a more physically fit per- 1985). Killip (1985) observed that engaging in physical exercise (aerobic or anaerobic) may be son should be able to perform better on complex perceived as a fitness endeavor and it may stim- mental tasks, particularly when working under ulate positive feelings about one's self: Move- stressful conditions (Weingarten, 1973). ment may bring about feelings of muscular en- This theory has been investigated through two durance and increased physiological arousal. different research designs. One design tested In support of this premise, Killip found a stronger subjects prior to and immediately after physical relationship between physical activity level, exercise under the assumption that short-term rather than cardiovascular fitness, and psycho- physical activity should improve an individual's logical variables. Lichtman and Poser's (1983) arousal levels in relation to the work being results also support this premise: Subjects who performed. Zuercher (1965) examined perfor- had engaged in physical activity, regardless of mance on a vigilance task after subjects engaged their fitness level, felt more exhilarated and re- in either stretching exercises or a conversation, laxed than subjects who participated in a hobby during a five-minute break: He found that either class. exercise or conversation improved performance. Lichtman and Poser (1983) required subjects to Relationships Among Exercise, Cognitive complete a demanding cognitive task prior to Functioning. and Performance and after either vigorous exercise or a hobby Generally, it is assumed that productivity will class. These researchers found that only exercise increase when individuals are involved in fit- produced a significant improvement in the per- ness programs, because more physically fit indi- formance on the cognitive task. A variation of the above methodology has been viduals are capable of working harder on cogni- to manipulate both the fitness level of the subject tive tasks. However, the research that has ex- and the activity (rest or varying intensities of amined the potential improvements of cognitive functioning through exercise has produced mixed exercise) performed prior to the criterion task. The rationale behind this variation is that exer- results. This inconsistency may be related to at least three factors: (a) many experiments were cise prior to the task acts as a stressor, and the more physically fit individual should be better poorly designed; (b) different definitions of fitness able to perform a cognitive task after a stressor. were employed, for example, physiological mea- sures of fitness versus activity inventories; and Butler (1969) and Gutin (1966) found a positive (c) different dependent variables were used, such relationship between the degree of improvement in physical fitness and the degree of improve- as the impact of long-term physical exercise ver- sus activity immediately prior to or during a cog- ment in ability to perform complex mental tasks. nitive task. However, neither investigator found a difference in performance between subjects who had rested Impact of Fitness on Performance. The ratio- nale for fitness affecting performance stems from and those who had engaged in physical exer- the interaction between the state of the physio- cise prior to the mental task. Weingarten (1973), and Gutin and DiGennaro (1968) found that dif- logical system and the specific task requirements. Specifically, the physiological arousal of a more ferences between trained (fit) and untrained fit individual is substantially less, for a given groups occurred after vigorous exercise but did not appear under more relaxed conditions. The physical workload, than that of a less fit individ- ual. Transferring this to mental work, the physio- combined results of these studies suggest that logical arousal of a more fit individual should be physical fitness becomes a factor only under substantially less for a given cognitive load. It is quot;more stressfulquot; conditions, with more physically 514
  • 6. fit individuals performing better after a stressful Employee Fitness Programs condition (vigorous exercise). and Work-Related Factors Impact of Fitness on Cognitive Functioning. Studies designed to test the effects of physical Productivity fitness on cognitive functioning manipulated fit- In all of the studies reviewed, subjects claimed ness levels but not activity prior to the test periods. they could work harder mentally and their work The rationale for this design is that more physi- performance improved after participating in an cally fit individuals should perform better on de- employee fitness program (Durbeck et al., 1972; manding cognitive tasks (Cox, Evans, & Jamie- Heinzelman & Bagley, 1970; Rhodes & Dun- son, 1979; Hollander & Seraganian, 1984; Keller woody, 1980; Rossman, 1983; Yarvote, McDon- & Seraganian, 1984; Sinyor, Schwartz, Peronnet, agh, Goldman, & Zuckerman, 1974).Unfortunate- Brisson, & Seraganian, 1983). Although these ly, the majority of these studies used subjective studies did not find a difference in cognitive per- comments, rather than objective measures, to formance between fit and less fit subjects, they determine improvements in productivity. In a did indicate that the fit subjects recovered faster more controlled study, Bernacki and Baun (1984) from cognitive work. Specifically, Keller and found a strong association (Z = 2.47, p< .01) be- Seraganian (1984) found that as fitness level im- tween the proportion of individuals with above proved there was a corresponding faster recov- average performance and adherence to a fit- ery period. ness program. One criticism of the reviewed studies is that the experimental conditions involved expending Absenteeism cognitive effort over a short time period, twenty minutes to one hour. Since during a normal work- The only reviewed study to measure absentee- ism objectively found that high level participants day individuals may be involved in demanding in a fitness program had a significantly lower cognitive tasks for eight to ten hours, these experi- rate of absenteeism (22 percent less) than either mental situations may not represent the typical low level participants or nonparticipants (Cox, cognitive workload. Two studies have examined Shephard, & Corey, 1981; Shephard, Cox, & the cost of doing mental work over a minimum Corey, 1981). No explanation for the reduced ab- eight-hour period. Frankenhaeuser and Johans- senteeism rate was provided. son (1982) found that women who were engaged It generally is assumed that absenteeism rates in attention-demanding but boring tasks (data will drop with increased physical fitness levels entry) demonstrated more signs of psychological stress than women whose jobs required a vari- because: (a) increased fitness levels lead to im- ety of tasks. Rissler (cited in Frankenhaeuser & proved health, and (b) healthier employees are Johansson, 1982) found that a group of women less likely to be absent. This assumption, how- who worked overtime for an extended period of ever, only relates to absences due to medical time had higher adrenaline levels and heart rates reasons; yet, employees stay away from work in the evenings and expressed feelings of irrita- for more reasons than simply health problems. bility and fatigue. Thus, there appears to be a Johns and Nicholson (1982) hypothesized that ab- sence is a dynamic temporal behavior through gap in the literature, since many jobs require mental effort over eight-hour periods, but no re- which organizational members attempt to de- search has analyzed the impact of physical exer- rive the most benefit from their allocation of work cise on cognitive effort extended over this type of and nonwork time. Youngblood (1984) expanded time period. this premise by suggesting that the degree of 515
  • 7. mitment is the extent to which an organization is attachment to work and nonwork will affect the seen as dependable in carrying out its commit- allocation of time to each. Given this hypothesis, ment to employees. It is more likely that an orga- employee fitness programs should reduce ab- nization will be perceived as concerned about sences for individuals who: (a) place a higher value on participating in physical exercise (non- employees' welfare if the organization supports work) than work, and (b) highly value both work an identifiable activity that is related more di- and exercise. Those employees who place a rectly to employee goals rather than company higher value on physical exercise than on work goals. As noted in the introduction, given the derive more benefit by going to work because rising participation in physical activity, employee they also can exercise while there. Those em- exercise programs address the personal needs ployees who hold similar values for work and of many employees. Thus by supporting an em- exercise would have more flexibility in allocat- ployee fitness program, a company can demon- ing their time between two valued activites, thus strate concern for employees' health and non- deriving a higher benefit by going to work. work needs. Another consequence of increased flexibility Employee fitness programs also may have a in scheduling may be a reduction in lateness. direct impact on turnover. Mobley, Griffeth, Although this potential outcome was not re- Hand, and Meglino (1979) suggested that it is not viewed in the literature, there is an inherent logic merely the visibility of alternatives that increases to it. Employees who exercise before work, at the intent to leave, but also it is the attraction of lunch, or at sites other than the workplace, need the alternatives. If there are similar opportuni- extra travel time which either extends into their ties in other companies, the differentiating fac- exercise time or their work time. By reducing tors in the decision process will not be the job travel time, it is more likely that employees will characteristics, but the attractiveness of the work- be punctual for work since they have more time ing conditions. Individuals who participate in em- to exercise. ployee fitness programs may realize there are This relationship between employee fitness similar opportunities, but may be motivated to programs and absenteeism is one of the more stay with their current company because of the tenuous hypotheses. An alternative outcome to attractiveness of the fitness program/facilities. this relationship is that employees who place a Only one study analyzed employee turnover higher value on exercise than work may choose (Cox, Shepard, & Corey, 1981). When compari- not to come to work because of limited facilities sons were made between groups, both low and and/or lack of adequate time to get a good high adherents to fitness had significantly less workout. The presence of an exercise facility at turnover than nonparticipants; the participant the workplace may tempt the individual to spend turnover rate was 1.5 percent while the nonpar- more of the workday in the gym than desired. ticipant turnover rate was 15 percent. This find- ing is limited because Cox, Shephard, and Corey Commitment and Turnover did not adequately control for long-term employ- Very little attention has been given to what ees versus short-term employees. impact employee fitness programs have on com- Limitations of the Studies mitment and turnover. A negative relationship between commitment and turnover (high levels With the exception of the Cox, Shephard, and of commitment are associated with lower rates Corey (1981) study, the major methodological of turnover) has occurred consistently (Clegg, weakness was the measurement of the psycho- 1983; Michaels & Spector, 1982; Porter, Steers, logical/emotional factors. The questionnaires em- Mowday, & Boulian, 1974; Steers, 1977). One fac- ployed did not control for reliability and validity. tor which has been identified as influencing com- Single questions, rather than scales, were used 516
  • 8. in the analysis, preventing reliability analysis. A Model The majority of the conclusions were based on comments by participants with little reference to On the basis of the reviewed literature, the comments by control subjects. following model of the relationships among physi- The problems associated with a lack of control cal fitness, physical activity, and employee fit- for reliability and validity are highlighted in the ness programs including work and individual Cox, Shephard, and Corey (1981) study. Job sat- variables was developed (see Figure 1). A criti- isfaction was measured with a previously pub- cal feature of this model is the separate delinea- lished scale (Job Description Index, Smith, Ken- tion of the benefits of exercise at the individual dall, & Hulin, 1969), and it was found that this employee level and the advantages for the orga- index did not differ before and after the program. nization of supporting employee fitness pro- After the program, however, the participants grams. If an employee exercises on his/her own stated that they experienced greater feelings of (outside any organization facility or without fi- satisfaction with work. The inconsistency of these nancial assistance), both the individual and the results, even with the use of a published scale, organization derive the benefits of the first com- demonstrates the problems involved in accu- ponent of the model. The benefits delineated in rately interpreting responses to questionnaire the second part of the model are additional to items. Complicating this issue is the probability those that develop from having physically fit of a halo effect since the majority of the question- employees. That is, an organization supporting naires were administered either during the pro- employee fitness programs receives the advan- gram or immediately after it. Participants may tages of having physically fit employees, as well have felt positively about the program and the as the short-term consequences arising from ex- attention they received from the researchers, and ercise and the long-term benefits arising from may have transferred these feelings to their greater commitment and increased flexibility in comments. scheduling activities. Thus, to maximize benefits Other limitations of these studies were the lack in-house programs should be initiated. of control groups and the nonrandom assign- The first component of this model outlines the ment of subjects to control and experimental short- and long-term consequences of individu- groups. Unfortunately, the lack of appropriate als engaging in physical activity. The immedi- control groups, with the exception of the Cox, ate consequences of participation in physical ac- Shephard, and Corey study (1981), precludes the tivity are an improved mobilization of fatty acids use of regression or analysis of variance tech- generated during demanding cognitive work, en- niques. Correlations and t-tests, which do not hanced relaxation, and lower levels of anxiety allow any inferences about cause and effect, and depression, which should lead to a reduc- were the only statistical techniques employed. tion in the stress symptoms experienced. Another Although most of the identified studies were consequence of engaging in physical activity constrained by methodological limitations, they during a work period is that it may produce more have produced similar results, giving some va- appropriate arousal levels for cognitive work, lidity to their findings. It appears that partici- thus improving short-term productivity. pants of employee fitness programs felt these pro- In terms of long-term participation in physical grams had a positive impact on their attitudes exercise, individuals have demonstrated: (a) and work behaviors. Also, the results of the most greater emotional stability, (b) enhanced feel- controlled study indicate that an employee fit- ings of security, (c) lower levels of depression, ness program does reduce turnover and absen- and (d) lower levels of anxiety. These conse- teeism. quences lead to conditions of positive mental 517
  • 9. INTERMEDIARY SITUATION VARIABLES OUTCOMES rreduced stress -improved mobilizationof fatty | acids generated during demand- smtm ing cognitive work SHORT-TERM -enhanced relaxation IMPACT _-lower levels of depression (state)imrvdena -lower levels of anxiety (state) state improved short-term -more appropriate arousal levels for cognitive work productivity INDIVIDUAL EXERCISING -greater emotional stability -enhanced feelings of securityimrvdena -lower levels of depression (trait) health -lower levels of anxiety (trait) LONG-TERM increased stress -increased ability to IMPACT dissipate tension after work resistance -more appropriate arousal levels improved long-term for demanding cognitive work productivity + reduced stress -facilitates employees exercising during demanding work periods symptoms SHORT-TERM reduced IMPACT -employees are better able to absenteeism schedule work and nonwork activities reduced lateness EMPLOYEE FITNESS PROGRAM ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~increased | T commitment -organization is able to demon- LONG-TERM strate concern for employees IMPACT reduced turnover Figure 1. Model of the relationships among physical fitness, physical activity, and employee fitness programs including individual and organizational factors. 518
  • 10. on the relationship between physical fitness and health. Also, physically fit individuals have dem- the ability to maintain high levels of cognitive func- onstrated a more rapid dissipation of the physio- tioning during an eight-hour day. Also, the im- logical indices of tension after demanding cogni- mediate effects of physical exercise on mood, tive work, and they may have more appropriate attitudes, and the ability to relax, particularly af- arousal levels (lower than the less fit individual) ter cognitive work, should be examined. Applied for complex cognitive tasks. These conditions research should be directed at analyzing differ- should lead to increased stress resistance and ences in stress symptoms, absenteeism, and pro- improved productivity. ductivity between fit and nonfit individuals, and Within the model, the only intermediary vari- the impact employee fitness programs have on ables which would require long-term aerobic, commitment, turnover, and absenteeism should as opposed to anaerobic exercise, are an in- be examined, specifically. creased ability to dissipate tension after work It is suggested that future research should inte- and more appropriate arousal levels for demand- grate the following criteria: (a) using standard- ing cognitive work. Both of these changes in- ized measures of psychological constructs, or re- volve a more efficient cardiovascular system porting the reliability analysis of questionnaire which is best developed through aerobic exer- data; (b) using a within subject design that tests cise. Currently, there is not a sufficient research psychological constructs prior to and after the base to distinguish whether the other intermedi- ary variables would occur with only aerobic or exercise period to analyze short-term conse- anaerobic exercise. quences; (c) gathering subjective data two to The second component of this model delineates three months after a -fitness program in order to the intermediary consequences and final out- reduce the possibility of a halo effect; and (d) comes that may occur with employee fitness designing studies to test specifically for the short- programs. The availability of fitness facilities at and/or long-term impact of exercise. Although it work provides the opportunity for employees to is difficult to overcome the nonrandomization of take an exercise break during periods of de- subjects given the limitations associated with hu- manding cognitive work. This exercise break man rights and the assumption that employee would produce the short-term effects of physical fitness programs are for all employees, per- activity leading to reduced stress symptoms and haps potential changes may be better measured greater productivity. Employees who want to ex- through a within subject design. ercise also will have greater flexibility in sched- Organizations generally are concerned with uling work and nonwork activities, leading to identifiable returns such as lower absenteeism reduced absenteeism and lateness. and turnover when they support employee fit- In relation to long-term outcomes, employee ness programs. There is relatively little informa- fitness programs provide an opportunity for or- tion available as to whether employee fitness ganizations to demonstrate concern for employ- programs produce these returns although more ees. If employees perceive the organization is substantial, though not conclusive information, concerned about their welfare, they may develop in support of exercise and the returns for individ- more loyalty to the company, indirectly leading ual employees (i.e., better mental health, im- to reduced turnover. proved stress resistance) is available. It is the author's view that if organizations and research- ers want to improve the quality of work life, these Discussion returns should be expected. The returns of in- The model presented here provides a frame- creased productivity and commitment, and de- work upon which to generate future research. In creased absenteeism and turnover should be particular, more experimental research is needed quot;additional icing on the cake.quot; 519
  • 11. References Edington, D. W., & Edgerton, V. R. (1976)Thebiologyofphysi- Bahkre, M. S., & Morgan, W. P. (1978) Anxiety reduction fol- cal activity. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. lowing exercise and meditation. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 2, 323-333. Everly, B. S., Jr., & Rosenfeld, R. (1981) The nature and treat- ment of the stress response: A practical guide for clinicians. Bernacki, E. J., & Baun, W. B. (1984) The relationship of job New York: Plenum Press. performance to exercise adherence in a corporate fitness program. Journal of Occupational Medicine, 26, 529-531. Folkins, C. H., Lynch, S., & Gardner, M. M. (1972)Psychologi- cal fitness as a function of physical fitness. Archives of Butler, K. N. (1969) The effect of physical conditioning and Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 53, 503-508. exertion on the performance of a simple mental task. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 9, 236-240. Folkins, C. H., & Sime, W. E. (1981) Physical fitness training and mental health. American Psychologist, 36, 373-389. Clegg, C. W. (1983) Psychology of employee lateness, ab- Frankenhaeuser, M. (1979) Psychoneuroendocrine approach- sence and turnover: A methodological critique and an es to the study of emotions as related to stress and coping. empirical study. Journal of Applied Psychology, 68, 88-101. In H. E. Howe, Jr. & R. A. Dienstbier (Eds.), Nebraska sym- Cox, M. H. (1984) Fitness and lifestyle programs for business posium on motivation (Vol. 27, pp. 123-161). Lincoln: Uni- and industry: Problems in recruitment and retention. versity of Nebraska Press. Journal of Cardiac Rehabilitation, 4, 136-142. Frankenhaeuser, M., & Johansson, G. (1982, July) Stress at Cox, T. P., Evans, J. F., & Jamieson, J. L. (1979)Aerobic power work: Psychobiological and psychological aspects. Paper and tonic heart rate responses to psychosocial stressors. presented at the 20th International Congress of Applied Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 5(2), 160-163. Psychology, Edinburgh. Cox, M., Shephard, R., & Corey, P. (1981) Influence of an Gal, R., & Lazarus, R. S. (1975) The role of activity in antici- employee fitness programme upon fitness, productivity and pating and confronting stressful situations. Journal of Hu- absenteeism. Ergonomics, 24, 795-806. man Stress, 1, 4-20. Debats, K. (1981) Industrial recreation programs: A new look Galt, V. (1985, August 16) Employee fitness programs are at an old benefit. Personnel Journal, 60, 620-627. among innovative health benefits. The Globe and Mail, p. B15. deVries, H. G., & Adams, G. M. (1972) Electromyographic comparison of single doses of exercise and meprobamate Gutin, B. (1966) Effect of increase in physical fitness on men- as to effects on muscular relaxation. American Journal of tal ability following physical and mental stress. Research Physical Medicine, 51, 130-141. Quarterly, 37, 211-220. Dienstbier, R. A., Crabbe, J., Johnson, G. O., Thorland, W., Gutin, B., & DiGennaro, J. (1968) Effect of one-minute and Jorgensen, J. A., Sadar, M. M., & Lavells, D. C. (1981)Exer- five-minute step-ups on performance of simple addition. cise and stress tolerance. In M. H. Sacks & M. L. Sachs Research Quarterly, 39, 81-85. (Eds.). Psychology of running (pp. 192-210). Champaign, Heaps, R. A. (1978) Relating physical and psychological IL: Human Kinetics. fitness: A psychological point of view. Journal of Sports Dishman, R. K. (1982) Contemporary sport psychology. In Medicine and Physical Fitness, 18, 399-408. R. L. Terjung (Ed.), Exercise and sport sciences reviews Heinzelman, F., & Bagley, R. W. (1970) Response to physical (Vol. 10, pp. 120-159). New York: Franklin Institute Press. activity programs and their effects on health behavior. Dishman, R. K., Sallis, J. F., & Orenstein, D. R. (1985) The Public Health Reports, 85, 905-911. determinants of physical activity and exercise. Public Hollander, B. J., & Seraganian, P. (1984) Aerobic fitness and Health Reports, 100, 158-171. psychophysiological reactivity. Canadian Journal of Be- Driver, R. W., & Ratliff, R. A. (1982) Employers' perceptions havioral Science, 16, 257-261. of benefits accrued from physical fitness programs. Per- Howard, J., & Mikalachki, A. (1979) Fitness and employee sonnel Administrator, 27(8), 21-26. productivity. Canadian Journal of Applied Sport Sciences, Durbeck, D. C., Heinzelmann, F., Schacter, J., Haskell, W. L., 4, 191-198. Payne, G. H., Moxley, R. T., Nemiroff, J., Limoncelli, D. D., Hughes, J. R. (1984) Psychological effects of habitual aerobic Arnoldi, L. B., & Fox, S. M. (1972) The national aeronau- exercise: A critical review. Preventive Medicine, 13, 66-78. public health service tics and space administration-US Ismail, A. H., & Young, R. J. (1973) The effect of chronic exer- health evaluation and enhancement program. American cise on the personality of middle-aged men by univariate Journal of Cardiology, 30, 784-790. 520
  • 12. turnover among psychiatric technicians. Journal of Ap- and multivariate approaches. Journal of Human Ergology, plied Psychology, 59, 603-609. 2, 45-54. Ismail, A. H., & Young, R. J. (1976) Influence of physical fit- Rhodes, E. C., & Dunwoody, D. (1980) Physiological and ness on second and third order personality factors using attitudinal changes in those involved in an employee fit- orthogonal and oblique rotations. Journal of Clinical Psy- ness program. Canadian Journal of Public Health, 71, chology, 32, 268-272. 331-336. Johns, G., & Nicholson, N. (1982) The meaning of absence: Rossman, R. J. (1983, October) Participant satisfaction with New strategies for theory and research. In L. L. Cummings employee recreation. Journal of Physical Education, Rec- & B. M. Staw (Eds.), Research in organizational behavior reation and Dance, 62, 30-32. (Vol. 4, pp. 127-172). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press. Selye, H. (1975) Stress without distress. New York: Signet. Kavanagh, T., & Shephard, R. J. (1973) The immediate ante- cedents of myocardial infarction in active men. Canadian Shephard, R. J., Cox, M., & Corey, P. (1981) Fitness program Medical Association Journal, 109, 19-22. participation: Its effect on workers' performance. Journal of Occupational Medicine, 23, 359-363. Keller, S., & Seraganian, P. (1984) Physical fitness level and autonomic reactivity to psychosocial stress. Journal of Psy- Sinyor, D., Schwartz, S. G., Peronnet, F., Brisson, G., & chosomatic Research, 28, 279-287. Seraganian, P. (1983) Aerobic fitness level and reactivity to psychosocial stress: Physiological, biochemical and sub- Killip, S. M. (1985) Aerobic fitness: Effects on stress and psy- jective measures. Psychosomatic Medicine, 45, 205-217. chological well-being. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Calgary, Calgary, Canada. Smith, P., Kendall, L., & Hulin, C. (1969) The measurement of satisfaction in work and retirement. Chicago: Rand Ledwidge, R. (1980) Run for your mind: Aerobic exercise as a McNally. means of alleviating anxiety and depression. Canadian Journal of Behavioral Science, 12(2), 126-140. Steers, R. M. (1977) Antecedents and outcomes of organiza- tional commitment. Administrative Science Quarterly, 22, Lichtman, S., & Poser, E. G. (1983) The effects of exercises 46-56. on mood and cognitive functioning. Journal of Psychoso- matic Research, 27, 43-52. Stephens, T., Jacobs, D. R., & White, C. C. (1985) A descrip- tive epidemiology of leisure-time physical activity. Public through exercise. Michael, E. D. (1957) Stress adaptation Health Reports, 100, 147-158. Research Quarterly, 28, 51-54. Stern, M. J., & Cleary, P. (1982) The national exercise and Michaels, C. E., & Spector, P. E. (1982) Causes of employee heart disease project: Long-term psychosocial outcome. tumovers: A test of the Mobley, Griffeth, Hand and Meglino Archives of Internal Medicine, 42, 1093-1097. model. Journal of Applied Psychology, 67, 53-59. Mobily, K. (1982) Using physical activity and recreation to Terjung, R. (1979) Endocrine response to exercise. Exercise cope with stress and anxiety: A review. American Correc- and Sport Science Reviews, 7, 153-180. tive Journal, 36(3), 77-81. Tharp,G. D., & Schlegelmich, R. P. (1977)Personality charac- Mobley, W. H., Griffeth, R. W., Hand, H. H., & Meglino, B. M. teristics of trained versus untrained individuals. [Abstract]. (1979) Review and conceptual analysis of the employee Medicine and Science in Sports, 9, 55. tumover process. Psychological Bulletin, 86, 493-522. Weingarten, G. (1973) Mental performance during physical Morgan, W. P., & Pollock, M. L. (1978) Physical activity and exertion: The benefit of being physically fit. International cardiovascular health: Psychological aspects. In F. Landry Journal of Sport Psychology, 4, 16-26. & W. A. R. Orban (Eds.), Physical activity and human well- being(Vol. 1, pp. 163-181). Miami, FL:Symposia Specialist. Yarvote, P. M., McDonagh, T. J., Goldman, M. E., & Zucker- Morgan, W. P., Roberts, J. A., & Feinerman, A. D. (1971) Psy- man, J. (1974) Organization and evaluation of a physical chological effect of acute physical activity. Archives of fitness program in industry. Journal of Occupational Medi- Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 52, 422-425. cine, 16, 589-598. Perks, M. (1985, February 9) Happier workers: Extra payoff Young, R. J., & Ismail, A. H. (1976a) Personality differences for employers in many ways. The Financial Post, pp. 33, of adult men before and after a physical fitness program. 35. Research Quarterly, 47, 513-519. Porter, L. W., Steers, R. M., Mowday, R. T., & Boulian, P. V. Young, R. J., & Ismail, A. H. (1976b) Relationship between (1974) Organizational commitment, job satisfaction, and anthropometric physiological, biochemical and personal- 521
  • 13. nonregularadult male exercisers. Research Quarterly,48, ity variables before and after a four-monthconditioning 617-622. programformiddle-aged men. Journalof SportsMedicine and Physical Fitness, 16, 267-276. Youngblood, S. A. (1984)Work, nonwork and withdrawal. Journalof Applied Psychology, 69, 106-117. The effects of extraneous stimulationon Young, R. J., & Ismail, A. H. (1977)Comparison of selected Zuercher,J. D. (1965) vigilance. Human Factors, 7, 101-105. physiological and personality variables in regular and Loren Falkenberg (Ph.D., University of Illinois) is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Management in Organization and Human Resources, University of Calgary. Correspondence regarding this article may be sent to her at: Faculty of Management, University of Calgary, 2500 Alberta Drive N.W., Calgary, Alberta, Canada T2N 1N4. This research was conducted partly while the author was at Concordia University in Montreal. 522