DATA Table 1–Baseline Blood Pressure Systolic pressure Diastolic pressure Mean arterial pressure (mm Hg) (mm Hg) (mm Hg) 121 64 78 Table 2–Blood Pressure Response to Cold Systolic pressure Diastolic pressure Mean arterial pressure (mm Hg) (mm Hg) (mm Hg) 137 68 83 Table 3 Condition Heart rate Time (bpm) (s) Resting heart rate 72.01 Maximum heart rate 80.32 60.07 Rebound heart rate 72.01 20 secondsData Analysis1. Describe the trends that occurred in the systolic pressure, diastolic pressure, mean arterialpressure, and heart rate with cold stimulus. How might these responses be useful in a “fight orflight” situation?When the cold stimulus was added the systolic pressure, diastolic pressure, mean arterialpressure, and heart rate went up. In addition to the emotional discomfort we feel when faced witha stressful situation or introduced to an uncomfortable stimulus, our bodies react by releasingstress hormones (adrenaline and cortisol) into the blood. These hormones prepare the body forthe "fight or flight response" by increasing the heart rate and blood pressure.
2. As a vital sign, blood pressure is an indicator of general health. A high blood pressure(140/90 or higher) increases the risk of cardiovascular disease and strokes. Collect the systolicand diastolic pressures for the class and calculate the average for each. Rate the class averageblood pressure using the follow scale: Blood Pressure Category 140/90 or higher High 120–139/80–89 Pre-hypertension 119/79 or below Normal114/69 - on average our class’s blood pressure is normal3. How long after immersion did your heart rate reach its maximum value? Explain thephysiologic mechanism that led to this change in heart rate.After about 20 seconds of submerging her foot into the ice water, Anna Lee’s heart rate reachedits maximum value of 80.32 bpm. The physiologic mechanism that led to this change in heartrate was when her foot was submerged into the water there was decrease circulation to her foot,which caused stress.4. Describe the changes in heart rate that occurred after the maximum value. How can youexplain the minimum heart rate value? How would you explain the heart rate variations seen inthe remainder of the experiment?After Anna Lee’s foot was submerged into the ice water her heart rate reached its maximum at20 seconds. Her heart rate when resting, before submerging her foot, was 72.01 bpm. Thiswould explain why 20 seconds after reaching her maximum heart rate it returned to 72.01 bpm.5. How long after the maximum heart rate did it take to arrive at your rebound heart rate? Whatcan you say about the relative speed of physiologic response to a stimulus vs. the speed ofmechanisms that are designed to maintain homeostasis?6. If the heart rate is too slow there is inadequate blood pressure to maintain perfusion to thebrain. This can lead to loss of consciousness (fainting). Keeping in mind the autonomic nervoussystem responses that you observed in this experiment, explain the sequence of events thatresults in a severely frightened person fainting.