Status and future challenge of jgsdf in international peace cooperation activities
ー Through a lens of Capacity-Building － 4 March 2011 Col Nobutaka MINAMIKAWA, JGSDFVisiting Fellow, The Henry L. Stimson Center
Contents Self- １ Japan Ground Self-Defense Force’s Past Efforts in International Peace Cooperation Activities (IPCA) ２ New Defense Program Guidelines and its implication for SDF’s IPCA ３ Roles of SDF in Capacity Building ４ Challenges for a More Effective Activities ５ ConclusionThe views expressed here are those of Nobutaka MINAMIKAWA.Nothing spoken here reflects the views of the Henry L. Stimson Center,the Japan Ground Self Defense Force, Ministry of Defense, orGovernment of Japan.
JGSDF’s past efforts in IPCA１ Situations surrounding JGSDF IPCA２ Ongoing Activities of JGSDF IPCA３ Evaluation of JGSDF IPCA
International Peace Cooperation Activities Conducted by the SDF International Peace Cooperation Mission International Peace Cooperation Activities Activities based on the ‘Law Concerning Japan’s Cooperation in the U.N. Peacekeeping Activity and other Activities (so-called “PKO Cooperation Law”) International Disaster Relief Activities Activities based on the “Law Concerning the Dispatch of International Disaster Relief Teams (so-called “International Disaster Relief Law”)” Cooperation in Efforts toward the Reconstruction of Iraq Activities based on the “Law Concerning Special Measures on Humanitarian and Reconstruction Assistance and Support Activities for Ensuring Security of Iraq (known as the Iraq Reconstruction Special Measures Law)” (Ended in Feb. 2009) Activities to Respond International Terrorism Activities based on the “Replenishment Support Special Measures Law” (Ended in Jan. 2010) Anti-Piracy Activities Activities based on the “Law on Penalization of Acts of Piracy and Measures against Acts of Piracy (known as “Anti-Piracy Special Measures Law”)” Legend： shows activities based on permanent laws shows activities based on time-limited laws
Current Activities【UNDOF】 【Anti-Piracy activities】 【MINUSTAH】Mission: HQ Staff and Mission: Base management Mission: HQ staff & Logistic support (50) & force protection (62) Reconstruction (approx.350) Golan Heights Khartoum Haiti Djibouti East Timor 【UNMIT】【UNMIS】 Mission:Mission: HQ Staff (2) Military liaison officer (2) About 450 personnel currently on duty abroad
Evaluations of JGSDF IPCAIraq 【Humanitarian and Reconstruction Assistance in Iraq】 】 The Iraqi people would never forget Japan’s Contribution to the reconstruction and stability of Iraq, including the dispatch of the SDF, During this time of difficulties which Iraq has faced. （ ） President Talabani（Jan., 2009）Golan Heights 【UNDOF】 】 The SDF for its contribution, saying its activities in the past decade were superb as they showed professionalism in every part of the operation. UNDOF Force Commander LTG Sharma(Jan,2006)Pakistan 【DR in Major Earthquakes in Pakistan 】 Japan’s SDF has shown outstanding performance in helping the affected people in Pakistan. President Musharraf(Nov.,2005) International society has highly appreciated SDF’s IPCA, what is basedon the Japanese style of trying to share the perspectives of local people.
New Defense Program Guidelines and its implication for SDF’s IPCA１ Significance of NDPG２ Major Points of the 2010 NDPG３ Implications for IPCA
Status and significance○ GOJ set the basic principles of Japan’s security policy and the target levels of defense equipment for the first time in the 1976 National Defense Program Guidelines (NDPG) and formulated Mid-term Defense Program (MTDP) for next 5 years under “the frame of 1% of GNP.” GOJ has conducted defense build-up based on the MTDP ever since. .○ Both NDPG and MTDP are documents that are approved by the cabinet council.Relations among NDPG, MTDP and Annual Budget National Defense Vision for future direction of defense policy, and the Program Guidelines target levels of defense capabilities to implement the new policy. Mid-term Maximum sum of cost in 5 years and numbers of main Defense Program equipment Annual Budget Appropriate necessary costs annually
Major Points of 2010NDPG1. “Dynamic Defense Force” Concept Focus on how to better operate the SDF Focused on Readiness, Mobility, Flexibility, Sustainability, Multi-functional2. Enhance and Develop Japan-U.S. Alliance, Stabilize Asia-Pacific Region Articulate Japan-U.S. cooperation measure more concretely Emphasize “Stabilizing Asia-Pacific region security” as core defense role3. Enhance response capabilities for contingencies in offshore island area Prevent a power vacuum by deploying SDF unit Strengthen and maintaining the capability for the defense of sea/air space surrounding Japan Deploy new SDF unit strategically and enhance its ability for rapid deployment and response.4 Promote the global security cooperation Promote bilateral/multilateral cooperation Develop the capability for capacity-building5 Identify Political Issues Tackle political issues, such as the establishment of national security council, revise 5 Principles for participation in UN Peace Keeping from new point of view
① Excerpts on IPCA from 2010NDPG①Ⅰ NDPG’s ObjectivesⅡ Basic Principles of Japan’s Security Policy Japan will participate more actively in activities in which the international community cooperates (here in/after referred to as “international peace cooperation activities”), to improve the international security environment, including United Nations peace-keeping activities and activities to deal with non-traditional security issues, such as humanitarian assistance, disaster relief and counter-piracy initiatives.Ⅲ Security Environment Surrounding Japan The role of military forces in the international community is becoming increasingly diverse. In addition to deterring or responding to armed conflicts and building confidence and promoting friendship among countries, military forces, in cooperation with the non-military sector, are playing an important role in a growing number of cases, in conflict prevention, peace building such as reconstruction assistance, and in the non- traditional security field.Ⅳ Basic Policies to Ensure Japan’s Security １ Japan’s Own Efforts Japan will participate in international peace cooperation activities in more efficient and effective manner. Taking into consideration the actual situations of UN peace-keeping operations, Japan will consider how it will participate in future peace-keeping operations, by examining current policies such as the five principles for participation in peace-keeping operations.
② Excerpts on IPCA from 2010NDPG②２ Cooperation with its Ally Japan will strengthen various regular cooperation, such as joint training and joint/shared usage of facilities, and promote regional and global cooperation through international peace cooperation activities, maintenance and enhancement of international public goods such as outer space, cyberspace and sea lanes, as well as in the field of climate change.３ Multi-layered Security Cooperation with the International Community ○ Concerning multilateral security cooperation, through such frameworks as the ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF) and the ASEAN Defense Ministers Meeting Plus (ADMM Plus), Japan will play an appropriate role in efforts toward establishing regional order, norms and practical cooperative relationships, particularly through initiatives in the non-traditional security field. ○ Japan will actively engage in diplomatic efforts, including the strategic and effective use of Official Development Assistance (ODA), in order to resolve root causes of conflicts and terrorism. Along with these diplomatic efforts, Japan will robustly engage in international peace cooperation activities. In doing so, Japan will strive to provide assistance which makes use of its knowledge and experience and will conduct such activities strategically, while comprehensively taking into account the various conditions surrounding it.
③ Excerpts on IPCA from 2010NDPG③Ⅴ Future Defense Forces １ Roles of Defense Forces （１）Effective deterrence and response （２）Efforts to further stabilize the security environment of Asia-Pacific region. In non-traditional security fields, Japan will promote practical cooperation by utilizing SDF capabilities, including disposal of landmines and unexploded shells. Japan will also strive to establish and strengthen regional cooperation practice and support the capacity building of countries in the region. （３）Efforts to improve the global security environment. Japan will continue to actively participate in international peace cooperation activities. Japan will also actively engage in various activities conducted by the United Nations and other organizations such as support for capacity building. ２ Self-Defense Forces : Force Posture The SDF will strive to enhance capabilities and posture applicable to diverse missions, rapid deployment and long- term operations so it can actively participate in international peace cooperation activities.
④ Excerpts on IPCA from 2010NDPG④３ Self-Defense Force : Organization, Equipment and Force Disposition. ○ The SDF will enhance its capabilities for international peace cooperation activities by upgrading equipment, strengthening maritime and air transport capability, enhancing its logistical support posture, enhancing its engineering and medical functions, and reinforcing its education and training systems. ○ The SDF will improve the system for providing appropriate intelligence support for activities conducted in remote areas through such measures as strengthening capabilities to collect geospatial information, so as to enable SDF units dispatched abroad to perform missions smoothly and safely. ○ The GSDF will maintain mobile operating units sustaining specialized functions so that it can effectively perform international peace cooperation activities. ○ The ASDF will maintain air transport units and aerial refueling/transport units which enable effective international peace cooperation Activities.Ⅵ Basic Foundations to Maximize Defense Capability In contributing to peace and promoting cooperation in international community, there are increasing opportunities to conduct effective cooperation activities through measures such as the utilization of heavy machinery and other defense equipment carried to the site by the SDF and providing equipment to disaster-stricken countries.Ⅶ Additional Elements for Consideration
The role of SDF in Capacity Building１ What is “Capacity Building”?２ The role of Military in Capacity Building３ The role of SDF in Capacity Building
What’s Capacity Building？ Building？Capacity Building is the creation of an enabling environment with appropriate policy and legal frameworks,institutional development, including community participation, human resourcesdevelopment and strengthening of managerial systems, and capacity building is along-term, continuing process.Recipients of the capacity building assistance are fragile states (collapsed states, states in/after civil war), developing countries,countries and regions suffered from large-scale natural disaster, countries will enableworld and regional stability and security to affect (include local authorities).Donors are U.N., other international organizations, nations (government organizations, Military)NGO, Commercial companies and so on.Capacity Building is hoped to prevent fragile states from being security risks like a hotbed of terrorists, and tostrengthen cooperative relationship between donee and donors.
① Image of Capacity Building①Similar to solving a complex puzzle. There are a lot of parts based on the situation of Recipients. Donors solve the puzzle with partsin order to support improve the situation. Those parts are look like similar, but those are infinitevariety and complex, because of race, religion, custom, history and so on. state Training and education Establish systems for military (medical, finance, education, economy) Bring up human resources Establish Security sector government and Construct reform the Diet infrastructures Capacity building is activities in order to build up capability to operate state. It is very important that Donors work in cooperation with fields each nationsare proficient.
② Image of Capacity Building②peacebad Secure Establish Security government Fragile Construct and and states Infra. safety the Diet countries Lifesaving and Construct Build up Stable Operation suffered from Disaster Infra. Capability of state LSND restoration Of DR Developing Bring up Establish Legends countries HR systems Infra. : infrastructure HR : human resourcegood DR : disaster Relief operations LSND: large-scale natural disaster The goal of capacity building is to enable a nation-state to operate stably. There are various approaches to reach the objective.
Roles of Military in Capacity Building Features of Military○ Combat power(military can secure security and safety with its own capability.）○ Self-sufficient (military can conduct long-term activities by themselves.）○ Multi-function（Military can conduct variety activities with medical, transport （land/sea/air）,engineer, training and education and so on.）Roles of Military in Capacity Building○ Securing the safety in order to ensure the activities for themselves and others.○ Medical support, building up infrastructures, transportation support, education and so on in the early stages of commitment.○ Training the country’s military forces and security police.
Features of SDF in Capacity Building Features of SDF○ Combat power (although there are strict restriction against use of weapon.)○ Self-sufficiency and Multi-functionality SDF has a lot of experience through IPCA, especially in providingmedical services, transport, engineer, disposal of unexploded shells and so on. SDF has the know-how to conduct disaster relief operation, as a country where natural disaster occur frequently.○ SDF is one of the most advanced forces in the Asia-Pacific Region.Considerations of GSDF’s activities○ Area of activities are limited in non-combat area.○ Activities utilize GSDF’s experiences and know-how.○ Activities in Asia-Pacific, especially in South-East Asia region are advisable.
Requests from nations in Southeast Asia There are a lot of requests on HA/DR,anti-piracy, disposal of landmines andunexpected shells, and so on from Concrete examplesdeveloping countries, especially in JAPAN BruneiSouth-East Asia region to Japan through Education for HA/DRHigh-level exchange. Cambodia Supports for disposal of landmines and unexploded shells, DR Support operation and IPCA Requests Indonesia Supports to improve Vietnam anti-piracy capability Thai Thai Supports for training Cambodia military techniques and school, DR operations. Brunei East Timor Supports for DR operations Indonesia East Timor Vietnam Supports for Counter- Terrorism, HA/DR, IPCA, military, medical
Challenges for a More Effective Activities１ Restriction on “the integration with use of force”２ Restriction on Three Principles on Arms Exports３ Strengthen relationship among the relevant organizations４ Through a lens of the Japan-US Cooperation
Restriction on “the integration with use of force”The Right of Collective Self-Defense Since Japan is a sovereign state, it naturally has the right of collectiveself-defense under international law. Nevertheless, the Japanese Governmentbelieves that the exercise of the right of collective self-defense exceeds theminimum necessary level of self-defense authorized under Article 9 ofthe Constitution and is not permissible.The integration with the use of force Under the Constitution, SDF is not permitted to conduct an activity thatmay be considered as integrated with the use of force when it is not underdirect attack. There are similar restrictions when SDF cooperates with other countriesin IPCA. In capacity building, however, individual activities (for instancetraining of the armed forces, rifle training, combat training, etc) needs tobe considered on a case-by-case bases.
Restriction on Three Principles on Arms ExportsOn Apr. 21, 1967, then Prime Minister Eisaku Sato declared at the House of Representatives’ AuditCommittee meeting.○ Communist Bloc countries○ Countries to which arms export is prohibited under the U.N. resolutions○ Countries which are actually involved or likely to become involved in international conflicts.On Feb. 27, 1976, then Prime Minister Takeo Miki announced the Government’s view atHouse of Representatives’ Budget Committee meeting.○ The export of “arms” to the areas subject to the Three Principles shall not be permitted.○ The export of “arms” to areas other than the areas subject to the three Principles shall be restricted in line with the spirit of the Constitution and Foreign Exchange and Foreign Trade Control Law.○ Equipment related to arms production shall be treated in the same category as “arms”.○ Moreover Arms referred to in the Three Principles on Arms Exports are ◆ those that are used by the military forces and directly employed in combat. ◆ Such equipments as destroyers, fighters and tanks that move, intrinsically carrying firearms, etc., for purposes of directly killing and injuring peoples or destroying things as a means of armed struggle, are considered “arms”. Equipments of SDF are interpreted as “arms” under the Three principles on ArmsExport. Therefore SDF must carry back every equipments sent abroad each time.
Strengthen relationship among the relevant organizations Enterprise ＮＧＯ The government ＮＧＯ offices concerned Cabinet Office MOFA MOD The government offices concerned ＮＧＯ ○ Strengthen function of Prime Minister’s Official Residence (KanteiI) and relationship among other relevant organizations ○ Plan strategically and implement the activities
Improve Japan-US Cooperation in IPCACurrent situation of Japan-US Cooperation ○ Guidelines for Japan –US Defense Cooperation in 1997 ◇Main focus on the defense of Japan and stability in Northeast Asia. ◇There are descriptions as cooperation in peace time ・ ”The close cooperation for mutual support as necessary to improve the International security environment” as a principle ・ Cooperation in UNPKO and HA/DR is conducted as the needs arises. ○ Acquisition and Cross-Servicing Agreement（ＡＣＳＡ） ◆ Applied for Defense of Japan, Response to Situations in Areas Surrounding Japan, IPCA and Bilateral Training ◆ Not applied for HA/DR ○ Cooperation in IPCA Iraq humanitarian assistance and reconstruction activity, HA/DR in Pakistan and Haiti and Anti-Piracy Activity in Djibouti. ○ Bilateral Training in peace time Main efforts on defense of Japan, there are Cobra Gold Exercise and Pacific Partnership as others. Challenges of Japan-US Cooperation○ Cooperation in IPCA is not enough compare with the defense of Japan○ In the future, it is necessary to promote Japan-US cooperation in: 【concrete tools】】 ・ the application of ASCA ・ To strengthen Bilateral Training To utilize existing bilateral and multilateral framework in order to increase the training opportunity especially utilization of ASEAN and ARF is effective
Conclusion Matters under consideration in Japan ○ “General law” that governs IPCA ○ 5 Principles for participation in U.N. peacekeeping forces ○ 3 Principles on Arms Exports ○ Application to Japan-US ACSA in International Disaster Relief Activities ○ Efforts in new IPCA International Peace Capacity Defense Cooperation Building Exchange Activities○From “first step” of MOD/SDF to “upgrade” as a activities conducted by Japan○To enhance Japan-US cooperation in IPCA including capacity-building
Enhancing response capabilities for IPCADirection of build-up【New posture of CRF】 Attaching Capacity building function to IPCA Training Unit, etc. CRF Enhancing coordination with branch schools CRF HQ CRR IPCATU Other units H& HS Co Infantry Co Engr Co Enhancing Rear Area Enhancing Engineering functions (Medical & functions Logistics) 31