A.BRYOPHYTA Characteristics of Moss (MOSS) Classification of Mosses *Class Bryopsida *Class Hepaticopsida *Class Anthoceropsida Role of Moss *Can degade rock structure into soil *Can keep water reserve and prevent flood in the forest ecosystem *Can be used as fuel *Can pevent soil erosion and drought at the dry season *Can be used as material of medicine
CHARACTERISTIC OF MOSSMoss does not have true body organ. That plant only has organs like root, stem and leaf, sothat it is called thallus plant. For example, rhizoid is the organ similar to simple root of moss.
CLASS BRYOPSIDAMusci ( Class Bryopsida) has pseudo-stem, which lenght is less than 3 cm. Its leaf blade is thin andcomposed spirally. The example of musci are :1. Shagnum fimbriatum2. Aerobryopsis longissima3. Pogonatum cirrhatum4. Mniodendron divaricatum SPHAGNUM FIMBRIATUM
CLASS HEPATICOPSIDALiverworts (Class Hepaticopsida) have lobus-shaped. The rhizoid is located on the bottom surface of the lobus.The examples of liverworths are:1. Marchantia polymorpha2. Riccia frostii3. Ricciocarpus MARCHANTIA POLYMORPHA
CLASS ANTOCEROPTIDAHornworts have alike structure with liverworts. Nevertheless, the main characteristic of hornworts is having ahorn-like structure, which grows outside the gametophyte. That moss lives on the side of river, lake, orchannel. The example of hornworts is Anthoceros sporophytes. ANTHOCEROS SPOROPHYTES
B.PTERIDOPHYTA (FERN) Characteristic of Fern Classification of Fern *Division Psilotopyta *Division Lycopodophyta *Division Equisetophyta *Division Pterophyta Role of Ferns * The fossil of primitive ferns is the main material of coal formation *As raw material for medicine *As food source *As green manure *As ornamental plants
CHARACTERISTIC OF FERNGenerally, fern stems are creeping underground. On the rhizome of fern, it usually grows agroup of root and leaf. Root has a function to absorb water and mineral and attach the body tothe subsrate. Ferns root are fibrous root and the leaves are compound leaves. The primordiumleaf usually rolled.
DIVISION PSILOTOPHYTAPsilotophyta is the oldest ferns, which still has primitive structure. Its body has no true leaf and root.Psilotophyta only has rhizome with rhizoid, for example: PSILOTUM
DIVISION LYCOPODOPHYTALycopodophyta already has true leaf and root. The leaf structure, which function as reproduction organ (sporeproducing organ), is called sporophyll. Two members of Lycopodophyta that is well recognized are :1. Lycopodium2. Selaginella LYCOPODIUM AND SELAGINELLA
DIVISION EQUISETOPHYTAMostly, the body of Equisetophyta is approximately less than 1 meter and has true root, stem and leaf.Equisetophyta is the transition between homosporous and heterosporous ferns. It means, spore has similarsizes and shape, but can be distinguished between male and female. The example of Equisetophyta is: EQUISETUM
DIVISION PTEROPHYTA Pterophyta has true root, stem and leaf. In tropical region, stem of this fern usually emerges above ground as trunk or mast. In the temperate zone, stem is usually underground, so that its dominant appearance is a thin and large leaf. The example of Pterophyta are:1. Adiantum2. Asplenium nidus3. Marsilea creanata ASPLENIUM NIDUS
C.SPERMATOPHYTA Characteristic of Spermatophyta (SEED PLANT) Classification of Spermatophyta A.Gymnospermae *Division Cycadophyta *Division Ginkgophyta *Division Pinophyta *Division Gnetophyta B.Angiospermae Role of Spermatophyta *As food material *As material of building and construction *As substance for spices and medicine *As decorative plant *As material for industries
CHARACTERISTIC OF SPERMATOPHYTAOne of the main characteristic of Spermatophyta is producing seed., it usually found embryoand food storage. Embryo is covered by seed coat, so that it is resistant against unfavorableenvironment.In the life cycle of Spermatophyta, there are sporophyte and gamethopyte generations. Thespermatophyta that we see is the sporophyte generation, whereas the gametophyte generationhas been reduce.
A. GYMNOSPERMAEBased on fossil records, gymnosperm was firstly found at the end of Devon periodapproximately 350 million years ago. Its body already has true root, stem and leaf, which isequipped with vacular tissue is open collateral type. Its appearance is alike with shrubs ortrees.
DIVISION CYCADOPHYTACycadophyta is predicted emerged from the development of Pteridophyta. Cycadophyta has large leaf like theleaf of palmae, for example:1. Cycas rumpii2. Zamia floridiana3. Dioon edule ZAMIA FLORIDIANA
DIVISION GINKGOPHYTAMost of Ginkgophyta has been extinct. One of the species that remains is Ginkgo biloba. The plant has leafstalk, which is composed as fan. GINKGO BILOBA
DIVISION PINOPHYTAPinophyta has leaf in thorny-shaped and evergreen throughout the year. A group of this plant is gymnosperm,which can be found today, for example:1. Taxus baccata2. Agathis alba3. Araucaria cunninghamii TAXUS BACCATA
DIVISION GNETOPHYTAGenerally. The member of Gnetophyta is tress, which have many branches, simple leaf and compound flowers.For examples are:1. Ephedra altissima2. Gnetum gnemon GNETUM GNEMON
b. ANGIOSPERMAEAngiosperm has highly developed and becomes the dominant plant at Kenozoikum era until today.Reproduction structure of Angiospermae differs from gymnosperm. On angiosperm, the reproducytionstructure has already completed by periantheum. The ovule is enclosed within a carpel, which will lead to afruit.
NAME : MONIKA SIHALOHOSCHOOL : SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL 2 BOGOR