Seminar Proposal Presentation on "Web Based System for of Citation Court Cases",Masters of Technology, Akure
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  • 1. BY OMISORE, OLATUNJI MUMINI CSC/04/3980 AN M.TECH. PROJECT PROPOSAL SUPERVISED BY PROFESSOR O. C. AKINYOKUNDEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE, FEDERAL UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY, AKURE, ONDO-STATE, NIGERIA APRIL, 2012
  • 2. Introduction  Criminal activity continues to be a major concern in contemporary societies. Crime is the commission of an act that violates a law and it is punishable under the law [Ackerman and Murray, 2004].  Law is an official body of rules and regulation that shapes politics and economics of a society and serves as social mediator amongst the people of that society. [Ronald, 1986; Norrie, 2001].  Courtrooms have always been centres for processing information required for the administration of justice [Lucille, 2002]. A court is an official assembly with the gathering of judicial authorities. The primary objective of court is to resolve disputes between two or more parties.  Case citation is the system used to identify the decisions of previous court cases, either in a special series of books (law reports), or in a neutral form, so as to make decisions for new cases.2 5/31/2012
  • 3. Introduction (Contd)  Experts System (ES) is a computer aided system that emulates the decision-making ability of human expert. These systems are designed to solve complex problems by reasoning about knowledge (like Human Experts) and not by following the procedures of a developer (like in conventional programming).  A number of ESs in the domain of medical diagnosis and therapy [Akinyokun et. al., 2009], crime investigation, and court monitoring and citations [Akinyokun 1998a, 2006] have been developed. ESs support the storage and intelligent interactive processing of the knowledge acquired by study and experience of human experts in a domain.  Researchers in the field of ES have attempted to manage uncertainty by applying soft-computing tools. Neural Networks (NN), Fuzzy Logic and Genetic Algorithm (GA) are popular tools in recent times.3 5/31/2012
  • 4. Introduction (Contd)  Fuzzy Logic systems are designed to mimic human in decision making by handling vague information and resolving conflicts. It is a superset of Boolean Logic that handles the concept of partial truth, that is, the truth values between „completely true‟ and „completely false‟.  Fuzzy Logic is a powerful problem solving methodology which allows expression of knowledge with subjective concepts, like „Excellent‟, „Good‟, „Fair‟ and „Poor‟; „High‟, „Medium‟ and „Low‟, mapped into exact numeric ranges [Akinyokun, 2011].4 5/31/2012
  • 5. Motivation for the Research  Crime rate grows exponentially and cannot be wielded. Criminal cases are investigated by security agencies (Police Force), reports gathered are sent to law courts for trial (if needed). A lot of trial cases were carried out poorly and leads to poor monitoring of court cases. The manual way of searching through Law Reports is tedious and time consuming, this causes longer interval between the time a crime is committed and when it is judged.  In [Gwenn, 1997], discussion on how World Wide Web can be used in jurisdiction was presented, this paper addressed the use of cyberspace for personal jurisdictions. Cyberspace presents new and exciting challenges which makes it vulnerable, hence, security of systems running on it becomes issue.  [Akinyokun, 2003], proffered a computer model for the monitoring and citation of court cases. The platform and tools with which the system was developed are deprecated and hence, better result can be achieved with new and more sophisticated tools. • In [Adegoke, 2004], a computer aided system for monitoring and citation of court cases was developed, apart from deprecated tools used, the system is also acquainted with search and load instructions without means of evaluating cited5 cases. 5/31/2012
  • 6. Literature Review 1. [Gwenn, 1997], From the Internet to Court: Excerising Jurisdiction over World Wide Web Communications, Fordham Law Review, Vol. 65, No. 5, Article 8, Pg. 4-25 Motivations for the Research  Transactions initiated over the web are not conducted in a particular location, but rather in the ephemeral world of “Cyberspace.”  Courts have not only been faced with the challenge of deciding whether to apply new jurisdictional rules, but also have encountered difficulties in personal jurisdiction. Objectives of the Research  To monitor the various means and methods of exploring and publishing information on the web.  To examine the appropriate doctrine of web communications in order to improve the conflicting traditional methods of analyzing personal jurisdiction. Method and Materials Used for the Research  Review of related materials on Internet, World Wide Web (WWW), and Personal Jurisdiction.  Analysis of case transactions done over the WWW. These include the Enchanted Florist flower shop.  Overview of services on the Internet was observed to understand how it can effect jurisdictions.6 5/31/2012
  • 7. Literature Review (Contd) Contributions to Knowledge  The paper described personal jurisdiction as the geographical restriction on where a plaintiff may elect to sue a defendant for a particular claim.  The paper established that personal jurisdiction as a major consideration in the adjudication of law. Limitations of the Research  Cyberspace presents new and exciting challenges which makes it vulnerable.  The research did not address the security of the systems to run on the WWW.7 5/31/2012
  • 8. Literature Review (Contd) 2. [Fredrick, 1998], Courtroom Technology from the Judge’s Perspective, Journal of the American Judges Association, Vol. 35, No. 1, Pg. 20-24. Motivations for the Research  Traditional stenographical or analog tape recorder systems are incomparable with digitalization found in computing.  Information in Law Courts can be stored on computer hard disk and backed on up other storage media. Objectives of the Research  To study the effects of courtrooms technology in the citations and monitoring of court cases.  To analyze the efficiency of judges that had employed recent developments in IT.  To cite examples of technology found useful in courtrooms. Method and Materials Used for the Research  Review of previous technology from the ancient time.  Evaluation of courtrooms with and without modern day technology, analysis of the effects of these technology based were made.  Discussion on some technological innovations with relevance in Law Courts was observed:  Document Imaging  Evidence Presentation Systems.8 5/31/2012
  • 9. Literature Review (Contd) Contributions to Knowledge  Technology improved adjudicative accuracy, disposition speed and effects courtroom services.  The research itemized technology that can be of great help and their relevance in legal practice.  The research proved that courtroom technology save more than one-third of adjudication period. Limitations of the Research  Judges are of different perspectives and, adoption of technology without an agreement is unrealistic.  Recent technology did not guarantee a trouble-free court case monitoring services.9 5/31/2012
  • 10. Literature Review (Contd) 3. [Jürgen, 1999], Analogy Making in Legal Reasoning with Neural Networks and Fuzzy Logic, Artificial Intelligence and Law, Vol. 7, Pg. 289-301. Motivations for the Research  Real life problems involve analogy making, generalization; computer models can be developed in line of human reasoning.  Major activities in legal reasoning can be formally interpreted as analogy making. Objectives of the Research  To describe Neural Network (NN) as tool for identifying precedents of immaterial damages.  To present a fuzzy system for determining the required waiting period in road traffic system.  To carry out a case study on how reasoning in legal system is analogous to decision making of NN. Method and Materials Used for the Research  Review of legal reasoning with Neural Network and Fuzzy Logic.  Design and Implementation of a model for human decision making and analogy in courts using NN.10 5/31/2012
  • 11. Literature Review (Contd)  Design of a test model using fuzzy logic to determine the required waiting period after traffic accidents has occurred, the factors considered include: Amount of damage, Expectation level of someone’s arrival, Site of accident, Time of accident, Traffic density. Contributions to Knowledge  A model with which court cases can be judged using Neural Network was presented.  The research justified how soft-computing tools can be selected in modeling expert systems and the criteria to be considered while selecting such tools. Limitations of the Research  The fuzzy concept adopted in this research was implemented on a domain different from legal practice, hence, the author simulated using road traffic and predicted it to work for other domains.11 5/31/2012
  • 12. Literature Review (Contd) 4. [Lucille, 2002], Bold Experiment in the Development of the Public Virtual Courthouse, North Carolina Journal of Law & Technology, Vol. 4, Issue:1, Pg. 51-60. Motivations for the Research  The field of legal practice keeps moving, court case citations are filed electronically with Case Management System, witnesses can make their illustrations virtually.  Emergence of courtroom technology aided substantial exchange and processing of complex information in court. Objectives of the Research  To examine the proposed objectives and procedures for Michigan‟s public virtual courtroom.  To summarize the main barriers facing Michigan‟s VMag 1996 Cyber Courts.  To predict how party participations in Cyber Courts can be promoted. Method and Materials Used for the Research  Review of related existing literatures and the Virtual Magistrate project (VMag, 1996) which was developed with the primary aim of resolving disputes between online users and service providers.  Overview of the VMag Cyber Court was taken to understand the basic outline for new Cyber Court.12 5/31/2012
  • 13. Literature Review (Contd)  Development of an Online Dispute Resolution System using the basic technological tools used for VMag 1996. This system was implemented and tested to monitor cases between 2002 and 2004. Reports of its operation were made to improve on the system for subsequent versions. Contributions to Knowledge  Virtual Cyber Court offers opportunity to study new and emerging technology in courtrooms.  Virtual court enhance vital roles of court, cases can be attended to in a fast and accurate manner. Limitations of the Research  Major cases involves case precedents, vulnerability in cyber space have negative effect on case citation system.  Computer illiteracy will slow down the operation of Cyber Courts.13 5/31/2012
  • 14. Literature Review (Contd) 5. [Akinyokun, 2003], Computer Aided System for Monitoring and Citation of Court Cases in Ondo State. Ondo State Administration of Justice Workshop, Pg. 5-10. Motivations for the Research  Manual monitoring and citation of court cases takes considerable amount of time.  This leads to a long period between the time a case is presented and when it is judged.  Citing cases by lawyer remains tedious as various law reports are browsed before citation. Objectives of the Research  To present a tool that can serve as a partner to the law practitioners in Nigeria.  To develop a computer package that can aid the administration of justice.  To provide tool for self learning of monitoring and citation of court cases by law students. Method and Materials Used for the Research  Review of existing literatures in the field of law, legal practice and legal research.  Live interaction with the Chambers of O. J. Jejelola (Akure), to acquire practical knowledge of the citation of court cases.  Design and development of „CaseLaw‟ software package using Microsoft Access Database Management System and Microsoft Visual Basic 6.0.  Tested and Evaluated the package in a computer environment.14 5/31/2012
  • 15. Literature Review (Contd) Contributions to Knowledge  A computer model with which monitoring and citation of court cases can be administered was designed and developed.  The research shows where attention is needed in the hierarchical structure of court system. Limitations of the Research  The development of the system was based on Microsoft Visual Basic 6.0 which is deprecated; hence, the functional goals of the research can be achieved proficiently with new programming language.  The system can only cite old cases which can guide the judgment of new cases but cannot give judgments on its own.15 5/31/2012
  • 16. Literature Review (Contd) 6. [Adegoke, 2004], Development and Implementation of a Computer-Aided System for Monitoring and Citation of Court Cases, M.Tech. Thesis, Department of Computer Science, Federal University of Technology, Akure. Motivations for the Research  Radical behavior in human increases exponentially and such needs to be corrected.  The processes involved in orthodox way of court system is tedious and usually takes a great period of time.  Citation of cases in courts is done by studying related cases that had been cited in the past, searching for cases takes longer time and leads to justice delayed. Objectives of the Research  To design and develop a computer package that can:  Monitor court cases by the administrators of justice in the Ministry of Justice.  Cite cases in order to assist legal practitioners in carrying out their legal duties.  To minimize time lag between the time a crime is committed and when its judgment is delivered.  To facilitate self learning of court cases and judgment by law students and other legal practitioners. Method and Materials Used for the Research  Reviewed existing relevant literatures in the field of law and justice;16 5/31/2012
  • 17. Literature Review (Contd)  Visitations to some law chambers and attending live court sessions to have the practical knowledge of how case citation is been done.  Development profiling of Law Information System database with relevant data from Oyo state Ministry of Justice.  Development and implementation of a Computer Aided System for monitoring and citing court cases using Windows OS, Microsoft Visual Basic 6.0 and. Contributions to Knowledge  The research Developed a Computer Aided System for monitoring and citing court cases.  The research showed how Information Technology can lessen the efforts of legal practitioners in citation and monitoring of court cases. Limitations of the Research  The platform and tools with which the system was developed are archaic.  The system is acquainted with search and load and cannot justify search results.  The system does not feature a way of evaluating case search results.17 5/31/2012
  • 18. Literature Review (Contd) 7. [Hellyer, 2005], Assessing the Influence of Computer-Assisted Legal Research, Law Library Journal, Vol. 97, No 2, Pg. 285-298 Motivations for the Research  The advent of IT in the administration of Law and Justice lead to controversy and debatable issues among legal practitioners.  Some legal practitioners commended CARL while others welcomed it with skepticism.  Traditional print-based system is tedious, hard to search for information and rigid. Objectives of the Research  To observe the importance of CARL in legal authority citations.  To determine the effects of CALR on the quality and types of legal authority cited in courts. Method and Materials Used for the Research  Comparison of results of Print-Based Research and Computer-Assisted Legal Research.  Differences from the above studies were used to judge and propose the better system.  A study of California Supreme Court opinions between the years 1944-2003 was done to identify the impact of CALR in the administration of Law and Justice.18 5/31/2012
  • 19. Literature Review (Contd) Contributions to Knowledge  Increase in court citations had begun before the era of CALR therefore, CALR is not responsible for the increase in citations.  CALR changes the way legal research is done with positive impact e.g. accuracy.  CALR does not affect courts in the same way it is affecting other parts of the legal profession. Hence, commentators who assert that CALR is reshaping the law are of weak position. CALR does not change the results of legal research nor affects legal reasoning. Limitations of the Research  Full-text searching adopted by CALR involves search word guessing, a wrong search word could lead to improper citation.  There was no provision for mechanism to evaluate the result of searches made by using CALR.19 5/31/2012
  • 20. Literature Review (Contd) 8. [Fajemirokun, 2006], GIS Approach to Crime Mapping and Management in Nigeria was proposed, 23rd Fig Congress, Germany, Vol. 21, No. 5, Pg 423-437. Motivations for the Research  Security remains vital to the development of any society, so it should be monitored.  Crime rate in Nigeria increases and are done with more perfection and sophistication.  Nigerian security agents cannot tackle this problem due to lack of adequate modern technology and sufficient manpower. Objectives of the Research  To design a Road Network Analysis System to assist Nigeria Security Agents.  To create a database of Victoria Island (Nigeria) with profile of characters that constituted crimes in a period of time.  To develop an application for mapping crimes committed in the Victoria Island (Nigeria).  To carry out a detailed analysis of crimes committed in the area of study. Method and Materials Used for the Research  Study of related literatures in area of Crime Detection and Management.  Data Acquisition and grouping into spatial and attribute (non spatial) data. Spatial data includes scanned maps which were digitized while attribute data are information about other characters that makes up the system20 5/31/2012
  • 21. Literature Review (Contd)  Conversion of attribute data to digital format for the purpose of database profiling.  Design, development and analysis of an Information System for mapping and managing crimes in Victoria Island of Lagos State, Nigeria. Contributions to Knowledge  An Expert System for crime detection and management using Global Information System had been presented.  The research showed that GIS departments are vital to Police Force.  The research helps in revealing the number police officers needed in a location. Limitations of the Research  The system is restricted to search and load i.e. cannot make deductions.  Most police stations in the country do not have GIS departments.21 5/31/2012
  • 22. Literature Review (Contd) 9. [Kuchler and Leslie, 2008], How Technological Advances In The Courtroom Are Changing The Way We Litigate, FDCC Journal, Vol. 58, No. 2, Pg. 241-255. Motivations for the Research  Computer know-how in the modern world has gone beyond the exclusive provenance of teenagers and now on high-tech displays in all areas of litigation.  The pilot program launched in the Administrative Office of the United States Courts funded advanced technology which includes monitors, document cameras, video- conferencing capabilities, and Internet connections that facilitated US courtrooms.  The proliferation of technology in the courtroom does not only affect the processes of court trials but, also changes the way law is been practiced. Objectives of the Research  To highlight the advantages and disadvantages of the Courtroom technology.  To explore ways in which these technology are transforming the nature of litigation in recent time. Method and Materials Used for the Research  The author studied key modern technology such as: Evidence Presentation System, Video- Conferencing, Electronic Display Boards, Real Time Transcription that had been found useful in the field of legal practice in recent time.22 5/31/2012
  • 23. Literature Review (Contd)  The author took a broad overview of related literatures in the field of legal research to analyze the implications of courtroom technology on legal research and practices.  The pilot program launched by the United States‟ courts was studied to verify if there are differences in legal practices of United States before and after technology were introduced to courtrooms. Contributions to Knowledge  Technology in courtrooms had brought about change in the way of litigation and should not be taken as a substitute rather as supplement.  The paper revealed how practical implications of technology in courtrooms can be addressed. Limitations of the Research  The paper did not demonstrate the pilot program (research) with a real life approach and hence cannot be used as a metric in measuring the impact of technological advancement in courtrooms.23 5/31/2012
  • 24. Literature Review (Contd) 10. [Akhihiero, 2009], Legal Research in a Digital Age, Journal of Nigerian Bar Association, Vol. 4, No. 1, Pg. 9-30. Motivations for the Research  Traditional approach of wading through a host of books and other physical documents is fraught and disadvantageous.  Trend in IT had enabled digital storage with low cost, enhancement and rapid transmission of data, and enhances sophisticated retrieval and processing of information. Objectives of the Research  To articulate the way forward for progressive legal practitioners in the face of modern challenges in digital age.  To highlight some salient developments in IT that can back-up the modern trends of technology in legal research and practices. Method and Materials Used for the Research  Review of Materials on Legal Software, Information Technology and Law, Internet, and Internet Technology.  Methods adopted include: Identification of problem(s), Analysis of the facts observed from the problem(s) identified, Searching for necessary points to make decision upon (result) and Application and communication of the results.24 5/31/2012
  • 25. Literature Review (Contd) Contributions to Knowledge  The paper presented how a paradigm shift from the manual mode of legal research to electronic method can be achieved with the emergence of computers, computer accessories and computer networks.  The level of literacy in a society should be dependent on computer literacy of the inhabitants of that society and not only their ability to read and write. Limitations of the Research  The level of computer literacy is very low in the society. Most lawyers and judges are not Internet literate.  Computer applications are not supposed to be taken as substitute to human, if any of the authoring object of the system (network) fails, the legal practitioner becomes redundant.25 5/31/2012
  • 26. Literature Review (Contd) 11. [Timothy et. al., 2011], Increasing Court Appearance Rates and Other Benefits of Live-Caller Telephone Court Date Reminders, Journal of American Judges Association, Vol. 36, No. 4, Pg. 1-16. Motivations for the Research  Inadequate knowledge in general procedures of fairness and courts‟ proceedings reduces Court Appearance Rates and increases Failure to Appear (FTA).  High rates of FTA in courts leads inadequacy in law and justice. Objectives of the Research  To proffer solution to high FTAs and FTA warrants.  To develop a live-call telephone system with a multifaceted approach.  To compare live-call telephone system and automated-call telephone system and proffer the better of them. Method and Materials Used for the Research  Extensive review of related literatures and study of Automated-call telephone system.  Design and development of a live-call telephone with two-phase implementation.  Implementation and test of the model developed.26 5/31/2012
  • 27. Literature Review (Contd) Contributions to Knowledge  A live-call telephone system that can pre-inform both defendants and courts of their court dates was designed and developed.  The research showed that calling a defendant before the court date gives room for the acquisition of necessary knowledge needed during a court session. Limitations of the Research  The system was developed using Microsoft Excel as the back-end. File-based systems do not allow needed data to be retrieved in a convenient and efficient manner, hence causes:  Data isolation;  Integrity problems;  Concurrent-access anomalies; and  Security problems.27 5/31/2012
  • 28. Research Objectives  The specific objectives of the research are to:  Develop a web Based System for citation of court cases.  Carry out a case study of Ondo State High Court, Akure.28 5/31/2012
  • 29. Research Method and Materials  To achieve the objectives stated above, the following sequence of activities will be undertaken:  An extensive review of relevant literatures in administration of law and justice shall be done, study of existing Law Information System will also be observed with emphasis on deducting why, which and how cases are judged.  A detailed study and collection of Law Reports from Ondo state High Court will be observed while data to be used for case study will be from O. J. Jejelola Chamber, Akure.  A database of court case citations will be developed using MySQL Database Management System and will be profiled with the data gotten above.  A Web Based System for the citation of court case will be designed and developed. The system will make use of the database developed above.29 5/31/2012
  • 30. Research Method and Materials (Contd)  Citation of court case will be done by measuring the similarities between a new case and list of cases found in the database. This will be achieved by measuring the Fuzzy Near Compactness in between two cases. This is given as: Where 𝑥 𝐴 , 𝑥 𝐵 represents the Cumulative Fact Functional Values (CFFV) of cases A and B. CFFV of a case A is given as:  The tools to be used for the design and development of the Web Based System are:  HTML (Hyper-Text Markup Language) Scripts and Java Scripts for the front-tier;  PHP (Hypertext Preprocessor or Personal Home Page) Scripts for interpretation at the middle-tier;  MySQL (My Structured Query Language) Database Management System for managing the data house of the system i.e. serving as the back-tier;  The minimum hardware requirements needed by a computer system to run the web based system are:  Pentium IV processor with a speed of 1 GHz, 521 MB RAM and 20 GB Hard Disk Space;  Windows XP (or Later) Operating System; and  Internet Connection or WAMP Suite Installed, Mozilla Firefox or any other web browser30 5/31/2012
  • 31. Expected Contribution to Knowledge  The research is expected to provide a Web Based System for Citation of court cases with capability to reduce or eliminate the problems associated with some of the existing systems.31 5/31/2012
  • 32. References Adegoke M. A. (2004), “Development and Implementation of a Computer-Aided System for Monitoring and Citation of Court Cases”, Master Thesis, Computer Science, Federal University of Technology, Akure. Akhihiero A. P. (2009), “Legal Research in a Digital Age”, Nigeria Bar Association, Nigeria Law Guru, Vol 4, No 1, Pg. 9-30, 24th June, 2009. Akinyokun O. C. (1988a), “A Framework for Computer Aided Investigation of Crime in Developing Countries”, International Journal of Information technology for Development, Published by the Oxford University Press, UK, Vol. 3, No.2 Pages 101-109. Akinyokun O. C. (2003), “Computer Aided System for Monitoring And Citation of Court Cases”, Ondo State Administration of Justice Workshop, Ondo State Ministry of Justice, (Nigeria). Akinyokun O. C., (2006), “Computer Aided System for Monitoring and Citation of Court Cases”, Law and Practice Journal; Published by the Nigerian Law School, Bwari, Abuja, Nigeria. Akinyokun O. C. and Olabode O. (2008), “Framework for Client-Server Distributed Database System for Population Census”, the Pacific Journal of Science and Technology, Vol. 9, No. 2 Nov. 2008, http://www.akamaiuniversity.us/PJST.htm32 5/31/2012
  • 33. References (Contd) Akinyokun O. C. (2011), “ICT and Intelligence Gathering in Internal Security Operations: challenges and prospects”, A Seminar on ICT and National Security, Abuja. Fajemirokun F. O., (2006), “A GIS Approach to Crime Mapping and Management in Nigeria”, Shaping the Change, 23rd Fig Congress, Munich, Germany, Vol. 21, No. 5, Pg 423-437 Fredric I. L., (1998), “Courtroom Technology from the Judge’s Perspective”, Journal of the American Judges Association, American Judges Association Vol. 35, No. 1, pages 20-24. Gar Yein, Marco Velicogna and Cristina Dallara (2008), “Monitoring and Evaluation of Court System”, A Comparative Study Report presented by European Commission for the Efficiency of Justice (CEPEJ) at their 8th meeting, Pg. 34-37. Gwenn M. K. (1997), "From the Internet to Court: Excerising Jurisdiction over World Wide Web Communications”, Fordham Law Review, Vol. 65, No. 5, Article 8, Pg. 4-25 Hellyer Paul (2005), “Assessing the Influence of Computer-Assisted Legal Research”, Law Library Journal, San Jose University, Vol. 97, No 2, Pg. 285-298 Jürgen Hollatz (1999), “Analogy Making in Legal Reasoning with Neural Networks and Fuzzy Logic”, Artificial Intelligence and Law, Vol. 7, pages 289-301, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Netherlands.33 5/31/2012
  • 34. References (Contd) Kuchler D. D. & Leslie C. O (2008), “How Technological Advances In The Courtroom Are Changing The Way We Litigate”, Federation of Defense And Corporate Counsel Journal, FDCC Quarterly, Vol. 58, No. 2, Pg. 241-255 Lucille M. P. (2002), “Michigan Cyber Court - Bold Experiment in the Development of the First Public Virtual Courthouse”, North Carolina Journal of Law & Technology, University of Michigan, Vol. 4, Issue:1, Pg: 51-60. Madan B. L. (2003), “Case Management and Court Administration”, Constitution of India (1954), Supreme Court of India, Norrie A, “Crime Reason and History”, Cambridge University Press, London, 2001, pages 199-210. Ronald Dworkin (1986), “Laws Empire”, Pg. 44-86. Timothy R. S., Michael R. J. and Dorian M. W. (2011), “Increasing Court Appearance Rates and Other Benefits of Live-Caller Telephone Court Date Reminders”, Journal of the American Judges Association, American Judges Association, Pg. 1-16.34 5/31/2012
  • 35. Acknowledgments  First, I thank God, for giving me life, good health and spirit to pursue knowledge used in coming up with this proposal, I testify to His existence in full fledge.  I wish to express my profound appreciation to my supervisor and mentor, Professor O. C. Akinyokun for the patience, guidance and technical support given to me during the conduct of gathering knowledge for this proposal.  Also, My unlimited and reflective gratitude goes to Professor S. O. Falaki, Professor O. S. Adewale, Dr. B. K. Alese, Dr. O. Olabode, Dr. A. O. Adetunmbi, Dr. (Mrs.) B. Ojokoh, Dr. O. O. Obe, Dr. G. B. Iwasokun, and other staffs of the Computer Science Department, Federal University of Technology, Akure, who had one way or the other contributed to my exposure in the field of computing.  Finally, my sincere appreciation goes to the members of my family for their interest in my academic pursuits, especially my parents: Alhaji & Mrs. Omisore and as well as my siblings: Ajibola, Omotolani, Olatidayo, Oluwaseun and Oluwasina. May Allah in His infinite Mercy continue to provide, guide and guard you all.  THANK YOU ALL35 5/31/2012