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Principles of Training

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  • 1.  
  • 2.
    • Understand and be able to explain the Principles of Training – Individual needs; progressive overload, specificity, rest and recovery, the FITT principle, and reversibility.
    • Be able to apply these to your own sport and use these principles to improve your fitness levels and skills.
  • 3.
    • Individual Needs/
    • Differences
  • 4.
    • Matching training to the requirements of an individual.
    • 1. Body Build
    • 2. The sport (and position played)
    • 3. Your aims
    • 4. Current fitness levels/ Age/ Gender.
    • Write down 5 elite sportsmen/women who you think have
    • different training needs and what they are?
    • Why would you not use someone else’s personal exercise
    • programme?
  • 5.
    • Specificity
  • 6.
    • Matching training to the requirements of an activity.
    • How can you make a training programme specific?
    • What would you do to make your training specific for your sport?
  • 7.
    • You need to train specifically to develop the right…
    • muscles – if your sport requires a lot of running, work mainly on your legs.
    • type of fitness – do you need strength, speed, stamina or a combination?
    • skills – you need to practice any relevant skills like kicking, serving and passing.
    Remember that: specific individuals respond differently to the same exercise. Training may need to be adapted to suit the needs of different participants.
  • 8.
    • Progressive Overload
  • 9.
    • Gradually increase the amount of overload so as to gain fitness without the risk of injury
    • Unless the body is subjected to increased demands, improvements in physical fitness will not be made.
    • If a PEP is to be effective, it must place increased & specific demands on the body.
    • If training levels remain the same, then the programme will only be maintaining the participants level of fitness, not improving it.
  • 10.
    • Rest and Recovery
  • 11.
    • Rest : The period of time allocated to recovery.
    • Recovery : The time required to repair damage to the body caused by training or competition.
    • Adaptation is reacting to a hard training session by increasing the ability to
    • cope with future gruelling sessions.
  • 12.
    • There are four ways to increase the amount of work the body does in order to achieve progressive overload in a PEP.
    • They can easily be remembered using the mnemonic FITT .
  • 13.
    • F – FREQUENCY
    • How regularly/ how many times a week
    • I – INTENSITY
    • How hard you train.
    • T – TIME
    • How long each session must be in order to benefit
    • T - TYPE
    • What sort of training you do?
  • 14.
    • If a performer wishes to train their aerobic system, they should train at between 60% and 80% of their maximum.
    • If a performer wishes to train their anaerobic system, they should train at between 80% and 90% of their maximum.
    • The precise percentage level you train at will be based upon your current level of fitness.
  • 15.  
  • 16.
    • Explain how frequency overlaps with the principle of rest and recovery?
    • Write down three ways that you could increase the intensity of a training session?
  • 17.
    • Reversibility
  • 18.
    • …… .. Unfortunately, If you don't use it, you lose it!!
    • Training effects are reversible.
    • Strength and speed are gradually lost with muscles losing their tone and size, commonly known as:
    • Muscular Atrophy
  • 19.  
  • 20.  
  • 21.
    • Lucy has decided to take her cycling more seriously and is planning a training programme to improve her performance. As part of her training she goes to the gym.
    • a) Which of the following cardiovascular machines would be most appropriate for her to use?
    • Rowing machine Treadmill Exercise bike
    •  
    • b) Which principle of training does this relate to?
    • ………………………………………
    • Explain what is meant by the term reversibility in relation to weight training?
    • ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
    •  
    • A rower is planning a training programme to prepare for a 2000m race. Explain how the following principles might affect their programme:
    • a. Specificity
    • …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
    •   …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
    • b. progressive overload
    • ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
  • 22.
    • S
    • P
    • I
    • R
    • R
    • F
    • I
    • T
    • T