Probiotic weaning food by monika keshavrao tambakhe
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Probiotic weaning food by monika keshavrao tambakhe

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Development of nutritional weaning food

Development of nutritional weaning food

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  • 1. -:Presented by :- Monika K. Tambakhe (Email id : Dr. P.A. Pawar Sir Food Technology University Department of Chemical Technology, Sant Gadge Baba Amravati University , Amravati. PROBIOTICS IN WEANING FOOD
  • 2. INTRODUCTION OF WEANING FOOD  When the baby attains 4 – 6 months of age, breast milk is no longer sufficient to meet its nutritional requirements. It needs more calories and other nutrients as supplement to milk till it is ready to eat fully the adult foods. This is weaning stage. The semisolid foods given to the child at this stage are generally called weaning foods.  Definitions of weaning vary from country to country and generally include “introduction of food other than mother‟s milk”, “complete discontinuation of breast-feeding” or “introduction of solids into the diet”.
  • 3.  According to Dorland‟s Medicinal Dictionary ,”to wean is to cause an infant from taking food by sucking and to take it in the ordinary way.” INTRODUCTION OF WEANING FOOD
  • 4. IMPORTANCE OF WEANING FOOD  Human milk is universally regarded as an ideal food for the feeding of infants or children below one year of age. Yet, during the various causes, an infant may not derive adequate nutrition from the mother and it may become necessary to feed the infant either wholly or partly with milk from other sources.  Unless a substitute is found from other sources, malnutrition may set in damage to child‟s health with consequences, which may prove fatal.
  • 5.  The weaning period in a child‟s life is a very important stage. Many difficulties, which arise at later stages, have their origin in this stage. IMPORTANCE OF WEANING FOOD Average Composition of Milk of Different Species Species Water Fat Protein Lactose SNF Casein Human 86.4 4.6 1.2 6.9 9.0 0.03 Cow 86.7 4.5 3.4 4.9 8.8 0.13 Buffalo 83.7 6.5 3.8 5.1 9.8 0.20 Goat 86.8 4.5 3.3 4.4 8.7 0.13 Sheep 81.6 7.5 5.6 6.4 10.0 0.20
  • 6. Age Group Body Weight (Kg.) Daily Energy Need (Kcal) Daily Protein Need Birth to 6 months 3 – 7 400 – 800 7 – 13 6 months to 1 year 7 – 9 800 – 900 13 – 14 1 to 3 years 9 – 13 1200 – 1300 22 4 to 6 years 15 – 17 1500 – 1700 29 7 to 9 years 18 – 21 1800 – 2100 36 10 to 12 years 23 – 28 2100 – 2400 43 IMPORTANCE OF WEANING FOOD Calorie and Protein Requirements for Children
  • 7. DESIRABLE QUALITIES FOR WEANIN FOODS The characteristics needed in a weaning food are - 1. The food should be rich in calorie and adequate in protein, vitamins and minerals. 2. The protein should be of high biological value. 3. The food when stirred up with cold/warm water or milk should form a slurry or semisolid mass of soft consistency enabling the child to swallow it easily. 4. The food prepared as above should have low dietary bulk or viscosity.
  • 8. 5. As far as possible, the food should be precooked and predigested or processed in such a way, that it needs minimum preparations prior to feeding and is easily digested by the child. 6. The food should be free from anti-nutritional factors (substances that hinder the digestibility or are otherwise harmful, such as enzyme inhibitors, gas producing factors and toxic components). 7. The indigestible fibre content of food should be low. DESIRABLE QUALITIES FOR WEANIN FOODS
  • 9. 8. It is advisable not to add artificial colours and flavours to weaning foods. 9. As far as possible, the composition of the food must be as per the guidelines laid down and standards recommended by the Indian Standards Institution (ISI) and other competent agencies. DESIRABLE QUALITIES FOR WEANIN FOODS
  • 10. MODERN TECHNOLOGIES FOR PREPARATION OF WEANING FOODS A) Spray Drying: B) Roller Drying: C) Extrusion cooking Preparation of milk based weaning food is generally carried out by spray drying method. The successive steps are – A)Spray Drying:
  • 11. Milk Reception and Pretreatment Standardization Preheating Concentration Homogenization Chilling and Temporary Storage Fortification Packing Amino acids, minerals and vitamins Spray Drying
  • 12. B)Roller Drying: Preparation of weaning foods by roller drying method is extensively practiced throughout the world. Balamul, Farex, Cerelac and Nestum, proprietary weaning foods marketed in India are prepared by this technique.
  • 13. Flowchart Of Roller Drying Process For Production Of Weaning Food Cereal flour Pulse flour Milk solids Sugar minerals Blending Slurry Homogenization Roller drying Grinding Mixing Weaning foodPackaging in airtight tins Storage Vitamins Water Probiotics
  • 14. The process has many advantages: 1. It allows for the use of a wide range of raw materials. 2.The fibre content of the food can be regulated by using polished or refined grains. 3. The finished product is fully precooked and hence needs no separate cooking prior to feeding. 4. The product mixes well when stirred up with water or milk and becomes a soft mass. 5.The heat treatment generally reduces some of the anti-nutritional factors and improves digestibility. 6. The process permits mixing of additional desirable nutritious ingredients such as enzymes, sugars and flavour after roller drying. Roller Drying Process
  • 15. Roller Drying Process The process has disadvantages - 1. The product is fluffy and is very light in weight. Therefore, it needs rather a large package 2. The product is somewhat hygroscopic. Hence it needs to be packed in tins or other packaging materials that protect it from entry of moisture. Such packaging is expensive and increases the cost of the product. 3. The product absorbs a large quantity of water when prepared for feeding, and becomes bulky.
  • 16. 4. The severe heat treatment given to the ingredients during roller drying slightly reduces the nutritional quality of the food proteins as lysine, the nutritionally important components binds with sugars and become unavailable. 5. Moreover, the process involves use of sophisticated and expensive machinery requiring high capital investment.
  • 17. An extrusion cooker is a combination of a pump and heat exchanger that simultaneously transports, mixes, cooks, cuts, stretches and shapes the material under high pressure and temperature. Extrusion cooker consists of one or two screws, which rotate in a tightly fitting barrel with a disc having provision to it a die of desired shape at the outlet. Schematic diagram of an extrusion cooker is as follows: C) Extrusion Cooking
  • 18. A – Feed D – Steam Injection B – Steam Injection E – Plate with Outlet hole C – Water Injection F – Steam Jacket Extrusion Cooker
  • 19. Cereal Flour Pulse Flour Milk, sugar, minerals Blending Moistening Grinding Mixing Vitamins Weaning food Water Extrusion Cooking
  • 20. TRADITIONAL TECHNOLOGIES FOR PREPARATION OF WEANING FOODS Malting of Cereals and Legumes: Malting is one of the traditional methods of food processing. The process of malting is simple and has many technological and nutritional advantages for weaning foods preparation. Process of malting consists of following operations– 1.Cleaning and Grading: 2. Steeping: 3. Germination: 4. Drying: 5. De-vegetation: 6. Kilning:
  • 21. Steeping tank
  • 22. Flowchart For Malting Of Cereals And Legumes
  • 23. Vaccum Ovening This method is useful in preparation of brown malted weaning food from cereals and legumes. It involves following operations –
  • 24. Flowchart For Maize Cowpea Weaning Blend Using Traditional Lactic Acid Fermentation
  • 25. Banana Based Weaning Food A special variety of banana is used for this purpose. Mashed and cooked banana pulp is mixed with rice and given to the child. Instead, if banana, that is just ripe or nearing ripeness is peeled and the pulp is sliced, cooked in thin rice gruel, dried and powdered. The banana flour may be mixed with processed cereal (malted, popped, expanded, flaked) and legume (roasted, popped) flours as indicated in figure, to prepare the weaning food formulations
  • 26. Banana Peeling Slicing Boiling Drying Grinding Flour Blending Weaning food Roasted green gram dhal flour 2 parts Popped Bengal gram dhal flour 1 parts Processed cereal (malted, flaked, popped, roasted) flour Thin rice slurry Banana Based Weaning Food
  • 27. Popped Weaning Food Popping is a very simple process. Basically it is a dry process. It can be applied to a wide range of cereals. The process does not require sophisticated equipment. Popped products possesses agreeable and pleasant aroma. Typical flow sheet for preparing popped weaning food from Barley and cowpea is as shown below.
  • 28. cowpea
  • 29. Rice Flakes Based Weaning Food Rice flakes are regularly used as snack food in rice growing areas in India. Flakes are precooked and ready to eat products and are an ideal raw material for preparation of weaning food formulations. This process is one of the easiest ways to make weaning foods at home. Flow sheet for preparing Rice flakes based weaning food as shown below.
  • 30. ADDITIVES USED IN COMMERCIAL WEANING FOODS Infants are often considered a special case in terms of the use of food additives. The infant‟s intestine is more permeable than that of an adult and, in addition, the detoxicating mechanism in the liver may not be fully developed at weaning. Some regulatory authorities permit the general use of an additive but prohibit its use in foods for infants. Colouring is not permitted for use in weaning foods by UK legislation. The following are the main categories of additives used in weaning foods.
  • 31. 1. Acidity Regulations: 2. Antioxidants: 3. Emulsifiers: 4. Flavorings: 5.Gelling Agents: 6. Modified Starches: 7. Preservatives: 8. Raising Agents: 9. Stabilizers: 10. Thickeners: ADDITIVES USED IN COMMERCIAL WEANING FOODS
  • 32. GUIDELINES FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF PROCESSED AND PACKAGED WEANING FOOD A possible sequence of guideline would be the following: 1. Carry out dietary surveys to determine the kind of foods consumed, the amount ingested, the frequency of consumption, as well as the general characteristics of the diet in terms of its major components and their availability from agricultural point of view. 2. Attention in the previous guideline should be given to the diet consumed by the specific population group where the food in question is needed. 3. Information is required so the reasons for the dietary practices of the population in relation to food patterns.
  • 33. 4. Knowledge is necessary about the food preparation processes used at home level. 5. Equally important is understanding of the function of foods in the diet, the flavour preferences, texture and other factors important in its acceptance. 6. It is also of importance to determine the nutritional quality of the diet from the chemical and biological point of view. 7. Attention must also be given to the cost of the food in relation to what is expected from it, i.e. whether to feel full, to obtain pleasure, to provide strength, or for socio-economic reasons. 8. Special attention should be given, particularly in rural areas to the sanitary conditions around and in the house and during preparation. Water suppliers must receive particular emphasis.
  • 34. Guidelines for the Development of Process and Packaged Weaning Food
  • 35. RECOMMENDED STANDARDS FOR WEANING FOODS The cereal based infant food shall be in the form of powder, small granules or flakes, free from lumps and shall be uniform in appearance. It shall be free from added flavours and added colours. It shall not contain any added fat other than the fat derived from materials used in the preparation of the product. It shall be free from any material and bacteria, which are harmful to human health. The flavour and odour of the complementary cereal based infant food in the powder form or when reconstituted with water shall be fresh and sweet. It shall not have a rancid taste or a musty odour.
  • 36. The processed cereals weaning foods and the milk cereal based weaning foods shall comply with the requirements in the following tables. Requirements for processed cereal weaning foods are as shown in the following Table
  • 37. Compositional Specifications for Milk Cereal based Weaning Foods
  • 38. Probiotic History And Definition There is evidence from wall carvings that cultured milk products were made at least 4500 years ago.  In more recent times an early reference to the use of microorganisms for a specific medical condition was proposed by Doderlein (1892), in which year he proposed to treat vaginal infections with lactobacilli.  In 1900 Henry Tissier at the Pasteur Institute isolated a Bifidobacterium from a breast-fed infant.  In 1907 the use of a specific class of microorganisms to benefit human health was introduced to the general public by the Nobel Prize winner Elie Metchnikoff.
  • 39.  In 1911 Douglas published The Bacillus of Long Life, which supported the concept of human longevity and the consumption of fermented milk.  In 1917 Alfred Nissle isolated an Escherichia coli that he used to treat acute intestinal diseases such as salmonellosis and shigellosis, with a significant success rate.  In 1935, Retteger at Yale University proposed that Lactobacillus acidophilus would be an appropriate species to use for human clinical trials .  Parker (1974) described probiotics as “organisms and substances, which contribute to intestinal microbial balance”.
  • 40. Evolution in definition of probiotics
  • 41. Groups Of Probiotic And Their Role Lactobacillae Bifidobacterium
  • 42. Lactobacillae are located throughout the digestive tract but are especially abundant in the small intestine. Some of the main human varieties are: o Lactobacillus acidophilus, o Lactobacillus rhamnosus, o Lactobacillus plantarum, o Lactobacillus brevis o Lactobacillus salivarius. Cillae
  • 43. Bifidobacteria are located in the entire digestive tract but are especially abundant in the large intestine. The system‟s first inhabitants, these species evolve according to age, diminishing progressively towards the end of life. Some of the main varieties are: o Bifidobacterium breve, o Bifidobacterium infantis and o Bifidobacterium longum in children, o Bifidobacterium bifidum and o Bifidobacterium longum
  • 44. Criteria Of Probiotic A successful probiotic agent must fulfill the following criteria: 1. It must be of human source and non-pathogenic. 2. It must be resistant to the gastric, bile, and pancreatic digestion. 3. It must be able to adhere and colonize the enterocytes. 4. It must be able to remain metabolically active once it reaches the gastrointestinal tract. 5. It must be able to nullify the effect of disease causing (pathogenic) bacteria. 6. It must balance PH levels in the colon. 7. It must have favorable immune modulation properties. 8. It must have the ability to influence metabolic activities.
  • 45. Sources Of Probiotics Probiotics are found in fermented food e.g., yogurt, dairy drinks, and kefir. There are other fermented foods that are good natural sources of probiotics like aged cheese, beer, kimchi, fermented soy product (miso, temph, tamari, and shoyu), pickled ginger, sauerkraut, etc.
  • 46. The probiotics in yogurt include Lactobacillus bulgaricus, L. acidophilus, S. thermophiles, and Bifidobacteria. Kefir is a creamy dairy drink similar to yogurt. It contains probiotics not usually found in yogurt, such as Lactobacillus Caucasus. Cottage cheese also contains Bifidobacterium lactis and L. acidophilus. Buttermilk is often cultured with the probiotic Streptococcus lactis.
  • 47. Beer, bread, cider, wine, malt beverages, sour dough bread, fruit skin (especially grapes, plumbs), grape juice, and yeast extracts are the good sources of probiotic yeasts.
  • 48. 1) NOW 8 Billion Acidophilus & Bifidus NOW 8 Billion works within the digestive tract to aid in supporting healthy gastrointestinal functions. This product is safe to use for adults and children alike, and is an excellent dietary supplement that can be highly beneficial in the promotion of healthy digestive activity. Serving Size: 90 Capsules Price: $26.99 $20.99
  • 49. 2) Top Secret Nutrition Digestive Enzymes Digestive Enzymes from TOP SECRET NUTRITION is one of the utmost pleasures in life made easy. It is the ultimate blend to make the food you consume more accessible to the body and support healthy bacterial growth in the intestines. Serving Size: 60 V caps Price: $17.99 $9.91
  • 50. 3) NOW Gr8-Dophilus NOW Gr8-Dophilus is a blend of 8 diverse species of beneficial bacteria intended to support gastrointestinal health and immune system function. FOS is likewise involved in this product to help in contributing healthy growth of acidophilus and bifidus organisms. 4) Nature’s Secret Digestive Bliss Nature‟s Secret Digestive Bliss Probiotic syndicates an exclusive mixture of Lactobacillus and other welcoming bacterial organisms. A vigorous digestive tract contains a wide variety of Lactobacillus bacteria, which it must maintain in proper balance for overall health. Serving Size: 17.6 Oz Price: $34.99 $22.70
  • 51. 5) Garden Greens Essential Greens Garden Greens Essential Greens blends ten green super foods including aloe vera gel, Hawaiian blue-green algae, chlorella, barley greens, wheat grass, green tea, prebiotic fibers and plant based enzymes. Essential Greens also comes packed with 14 vegetable extracts that include carrots, tomato, kale and spinach. Serving Size: 90 Vcaps Price: $17.99 $9.91
  • 52. 6)NOW Optimal Digestive System NOW Optimum Digestive System is manufactured with a mixture of non-GMO fungal-derived enzymes that will help in the digestion of most foods, including beans and cruciferous vegetables. Serving Size: 90 Vcaps Price: $17.99 $9.91
  • 53. 7) Country Life Betaine Hydrochloride Country Life‟s Betaine is a multipurpose vitamin that is utilized by our bodies for a variety of physiological purposes. Betaine‟s main resolution in the body is to support healthy homocysteine levels. In humans, betaine is vital to the maintenance of intestinal function and cell production, and it serves to protect DNA and DNA formation. Serving Size: 17.6 Oz Price: $34.99 $22.70
  • 54. 8) Natural Factors Ultimate Probiotic The Ultimate Probiotic 12/12 Formula from Natural Factors is a twelve-strain blend with a minimum of 12 billion live cells at expiry date. Various species in a single blend that is more closely approximate than the standard composition of intestinal flora. Serving Size: 60 Vcaps Price: $24.95 $17.26
  • 55. 9)Nutrition Now PB8 For the past 25 years PB8 from Nutrition Now has aided individuals in maintaining a healthy digestive system The microflora growth concentrate incorporated in PB8 is inulin, a naturally occurring carbohydrate from the chicory root. Serving Size: 120 Capsules Price: $24.99 $12.49
  • 56. 10) Twinlab Super Probiotic Twinlab Super Probiotic comes packed with Ganedenm BC30, an outstanding highly enduring probiotic strain that has encapsulated cultures that fight impairment in a harsh digestive setting. This product can deliver more live active cells to the intestinal digestive tract than yogurt does naturally.
  • 58. ICMR-DBT Guidelines for Evaluation of Probiotics in Food 1. Scope: The guidelines deal with the use of probiotics in food and provide requirements for assessment of safety and efficacy of the probiotic strain and health claims and labeling of products with probiotics. 2. Definition of probiotics: Probiotics are „live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host‟
  • 59. 3.Genus, species and strain identification: Effects of probiotics are strain specific. Strain identity is important to link a strain to a specific health effect as well as to enable accurate surveillance and epidemiological studies
  • 60. 4. In vitro tests to screen potential probiotic strains: The following in vitro tests* with standard methodology are recommended for screening putative probiotic strains: (i) Resistance to gastric acidity, (ii ) Bile acid resistance, (iii ) Antimicrobial activity against potentially pathogenic bacteria (acid and bacteriocin production), (iv ) Ability to reduce pathogen adhesion to surfaces, (v) Bile salt hydrolase activity.
  • 61. 5. In vivo safety studies in animal models: Assessment of the acute, subacute and chronic toxicity of ingestion of extremely large amounts of probiotics should be carried out for all potential strains. Such assessment may not be necessary for strains with established documented use. 6. In vivo efficacy studies in animal models: To substantiate in vitro effects, appropriate, validated animal models must be used first, prior to human trials.
  • 62. 7. Evaluation of safety of probiotics for human use: In recognition of the importance of assuring safety, even among group of bacteria that are Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS)**, probiotics strains needs to be characterized at a minimum with the following tests: (i) Determination of antibiotic resistance patterns. It should be ascertained that any given probiotic strain is not at significant risk with regard to transferable antibiotic resistance. (ii ) Assessment of undesirable side-effects. (iii ) If the strain under evaluation belongs to a species that is a known mammalian toxin producer or of haemolytic potential, it must be tested for toxin production and haemolytic activity respectively.
  • 63. 8. Evaluation of efficacy studies in humans: The principal outcome of efficacy studies on probiotics should be proven with similar benefits in human trials, such as statistically and clinically significant improvement in condition, symptoms, signs, well-being or quality of life, reduced risk of disease or longer time to next occurrence or faster recovery from illness. Each of the parameter should have proven correlation with the probiotics tested. 9. Effective dosage of probiotic strain/strains: The minimal effective dose or the level of viable cells of the probiotic strain in terms of cfu/ml/day in the carrier food that demonstrates general health promoting functions or well being or specific health claims in target population should be clearly indicated.
  • 64. 10. Labeling requirements: In addition to the general labeling requirements under the food laws, the following information should also be mentioned on the label. (i) Genus, species and strain designation following the standard international nomenclature. (ii ) The minimum viable numbers of each probiotic strain should be specified at the level at which efficacy is claimed and at the end of shelf- life. (iii ) Evidence-based health claim(s) should be clearly stated. (iv ) The suggested serving size to deliver the minimum effective quantity of the probiotic related to the health claim. (v) Proper storage conditions to be mentioned.
  • 65. 11. Manufacturing and handling procedures: Adequate quality assurance programs should be in place. Good Manufacturing Practices should be followed in the manufacture of probiotic foods. The Codex General Principles of Food Hygiene and Guidelines for Application of Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) should be followed.
  • 66. FACTORS AFFECTING VIABILITY OF PROBIOTICS IN FOOD Certain factors, both intrinsic and extrinsic, may influence the survival of probiotics in food. 1. Physiological state of the added probiotic in the food, i.e., whether live bacteria or dry spores are used. 2. Physicochemical conditions of food processing. e.g., mechanical stress (during high-speed blending or homogenization), extreme temperature conditions (during spray and freeze drying),composition of growth medium, composition of freezing and drying media, presence of toxic byproducts, high dissolved oxygen content, etc., may result in cell disruption and losses in viability.
  • 67. 3. Physical conditions of product storage, like temperature and water activity (moisture content) of the product. Freeze-dried probiotic products stored at frozen temperature have maximum bacterial counts. 4. Chemical composition of the product and host environment. e.g., presence of fermentable sugars and prebiotic compounds, oxygen stress, pH (acidity of carrier food, highly acidic conditions in stomach, bile salts and alkalinity of small intestine), enzymatic activities, competition with other organisms in the product etc., also affect the viability.
  • 68. USES OF PROBIOTICS  Acute infectious diarrhea  Antibiotic associated diarrhea  Neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC)  Helicobacter pylori infection  Inflammatory bowel disease  Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)  Celiac disease  Food protein hypersensitivity
  • 69. SAFETY PROFILE OF PROBIOTICS Assessment of safety must take into account the nature of the microbe being used, method of administration, level of exposure, health status of users and physiological functions they are called on to perform. Largely, probiotics are considered quite safe. Side effects with probiotics are rare and generally limited to constipation, increased thirst and flatulence. Probiotics containing Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria are probably safe whilst Enterococcus strains should be avoided, because a few enterococci are associated with the development of antibiotic resistance.
  • 70. PROBIOTICS HANDLING Probiotics are delicate organisms that require appropriate handling to maintain maximum activity during storage. At Klaire Labs®, conduct real-time stability studies on all our probiotic products to assess their long-term viability at both refrigerated and room temperatures. Data have obtained from independent laboratory tests indicate our products maintain a relatively high degree of stability at room temperature for up to five months and then gradually begin to lose potency.
  • 71. Independent Real-Time Probiotic Viability Study
  • 72. PROBIOTIC SCENARIO Probiotics – An Indian Scenario Within the functional foods, probiotics is the rapidly expanding, active arena. Indian probiotic industry is in its infancy stage and presently accounts for only a small fraction i.e. less than 1% of the total world market turnover in the probiotic industry. India is emerging as a major probiotic market of the future with annual growth rate of 22.6% until 2015 with a handful of players in Indian probiotic industry are Amul, Mother Dairy, Yakult, Danone and Nestle along with other minor players operating in different regions in their own capacities. With their advent, the Indian probiotic market turnover is expected to reach $8 million by the year 2015. Probiotics in India generally comes in two forms, milk and fermented milk products with the former occupying 62% of the market share and the latter having 38% market share.
  • 73. Global Scenario Of Probiotics Knowledge in probiotic continues to expand on daily basis. According to a new market research report, 'Probiotics Market‟ (2009- 2014), published by Markets and Markets, the global probiotics market is expected to be worth US $ 31.1 bn by 2015 with the Europe and Asia accounting for nearly 42 and 30% of the total revenues respectively. Europe forms the largest market for probiotics with an estimated $13.5 billion by 2014. Asia is the second largest segment, growing at with an estimated CAGR of 11.2% to reach $9.0 billion by 2014. A Frost and Sullivan study estimates that the probiotic ingredient market in the US was $450 million in 2010. Probiotics, with a market of $3.23 billion is a large part of Japanese functional foods. The Japanese spent $126 per person per year on functional foods and it is higher than other countries including US, Europe and Asia.
  • 75. INTESTINAL MICROFLORA IN INFANCY Determinants of the gut microbiota At birth, the infants' intestines are free of bacteria, but bacteria starts to colonize within intestine quickly after birth. Facultative aerobes are the first to colonize the intestine in infants.
  • 76. Bifidobacteria, lactobacilli, E. coli, Clostridium difficile, bacteroids are the major types of bacteria that are commonly found in infants‟ GI track but the proportion of each bacterium differs depending on several determinants. Other determinants Premature babies are found to have higher amounts of C. difficile counts in their intestine. Furthermore, infants with older siblings tend to colonize more bifidobacteria in their intestines than infants with no siblings. Hence, the mode of delivery, type of infant feeding, gestational age, infant hospitalization and antibiotic use by the infant all greatly contribute to the composition of microflora in infants.
  • 78. At some point, all babies experience gastrointestinal issues such as bloating, gas, constipation, and diarrhea as their digestive systems mature and they move from breast milk or formula to weaning foods. However, some who regularly experience such problems or are at risk for allergies or infections may benefit from age-appropriate probiotic foods or supplements. Depending on your baby‟s age and stage of feeding, you may offer probiotic supplement powders mixed into breast milk or formula or serve foods that contain probiotics. The typical dose for children is 5 billion to 10 billion colony-forming units per day, given for at least two weeks. The common strains to look for in supplements and foods are L. rhamnosus, L. reuteri, L. bulgaricus, S. thermophilus, and Bifidobacterium
  • 79. HEALTH BENEFITS OF PROBIOTICS FOR INFANTS, CHILDREN AND ADULT Acute diarrhea Many studies show that probiotics exhibit a protective effect against different types of acute diarrhea, such as antibiotic- associated diarrhea, traveller‟s diarrhea, viral diarrhea, etc Antibiotic-associated Diarrhea Diarrhea can occur from 11-40% of children associated diarrhea or AAD. Evidence from the review suggest that S. boulardii is best at preventing AAD in children, Lactobacillus GG ranking second, and a mixture of S. thermophilus and B. lactis relatively ranking last.
  • 80. Viral Diarrhea Viral diarrhea refers to diarrhea caused by a rotavirus, a virus often affecting toddlers and infants. A meta-analysis of nine previously conducted studies has shown that probiotics are also effective in treating viral diarrhea in hospitalized children. Allergy Over the last two decades the incidence of allergic disease has increased in industrialized countries. Although current research is inconclusive, it is convinced that probiotics may be beneficial to modulate host immune response and control allergic disease at an early age.
  • 81. Atopic eczema is a common allergic inflammation of skin among infants. Regular probiotic supplementation may stabilize intestinal barrier function and play a role in modulating allergic responses and reduce severity symptoms. Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) Necrotizing enterocolitis is a medical condition primarily seen in premature infants where portion of bowel undergoes necrosis (tissue death). It is clear that using probiotics to treat NEC is considered one of the most exciting probiotics applications today. It is because data in this area of research has shown reduction of NEC risk. Probiotics are beneficial in reducing enteric pathogens, improving gut structure and f facilitating enteral nutrition, reducing dependence on parenteral nutrition, maintaining gut permeability,
  • 82. PROBIOTIC FOR NEWBORNN What may be safe for you may not be safe for your newborn. Your newborn already has probiotics in his system, but some medical professionals feel that increasing the amount through supplementation can reduce certain health concerns among newborns
  • 83. Health Benefits: Newborns with colic, diarrhea or constipation may benefit from some additional probiotics. They help regulate the balance of good to bad bacteria in an infant's digestive tract, which could alleviate the symptoms of these conditions. A study conducted at the University of Naples found that administering probiotics to babies with chronic constipation resulted in more frequent bowel movements and an improvement in consistency of their stool. An Italian study found that infants who were give probiotics reduced colic-related crying from 2 1/2 hours per day to 51 minutes per day. It is thought that colicky babies have inflammation in the intestines that probiotics can reduce.
  • 84. SIDE EFFECTS OF INFANT PROBIOTICS Lactobacillus infection patients with short bowel syndrome have an increased risk in developing Lactobacillus infection. Infant patients who are on medications that decrease the activity of the immune system can also develop lactobacillus infection. Diarrhea A study published in January 2003 by "Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology" showed that patients having ulcerative colitis, a serious chronic condition of the large intestines that causes episodic abdominal pain, fever and watery diarrhea, must be cautious in using probiotics such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae-containing probiotics because its use can possibly trigger an attack of diarrhea.
  • 85. Thus, parents of pediatric patients having this problem must talk with their health care provider first before giving any forms of probiotic to occurring. Fungal infection Saccharomyces boulardii, a non-pathogenic probiotic yeast that is used as supportive therapy for diarrhea, can cause rare complications in patients with compromised immune systems. For this reason, parents of pediatric patients with multiple health problems such as infant diabetes should seek the advice of their health care provider before administering any form of probiotics to their children.
  • 86. PRODUCTS OF WEANING FOOD CONTAINING PROBIOTIC 1.GERBER® BABY CEREAL -WITH PROBIOTIC B. lactis Gerber® Baby Cereals are 100% wholesome. Gerber® Baby Cereal shave no added sugar, preservatives or artificial colours or flavours just 100% wholesome goodness. With every spoonful, your baby„s little body will continue to grow and with each new stage you and baby discover, his little personality will continue to grow as well.
  • 87. 2. NESTLE CERELAC Cerelac Infant Cereal Wheat – 200g (From 6 months) After learning how to take solid food, NESTLÉ CERELAC Wheat is another step forward in your baby‟s journey of nutritional discoveries. NESTLÉ CERELAC Wheat is a convenient and nutritionally adapted complementary food that is easy to digest. With Bifidus BL (a friendly probiotic) and Immunonutrients, NESTLÉ CERELAC helps support your baby‟s immune and digestive systems. Available: Grocery, Pharmacy and other retail outlets Pack Size: 200g box
  • 88. Cerelac Infant Cereal Multigrain with Pear– 200g (From 8 months) NESTLÉ CERELAC Multigrain with Pear is made with real fruit and three different grains (Oats, Wheat and Corn) introducing your baby to even more exciting new tastes. NESTLÉ CERELAC contains Bifidus BL (a friendly probiotic) and Immunonutrients which help support your baby‟s immune and digestive systems. Available: Grocery, Pharmacy and other retail outlets Pack Size: 200g box
  • 89. Cerelac Infant Cereal Rice – 200g (From 4 months) Nutritious and gentle for your baby‟s digestive system, NESTLÉ CERELAC Rice is easy to digest, making it a great introduction to solid foods. With Bifidus BL (a friendly probiotic) and Immunonutrients, NESTLÉ CERELAC helps support your baby‟s immune and digestive systems. Available: Grocery, Pharmacy and other retail outlets Pack Size:200g box
  • 90. CONCLUSION Probiotic in weaning food plays a vital role in the development and growth of infants. In Indian market some weaning foods have gained enough popularity due to their improved and balanced nutritional level and convenience to use. But these commercially prepared weaning foods are prepared by considering a selected area only. Also their cost is too high. In order to overcome these problems, new techniques for home prepared weaning food should be found out. But while preparation of weaning food at domestic level strict hygiene conditions should be maintained. Because it has been reported that such weaning foods are often associated with diarrhoea and other gastrointestinal disorders in children.
  • 91. Penetration of these weaning foods to the developing countries like India requires an effective strategy for technology transfer because till today infant malnutrition exists in India. So while formulating a weaning food, such sectors should be taken in consideration. Probiotic in weaning food not only provides important nutrients but also introduce semisolid foods in infant‟s diet. In absence of these, retardation of child growth, malnutrition and development will get affected. So there is a need to improve weaning strategies for infants.