Term paper on hydro power projects and disaster vulnerabilities
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Term paper on hydro power projects and disaster vulnerabilities

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Term paper on hydro power projects and disaster vulnerabilities Term paper on hydro power projects and disaster vulnerabilities Presentation Transcript

  • SEMINAR PESENTATION -TERM PAPER-A PRESENTED BY MOOL RAJ Ph.D Course Work
  • MAIN CONTENTS  HYDRO ELECTRICITY  HISTORYOF HYDRO POWER IN WORLD  HISTORY OF HYDRO POWER IN INDIA  HISTORY OF HYDRO POWER IN HIMACHAL  GLOBAL HYDRO POWER GENERATION  SOCIAL IMPACT OF HYDRO POWER PROJECT  ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF HYDRO POWER PROJECT  SCHEDULED TRIBES  DISASTER: AT A GLANCE  INITIATIVE TAKEN BY GOVT.  CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF THE STUDY  CONCLUSION  REFERENCES
  • HYDRO POWER  Hydroelectricity is generated by converting the pressure of falling or running water to electricity by means of turbine fastened to a generator.  Waterpower is derived from the fall of water from a higher to a lower level, and extracted by means of waterwheels or hydraulic turbines.  The development of waterpower today requires extensive construction, including storage lakes, dams; bypass canals, and the installation of large turbines and electric generating equipment.
  • GLOBAL HYDRO POWER GENERATION  Worldwide ,India represented 17 percent of the total energy generated in 2003  In 2003, Norway derived 99% of its power from hydroelectric plants ,democratic Republic of Congo derived 100 % and 84 % of electricity was used Brazil.  Canada ,the largest producer of the hydroelectric power in the world, generated 332.5 billion kilo watt- hours in 2003.  In India, Tehri dam is the biggest dam in Asia which generates 3,000 MW electricity.
  • HISTORY OF HYDRO POWER IN WORLD  Use of water power in Greece & Rome for milling of corn.  Development of Hydro Power by British civil Engineer John Smeaton.  Role of Water power for growth of textiles, leather and machine shop industries in the early 1800s.  In 1878, World’s 1st hydroelectric power schemes was developed at Cragside in Northumberland, England by William George Armstrong. It was used to power a single arc lamp in his art gallary.  The old Schoelkodf power station no.1 near Niagara Falls in the U.S. side began to produce electricity in 1881.
  • HISTORY OF HYDRO POWER IN INDIA  7th largest producer of HEP in 2008.  Darjeeling(1898) & Shimsha (1902) HPP was first in Asia.  Viable HPP potential is about 84,000 MW at load factor.  Aggregate installed capacity is 94,000 MW identified.  India ranks 5th in hydro potential and present installed capacity is 37,367.4 MW (21.53 % of total electricity generation in India.
  • HISTORY OF HYDRO POWER IN HIMACHAL  Rich in hydel resources  Estimation of 20,300 MW hydel power on 5 river basins  High priority for development of HPP in state  Nathpa Jhakri projects (1500 MW) is major in the state.  07 major & 10 minor project.
  • IMPACTS OF HYDRO POWER ON WATER LEVEL OF RIVER WATER LEVEL BEFORE COMPLETION OF PROJECT
  • WATER LEVEL AFTER COMPLETION OF PROJECT
  • SOCIAL IMPACTS OF HYDRO POWER PROJECT  Displacement of people  Issues of resettlement  Transformation of land use  Sustainable livelihoods  Cultural impacts  Problems due to influx of outside labour
  • ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF HYDRO POWER PROJECT  Emission of green house gases, leads to global warming and climate changing  Consequences of dams construction  Lower the temperature and thus rendering aquatic life of animals.  Prevention of nutrient-laden silt from flowing downstream and thus rendering river dwelling organisms.
  •  Sedimentation occurs when weathered rock, organic and chemical materials transported in a river system are trapped in a reservoir.
  •  Hydropower projects have impacted fish and fisheries in a number of ways.  These include changes in habitat quality and availability, changes in flow regime, and fish passage.  Changes in water quality are potential outcomes from locating a dam in a river. Effects are often experienced both upstream and downstream of a dam.
  • DISASTER: AT A GLANCE  India, with its unique geophysical setting and socio-economic conditions is highly vulnerable to disasters.  Prone to disasters due to number of factors, both natural and human induced.  Almost 58.6 per cent of the landmass is prone to earthquakes of moderate to very high intensity; over 40 million hectares (12 per cent of land) are prone to floods and river erosion; of the 7,516 km long coastline, close to 5,700 km, is prone to cyclones and tsunamis; 68 per cent of the cultivable area is vulnerable to drought.
  • Natural Disasters  Wind-related- Storm, cyclone, tornado, hurricane, storm surge, tidal wave  Water- related-Foods, cloud burst, flash flood, excessive rains, drought, communicable diseases.  Earth-related- Earthquake, tsunamis, avalanches, landslides, volcanic eruptions.
  • Man-made Disasters  1) War/ battle/ hostile/ enemy actions  2) Arson/ sabotage/ internal disturbances  3) Accidents of the vehicles/ trains/ aircraft/ ships
  • Hydro meteorological disaster  The most recurrent, and pose major impediments to achieving human security and sustainable socio-economic development, as recently witnessed with disasters such as the Indian Ocean tsunami in 2004, Hurricane Katrina in 2005, Cyclone Sidr in 2007, Cyclone Nargis in 2008 and many others  The factors that have led to increased water related disasters are thought to include natural pressures, such as climate variability; management pressures, such as the lack of appropriate organizational systems and inappropriate land management; and social pressure.
  • DISASTER IN HIMACHAL
  • INITIATIVE TAKEN NATIONAL POLICY ON DISASTER MANAGEMENT  Promoting a culture of prevention, preparedness and resilience at all levels through knowledge, innovation and education.  Encouraging mitigation measures based on technology, traditional wisdom and environmental sustainability.  Mainstreaming disaster management into the developmental planning process.
  • INITIATIVE TAKEN NATIONAL POLICY ON DISASTER MANAGEMENT
  • • Promoting a culture of prevention, preparedness and resilience at all levels through knowledge, innovation and education.  Encouraging mitigation measures based on technology, traditional wisdom and environmental sustainability.  Mainstreaming disaster management into the developmental planning process.  Establishing institutional and techno-legal frameworks
  • • Developing contemporary forecasting and early warning systems  Ensuring efficient response and relief with a caring  Undertaking reconstruction as an opportunity to build disaster resilient structures  Promoting productive and proactive partnership with media in disaster management.
  • DISASTER MANAGEMENT ACT,2005  Section 2(d) of the act defines disaster as a means of catastrophe, mishap, calamity or grave occurrence in any area arising due to natural or man-made causes or by accident or negligence which results in substantial loss to life or human suffering or damage to, and destruction of property or damage to, or degradation to environment and is of such a nature or magnitude which is beyond the coping capacity of the community of the affected area.
  •  The DM Act lay down strong institutional mechanisms at national, state and district level that will work together in close harmony.  Section 3 of the Act establishes National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) as the apex body of the DM, with Prime Minister as the chairman. NDMA will have the responsibilities for laying down the guidelines, policies and plans for DM and coordinating their enforcement and implementation for ensuring timely and effective response to disasters.
  • CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF THE STUDY  At the global level, 17 % of total energy was generated through hydro power in 2003 and in India, 21.53 % of total electricity is being generated through hydro power projects. Further Himachal Pradesh contributes about 1/4th of the total electricity generation in India.  Our country, is having viable hydro potential,  Need of sustainable development  Impact of hydro power projects on human being and environment.
  •  While comparing the hydro power potential of Himachal Pradesh(estimated 20,300 MW hydel potential) with our nation (with viable hydro potential of 84,00 0MW at 60% load factor)  Himachal Pradesh as rich source in its hydel resources  Increased vulnerability in the disasters due to construction of dams.  Failure in effective enforcement and implementation of DM Act,2005
  • CONCLUSION  Contribution of HPP to the human development  Significant impact of HPP on livelihood and the environment.  Requirement of new policies on Hydro power project(HPP)  Need of proper mitigation of the disasters  Requirement of fully enforcement and effective implementation of Disaster Management Act, 2005