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Aggession: SLT

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  • 1. Theories of Aggression: The Social LearningTheory Sports Psychology Aggression Part III
  • 2. Recap: Instinct Theory?... Last lesson we introduced the theories of aggression and discussed the Instinct Theory of Aggression. TASK: Use the bullet points below to outline the key points of this theory. . . . . .
  • 3. Recap: Instinct Theory?... Last lesson we introduced the theories of aggression and discussed the Instinct Theory of Aggression. TASK: Use the bullet points below to outline the key points of this theory. Aggression formed in human through evolution. Two approaches: Psychoanalytical (Freud) and Ethological (Lorenz) Aggression is innate Aggression can be channelled in to more socially acceptable behaviours e.g. sport Aggression channelled leads to catharsis e.g. aggression released in something acceptable like sport is drive reducing.
  • 4. Causes of Aggression We have also discussed the causes of aggression. Situations that cause aggression in relation to the individual: . . . . Some examples of general causes of aggression are: . . . .
  • 5. Causes of Aggression We have also discussed the causes of aggression. Situations that cause aggression in relation to the individual: They are losing Judge officiating to be unfair Performing below expectation Physical pain Some examples of general causes of aggression are: Over arousal Home or away and proximity of crowd Belief that aggressive bahaviour will help you win Increased reward
  • 6. Theories of Aggression 1. Instinct Theory: Psychoanalytical approach & Ethological approach 2. Social Learning Theory 3. Frustration/Aggression Hypothesis 4. Aggressive – cue Hypothesis
  • 7. 2. The Social Learning Theory Aggression is influenced by learning Disagrees with instinct theorists; Bandura believes that aggression is NOT instinctive. Bandura takes the view that aggression is a LEARNED RESPONSE. Aggression learned through Observation of aggressive behaviour Reinforcement e.g. From coach, media, parents
  • 8. Bandura’s research ‘Bobo Doll’ Experiment Showed that children often imitated aggressive behaviour of adults towards the large inflatable dolls. When the child was rewarded or saw the adult being rewarded for the aggressive behaviour the level of aggression increased. Can you think of an example in sport where aggressive behaviour is learnt in this way?
  • 9. Bandura’s research (1965) ‘Bobo Doll’ Experiment Showed that children often imitated aggressive behaviour of adults towards the large inflatable dolls. When the child was rewarded or saw the adult being rewarded for the aggressive behaviour the level of aggression increased. In relation to sport; a young boy who is taken to a football match by his father may witness aggressive behaviour by adults in the crowd. The child imitates the behaviour of the adults. The way the father reacts to this could have positive or negative effects on the future behaviour of the young supporter.
  • 10. Apply it to sport!! Vicarious experience: Performers who watch other performers achieving the task will often feel thay are also capable of being successful. Therefore; if a player acts aggressively and achieves their goal; an observer may feel they can achieve this goal in the same way. (Vicarious or observational learning) TASK: Provide your own example of how aggressive behaviour may be learnt in a sporting environment. The example I have provided is based around spectator; your example should be based around performer.
  • 11. Does the reward outweigh the punishment? Social learning theorist believe that situation has a big influence on the performers aggressive behaviour. Early in a young performers development they will be aware of which situations aggressive behaviour is acceptable and unacceptable. If the reward (pride, prestige, winning) outweighs the punishment (red card, sin bin, penalty, stopping a sure goal) then a performer is willing to break the rules. Thinking positively, SLT’s also recognise that if aggressive behaviour can be learnt; performers can also learn to be non – aggressive.
  • 12. TASK Answer the question below providing a sporting example to illustrate you answer. What effect might a high profile performer acting in an aggressive way have on ensuring young people adopt a healthy and active lifestyle? (5) Consider: How young people imitate their role models. The effect that aggressive behaviour may have on a young person thinking about starting a new sport.