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# Experiment 1 and 2

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### Experiment 1 and 2

1. 1. DATA Table 1–Baseline Blood Pressure Systolic pressure Diastolic pressure Mean arterial pressure (mm Hg) (mm Hg) (mm Hg) 121 64 78 Table 2–Blood Pressure Response to Cold Systolic pressure Diastolic pressure Mean arterial pressure (mm Hg) (mm Hg) (mm Hg) 137 68 83 Table 3 Condition Heart rate Time (bpm) (s) Resting heart rate 72.01 Maximum heart rate 80.32 60.07 Rebound heart rate 72.01 20 secondsData Analysis1. Describe the trends that occurred in the systolic pressure, diastolic pressure, mean arterialpressure, and heart rate with cold stimulus. How might these responses be useful in a “fight orflight” situation?When the cold stimulus was added the systolic pressure, diastolic pressure, mean arterialpressure, and heart rate went up. In addition to the emotional discomfort we feel when faced witha stressful situation or introduced to an uncomfortable stimulus, our bodies react by releasingstress hormones (adrenaline and cortisol) into the blood. These hormones prepare the body forthe "fight or flight response" by increasing the heart rate and blood pressure.
2. 2. 2. As a vital sign, blood pressure is an indicator of general health. A high blood pressure(140/90 or higher) increases the risk of cardiovascular disease and strokes. Collect the systolicand diastolic pressures for the class and calculate the average for each. Rate the class averageblood pressure using the follow scale: Blood Pressure Category 140/90 or higher High 120–139/80–89 Pre-hypertension 119/79 or below Normal114/69 - on average our class’s blood pressure is normal3. How long after immersion did your heart rate reach its maximum value? Explain thephysiologic mechanism that led to this change in heart rate.After about 20 seconds of submerging her foot into the ice water, Anna Lee’s heart rate reachedits maximum value of 80.32 bpm. The physiologic mechanism that led to this change in heartrate was when her foot was submerged into the water there was decrease circulation to her foot,which caused stress.4. Describe the changes in heart rate that occurred after the maximum value. How can youexplain the minimum heart rate value? How would you explain the heart rate variations seen inthe remainder of the experiment?After Anna Lee’s foot was submerged into the ice water her heart rate reached its maximum at20 seconds. Her heart rate when resting, before submerging her foot, was 72.01 bpm. Thiswould explain why 20 seconds after reaching her maximum heart rate it returned to 72.01 bpm.5. How long after the maximum heart rate did it take to arrive at your rebound heart rate? Whatcan you say about the relative speed of physiologic response to a stimulus vs. the speed ofmechanisms that are designed to maintain homeostasis?After reaching the maximum heart rate was reached it took about 20 seconds to arrive at therebound heart rate. The speed of a physiologic response to a stimulus is the heart rateincreasing during exercise or stress. In this case its the heart rates reaction to cold water. Thisreaction is very quick compared to the speed of mechanisms returning the heart rate back tonormal which is slower.6. If the heart rate is too slow there is inadequate blood pressure to maintain perfusion to the
3. 3. brain. This can lead to loss of consciousness (fainting). Keeping in mind the autonomic nervoussystem responses that you observed in this experiment, explain the sequence of events thatresults in a severely frightened person fainting.When becoming frightened your autonomic nervous system will stimulate your blood vessels todilate or expand to get more blood and oxygen flowing through the body. Because all the vesselsare dilating it can lower the blood pressure throughout the circulatory system. If the pressure islow enough your brain will momentarily shut down and cause you to pass out.DATA: Table 1–Baseline Blood Pressure Systolic pressure Diastolic pressure Mean arterial pressure Pulse (mm Hg) (mm Hg) (mm Hg) (bpm) 119 65 75 76 Table 2–Blood Pressure After Exercise Systolic pressure Diastolic pressure Mean arterial pressure Pulse (mm Hg) (mm Hg) (mm Hg) (bpm) 137 73 94 115 Table 3–Heart Rate ConditionResting heart rate (bpm) 97.01Maximum heart rate (bpm) 154.8Recovery time (s) 35DATA ANALYSIS1. Describe the trends that occurred in the systolic pressure, diastolic pressure, mean arterial
4. 4. pressure and pulse with exercise. Assume that the stroke volume increased from 75 mL/beat to100 mL/beat. Use this information and the change in pulse with exercise to calculate the changein cardiac output (stroke volume × heart rate) that occurred per minute.-- The systolic pressure was higher than the diastolic pressure, mean arterial pressure,and pulse. The diastolic pressure and mean arterial pressure was around the same numbers.But the pulse became higher that it originally was on the baseline.The change in cardiac output is 5,800.2. Pulse pressure is the difference between systolic pressure (peak pressure during activecontraction of the ventricles) and diastolic pressure (the pressure that is maintained even whilethe left ventricle is relaxing). Describe the change in pulse pressure seen with exercise. Whichcomponent of the blood pressure is most responsible for this change?- your pulse pressure rises during exercise because your heart rate increases and you begin tobreath harder. Cardiology is the component of the blood pressure that is the most responsiblefor the change of someone’s pulse pressure with exercise.3. A change in pulse pressure can be seen in a variety of medical conditions. What would youexpect to happen to the pulse pressure in the following examples? (a) In atherosclerosis there is a hardening of the arterial walls. - your pulse pressure widens. (b) A damaged aortic valve does not seal properly and allows blood to flow back into theventricle during diastole.- Pulse pressure begins to fall when there is aortic valve insufficiency.4. Normal resting heart rates range from 55−100 beats per minute. What was your/thesubject’s resting heart rate? How much did your/the subject’s heart rate increase above restingrate with exercise? What percent increase was this?- The subjects resting heart rate was 76 bpm. The subjects heart rate increased by 39 bpmwith exercise. The heart rate increased by 51%.5. How does your/the subject’s maximum heart rate compare with other students in yourgroup/class? Is this what you expected?
5. 5. Other students heart rates were pretty close to our subjects heart rate. I expected them tobe about the same because all the subjects are the same age and were testing heart rateunder the same conditions.6. Recovery time has been shown to correlate with degree of physical fitness. How doesyour/the subject’s recovery rate compare to that of your classmates? Is this what you expected?-Our subjects’ recovery rate was slightly shorter than other groups because our subject is asoftball player; therefor she is in better shape. This is the result that I expected because sheworks out more often than the subject in other groups.7. Congestive heart failure is a condition in which the strength of contraction with each beatmay be significantly reduced. For example, the ventricle may pump only half the usual volume ofblood with each beat. Would you expect a person with congestive heart failure to have a faster orslower heart rate at rest? With exercise?-I would expect someone with congestive heart failure to have a faster heart rate both at rest andwhen exercising, because the muscle is not as powerful so the heart will have to pump morequickly to compensate for the loss in pressure.8. Medications are available which can slow the heart or speed it up. If a patient complains offeeling poorly and has a heart rate of 120 beats per minute, should you administer a medicine toslow the rate?-Yes, you should attempt to slow the patients’ heart rate, because a normal heart rate should bebetween 50 and 100 at rest and the patients heart rate is at 120.