Pulau Banyak Rapid Assessment


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Post December 24, 2004 and 28 March, 2005 Sumatera Tsunami Damage Assessment.
In Aceh most remote Banyak Archipelago, which consist of 99 islands. One of them is the biggest green turtle rookery in Western Indonesia.

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Pulau Banyak Rapid Assessment

  1. 1. RAPID ASSESSMENT OFWESTERN ISLANDS OF ACEH(KEPULAUAN BANYAK DISTRICT & ACEH SINGKIL)Compiled by: Monica KuhonProducer / Director - Banyak islands Recovery Program, Aceh, IndonesiaCover illustration: Risen reef at Bangkaru Turtle Island, Pulau Banyak Epicenter, Aceh Singkil, NAD AcehPhotos copyrighted: Kevin Scholes (merudesign@yahoo.com) 1
  2. 2. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTSThis rapid assessment was made possible with assistance support from, Meru Design - USA, GMMFilm Productions – Jakarta and a team of people from the Gaia Surf Charter who’s helped enable thesmooth running of this exercise from start to the end, all which assistance has been much welcomed.Special thanks are given to Kevin Scholes, for his guidance and photography throughout the process,and the continuous online technical assistance from Cédric Vernet, Sean Hynes and Jeremy Allen.Particular thanks also to Hester Kuhon, Gary Hayes, Marcus and Myles Keyshan for theirconsiderable support throughout this mission.In Aceh, steady Data Collections and advice from the Head District/Police/Head of Military of PulauBanyak, Singkil, NAD Aceh has been much appreciated. Finally thanks to the survivors of theearthquake and tsunami with whom we met and spoke to during this assessment, in particular theresidence of Singkil, students and teachers of Pulau Balai, and village residence in Haluban in PulauTuangku, and Pulau Thailana whose own harrowing story is unfortunately shared by many. Despitetheir losses, they took considerable time to spend with the RA mission to guide and advise us onmany lines of enquiry, in the hope that something positive would emerge from this process.That hope is shared by all who participated in this RA.For more information on please contact:Monica KuhonProducer / Director - Banyak islands Recovery Program, Aceh, IndonesiaWebsite: banyakislands.comTelephone: (62) 08174786489,Email: kuhon@asia-mail.com, turtle_aceh@yahoo.com, turtleisland@mailbolt.com, monica@banyakislands.com, 2
  3. 3. EXECUTIVE SUMMARYIntroductionsBetween 09 and 28 May 2005 our voluntary team conducted a rapid assessment of the damage tocommunities by recent earthquake and tsunami, to identify critical environmental issues resulting fromthe natural disaster of earthquake and tsunami, we also investigate where environmentalconsiderations should and might be taken into account in other sectors.ObjectivesThe main objective of the assessment was to examine the present logistic and programme situationson the Banyak Group of Islands, Aceh Singkil. Findings from this assessment are expected tostimulate further action of relief in designated areas, initially through elaboration of a more detailed,formal, environmental impact assessment (or, most likely, a series of assessments), andsubsequently to assist in the design and implementation of future plans for rehabilitation andreconstruction of Pulau Banyak, Aceh Singkil.MethodGiven the need to conduct an assessment of this nature in a short a time as possible, in the processwe thrive to be open and transparent as possible, while still attempting to ensure that as many sourcesof information have been identified in the process. In this instance, the results do not represent theobservations or opinions of one person alone, input from both local community , stake holders anddistrict government were crucial to the identification of issues and concerns, as the RA processdepends to a high degree on support their experiences and knowledge to contribute the of theformulation of recommended actions. As is the nature of this RA methodology, work was to be largelybased on field data collection, but without forgetting the importance of secondary data sourcescollections, primarily summaries of the regions history, journals of scientific research publications, aswell as other data compiled by the international donor/co-ordination group working in the region.ConclusionIn summary, our field data findings conclude that, the western islands being situated right at theepicenter of the earthquake had suffered considerable damage, which will take years to overcome. .Mercifully, prior experience to such events, local preparedness and proximity to high ground saved thepopulation.The challenge now is to help safeguard the lives and livelihoods those communities which have beenso resourceful in surviving the trials of earthquake and tsunami, by developing common understandingon the essential purpose in act of Mother-nature bringing the world attention to this beautiful andremote tropical archipelago. And by uniting available knowledge to ensure that these marvelousecosystems will continue to provide sustainable services for the communities into the future. 3
  4. 4. THE LOCATION1. Aceh Westcoast1.1 General Characteristics of Wetlands on the Coast of AcehDetailed data about the wetland ecosystem of coast of Aceh is scarce when compared to otherprovinces in Indonesia. This has to do in part to the security situation in Aceh, which meant that it wasunsafe and difficult to carry out survey activities. Furthermore the western coast of Sumatra facesdirectly into the Indian Ocean, which is deep and open, there are large waves, and the contours of thecoast are curam and the substrate is sand.Photograph of a typical coastal area on the west coast of Aceh. Photograph by Efrizal Adil (Partner of WI-IP).1.2 ClimateIts tropical positioning provides a hot humid climate with a wet season between June and November,the ‘Western Season’ or southwest monsoon, and a dry season between November and May, the‘Eastern Season’ or northeast monsoon,. The ‘Western Season’ is characterized by strong winds fromthe west making the western and northern coasts prone to very large waves. (*Stringell) Photo©Bohemian 4
  5. 5. The difference in contours, height of waves and type of substrate between the east and west coastsmeans that the dominant types of wetlands differ. On the east coast of Aceh there are manymangrove ecosystems comprised of Rhizophora. Coastal trees such as ketapang, coconuts, andpandan dominate the west coast, and there are many coral reef ecosystems. It is rare to find amangrove ecosystem. (*WI-IP)2. Aceh SingkilSingkil is the principal trading town of Kabupaten Tingkat II Aceh Singkil Region (total area 8.910Km2), situated at the mouth of the confluence of River Simpang Kanan and Simpang Kiri at the SingkilRiver. 5
  6. 6. The town (area 3.964 Km2) is protected to the west by a swampy headland which diminished theeffect of the 1.5 – 2 m wave which struck the Island on 26 December 2004.The total population recorded for the region in 1998 was 113.002, spread thru 4 Districts, .i. Kecamatan Simpang Kiri;ii. Kecamatan Sinipang Kanan;iii. Kecamatan Singkil;iv. Kecamatan Pulau Banyak. 6
  7. 7. 2.1 Coastal Communities (Cultural, History & Religious Beliefs)Towards the end of the 12th century we find traces of apparently indigenous Muslims on the northcoast of Sumatra, where a few kingdoms or rather harbour states arose. Perlak and the twin kingdomof Samudra and Pasai in Aceh, located on the very tip of Sumatra, were major pepper-producing areaand due to international trade became the most splendid kingdoms of the period. Its rulers patronizedthe arts and sciences and made it into the regions chief centre of Islamic knowledge,This time coincides with the period of flourishing of medieval Sufism and the growth of the sufi orders(tarékat), the tarékat was perceived as a source of spiritual power, at once legitimating and supportingthe rulers position. As illustrated by the brief history, many local scholars were sent abroad to Arabiaand when this batch of student came back they brought along with them the tarékat that they learntfrom their teachers.One of them was ", Abdurrauf of Singkil who became Aceh most celebrated mystics, also known inAceh as Teungku di Kuala, since his tomb is situated near the kuala of mouth of the Singkil river.Abdurrauf spiritual guide and teacher in the way of God was Ahmad Qushashi of Medina, whoinitiated him in the Shattarite fraternity order (tarékat Shattariya), which originated in India and came tothe East Indies by way of Mekka and MedinaIt was through the tarékat Shattariya that sufi metaphysical ideas and symbolic classifications basedon doctrine that is till now part of West Sumatrans popular beliefs, and later easily accommodateditself with local tradition; it became the most "indigenized" of the orders , where Indonesians wereinitiated.Abdul Rauf of Singkil, studied in Mecca and Medina for 20 years and came back to Aceh in 1661 asa faqih and sufi master, his book "Umdat al-muhtajin ila suluk maslak al-mufridin" (Support of thosedesirous to walk in the way of the "solitaries"), contains directions for practising the various methods ofdhikr (zikir), and a discourse on the ethics of the conscientious mystic, in which a number of preceptsrespecting moral conduct abstracted from the ethical literature of Islamic mysticism are summed up.Abdul Rauf of Singkil most probably was responsible for the rendering into Malay of Qasd al-sabil.This was a commentary on a work by al-Qusyasyi, al-`Aqida al-Manzuma, which in rhyming versestated his beliefs. As is evident from its contents, the text in this manuscript was produced in anenvironment of a mystical Islamic order (tarékat). 7
  8. 8. Islam community in Singkil until this day is still pervaded with a mystical attitude and a fascinationwith the miraculous. The tarékat order also fulfill a number of functions that are not religious even in aloose sense, tarékat is also a social network, and membership in a tarékat yields a number ofpotentially useful social contacts. Especially for recent migrants to the city, the tarékat network mayprove useful in finding work, a place to live, help in difficulties, etcetera. The tarékat is for somemembers also a replacement of the family, offering the warmth and protection they do not findelsewhere. The gradual demise of traditional society appears not, as has at times been assumed, tocause the inevitable decline of the tarékat but rather to give them new social functions and entire newcategories of followers.HabitatThe wetland of West Singkil is located at 2 o36’36’’N and 97 o45’0’’E and has an area of 5,500ha. It consists of relatively undisturbed beach forest series and freshwater swamp forests inexcellent condition; it is the best surviving examples of these habitat types in the province,with all their characteristic flora and fauna. The West Singkil wetland also has a number ofprotected fauna:- RareSandanglawe (Ciconia stormi)- VulnerableSayap putih duck (Cairina scutulata), Bangau tong-tong (Leptoptilos javanicus), Rangkong papan(Buceros bicornis),Alap-alap Cina (Accipiter soloensis),Rangkong kecil (Anthracocerosalbirostris),Enggang hitam (Anthracoceros malayanus), Rangkong badak (Buceros rhinoceros),Elanglaut perut putih (Haliaeetus leucogaster),Elang bondol (Haliastur indus),Elang laut kelabu,(Ichthyophaga ichthyaetus),Blue-crowned Hanging Parrot (Loriculus galgulus), Punggok (Ninoxscutulata),Elang madu (Pernis ptilorhynchus),Long-tailed Parakeet (Psittacula longicauda), Blue-rumped Parrot (Psittinus cyanurus), Elang ular (Spilornis cheela),Elang hitam (Spizaetus cirrhatus)(*WI-IP)Other Environmental StatusUNITED NATIONS EDUCATIONAL, SCIENTIFIC AND CULTURAL ORGANIZATIONCONVENTION CONCERNING THE PROTECTION OF THE WORLD CULTURAL AND NATURALHERITAGE WORLD HERITAGE COMMITTEE Twenty-eighth session Suzhou, China (28) June - 7July 2004 8
  9. 9. I Recommended for inscriptionI* Recommended for inscription with reservationsD Recommended for deferralOK Approval Recommended of an extension or a modificationN Not recommended for inscriptionC/N (i) (ii) etc Cultural or Natural criteria recommended. Italicized C/N indicates that the original property hasalready been inscribed on the World Heritage ListCL Proposed as a Cultural Landscape 9
  10. 10. 10
  11. 11. Nominations of properties to the World Heritage List WHC-04/28.COM/14B REV, p. 4KEY 11
  12. 12. 3. Pulau BanyakSituation: Kecamatan Kepulauan Banyak, Kab. Aceh SingkilThe Banyak Group of islands is approximately four hours sailing west of Singkil and ispart of that Kabupaten. As its name suggests (“many islands” in Indonesian), this smallarchipelago officially consists of 99 islands, the land area covers approximately 15,000ha, while the sea within the Pulau Banyak District (Kecamatan Pulau Banyak) coversabout 212,000 ha (*Stringell), It is a remote series of islands with a population just over5000 people spread around 7 villages (Kelurahans / Kampongs), which are KampongAsantola, Kampong Ujung Sialit, Kampong Pulau Baguk, Kampong Pulau Balai,Kampong Teluk Nibung, Kampong Haloban, Kampong Suka MakmurFig. 1 Location of Pulau Banyak, Photo © Thomas Stringell 1999Pulau Banyak (97º 05’E, 02º 03’N) is a small archipelago off the west coast of Sumatra.It is abound with fantastic beaches, coral reefs and pristine forests that represent someof Indonesia’s impressive biodiversity.Coastal CommunitiesPulau Banyak is a very poor region. Anthropologically, the archipelago has a veryinteresting history with an influence of many regional cultures, five distinct languages, astrong tradition of spiritualism yielding many ‘Pawang’ (spiritual guides or shamens) andof course the diversity of habitats and wildlife. Traditional medicines from forest plantshave not been fully replaced by modern equivalents. Many of the animal species inPulau Banyak have a superstitious importance, for example, the coastal oriental magpie-robin (Copsychus saularis). Its regular song perch is often found beside a localresident’s home and if their colourful song is followed by flight in a particular direction, itindicates that the resident will be receiving a visitor shortly. 12
  13. 13. Top left: Picture of Pulau Banyak (Bangkaru & Tuangku Island)STS037-152-216 Astronaut Photography of Earth - Display Record Copyright:jsc.NASA.govHabitatLike Sumatra, Pulau Banyak also has a healthy array of habitats and wildlife. The twolargest islands, Tuangku and Bangkaru, are covered by dense, pristine lowlandrainforest with many tree ferns, strangler fig trees (Ficus sp.) and many epiphytes suchas the birds-nest fern. The interior of these islands and much of the coastal areas awayfrom settlements are uncharted.The habitats of Pulau BanyakThe forests of Tuangku are rarely visited by humans as access is made difficult due tothe dense jungle surrounding the periphery of the rainforest. Tuangku is home to theonly monkeys found in Pulau Banyak, the macaques and leaf monkeys (silvered andbanded). The mangrove thickets lie in a narrow strip along the sheltered eastern side ofPulau Tuangku. They are ideal nursery grounds for neritic fish species and shrimps, andprobably one of the reasons why Pulau Banyak has some of the richest fish stocks inAceh. The communities are based around Sonneratia and Rhizopora sp. mangroves,nipa palms and screw pines. Near the coasts, the lowland forest gives way to acommunity of mostly screw pines (Pandanus sp.), rattan palms and nipa palms (Nypafruticans) along river edges. The typical fauna found includes grapsid mangrove crabs,fiddler crabs (Uca sp.), mangrove oysters (Isognomon sp.), mudskippers(Periophthalamus chrysospilos) and numerous birds including egrets and previouslymentioned raptors. The state of the mangrove forests in Pulau Banyak is unknown as noformal studies have been carried out, but the exploitation of mangroves is thought to benegligible due to local and traditional protective laws.Most resident animal species are representatives from the nearby forest, not far from thecoasts and rivers. Examples of these include the lesser mousedeer, plantain squirrels,hill mynah (Gracula religiosa), flocking magpies (Platysmurus leucopterus) and treepies(Dendrocitta occipitalis), occasional island flying foxes (Pteropus hypomelanus) andnumerous land crabs (Gecarcinidae sp.). More specifically around rivers, the blue-earedand storkbilled kingfishers (Alcedo sp. and Pelargopsis capensis), white belliedseaeagles (Haliaeetus leucogaster),Brahminy kite (Haliastur indus), 13
  14. 14. monitor lizards (Varanus salvator), and edible mud crabs (Potamonidae sp.) arefrequently observed. A few estuarine or saltwater crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus) alsoreportedly exist on and around Bangkaru and Tuangku islands. Along the beach, onlycoconut palms, Pandanus pines, thick waxy-leafed woody and ground covering shrubscan withstand the well-drained, sandy, salty and exposed environment. Theinvertebrates here are mostly marine scavengers including ghost crabs (Ocypode sp)and hermit crabs (Coenobita sp).Bangkaru IslandPulau Bangkaru is a small island in the Pulau Banyak (“many islands”) group with somesurviving beach vegetation and lowland forest, the coordinates of the site are 2 o10’27’’Nand 97 o0’27’’E. It lies off the north east coast of Sumatra, 15 km south west of PulauTuangku, between the major islands of Simeulue and Nias. Pulau Bangkaru isprobably the most important nesting site for Green turtles (Chelonia mydas) in allof Western Indonesia (Wetland), Green (Status: Endangered globally (EN A2bd; IUCN2001a), hawkbill (Eretmochelys imbricata), leatherback (Dermochelys coriacea) and oliveridley (Lepidochelys olivacea) turtles nest in Indonesia and are protected by GovernmentalDecrees (Siswomartono 1997).Amandangan beach is the main green turtle (Chelonia mydas) rookery that also hassporadic nesting of leatherback (Dermochelys coriacea) and hawksbill (Eretmochelysimbricata) turtles. Green turtles nest in large numbers at Amandangan beach, nestingdensities are high; between 3 and 15 nests are laid each night throughout the year, onthe beach,which extends approximately 1.3 km along the exposed western coast ofPulau Bangkaru.Turtle beach ‘Amandangan’ on Pulau Bangkaru, photo © Stringell 1999 14
  15. 15. Hawkbill and leatherback turtles are known to nest only occasionally on the island ofPulau Bangkaru.Sporadic green turtle nesting occurs on other smaller beaches in the Pulau Banyakarchipelago (authors’ pers.obs.).The most complete data monitoring of nesting attempts was gathered by between 1997to 1999 by the staff of Yayasan Pulau Banyak, a community run foundation, set up for anenvironmental programme (Thomas B. Stringell, Mahmud Bangkaru, Arnoud P.J.MSteeman & Lynne Beteman from Yayasan Pulau Banyak (Environmental Programme)),but the following years, YPB foundations has pulled out Pulau Banyak due to lack offunding and a volatile political situation in Aceh.On Pulau Bangkaru, forest and river species forage on the beaches due to the bountifulsupply of turtle eggs Monitor lizards and ghost crabs are the main egg predators. Whilston the beach, emerging hatchlings, are prone to both previous egg predators and onoccasional early morning emergences, the white bellied sea eagle and Brahminy kitearrive to feed almost instantly. Numerous reef fish, particularly snappers (lutjanids andlethrinids) and groupers (serranids) await the hatchlings in the sea.Rocky CoastsMost of the coastal areas, not covered by mangroves, are sandy beaches. However onthe exposed western coasts, rocky outcrops and tide pools are present. Some of thetypical species exposed to severe wave action include encrusting lichens; corraline algalturfs in the sublittoral zone; balanomorpha barnacles, mytelid mussels, limpets(Patelloida saccharina), echinoids including Heterocentrotus sp., the armour platedColobocentrotus sp., and less frequently sea urchins (Diadema setosum) in the eulittoralzone. In the eulittoral, grapsid crabs are frequently found on the intertidal rocks and canbe observed exploring the winkle-dominated littoral zone.Shallow SeasScattered sea grass beds exist in the shallow seas and are thought to be feedinggrounds for the resident dugongs (Dugong dugon). The population size of dugongs isunknown, but they can occasionally be viewed at night in these sea grass beds.Dugongs are present in small numbers throughout the western Acehnese islands fromsouth Simeulue to north Nias, and possibly beyond these distributions. Turtle grassoffers good grazing for many fish and a possible feeding ground for green turtles,although this has not been observed.The sea grass beds are not extensive but the potential for growth is good. In fact,seaweed cultivation (Eucheuma sp.) has been proposed as an alternative source ofincome to fishing. Of note are the frequently observed pantropical spotted dolphins(Stenella attenuata).Coral ReefsThe most complete fringing coral reefs are found around the many islands in the shallowseas between Tuangku and Balai (Fig. 4) and fringing reefs surround the three mainislands. Most observations have been made of reefs close to main human settlements ortourist areas, which have generally been subjected to a certain degree of damage fromcoral collection, fishing and anchor use. 15
  16. 16. Thorough surveys have not been carried out in Pulau Banyak, but presumably around itsmore remote islands, coral reefs would be more healthy, with diverse fish andinvertebrate communities. Pulau Banyak has been previously noted for its important reefinvertebrate resources (UNEP/ IUCN, 1988).These remote island reefs may still not be remote enough to hinder destructive fishingpractices particularly with the use of bombs. However, this type of fishing is hated andforbidden by most of the resident traditional fishermen. The fringing reefs are typical ofIndo-Pacific coral reefs. Rounded colonies of honeycomb coral (Favites sp.) are found inthe shallows and ramified Acropora sp. coral and brain coral (Platygyra sp.) are commonin the outer reef margin.The following list indicates some of fish and invertebrate species observed on the reefsof Pulau Banyak: blacktip reef shark (Carcharinus melanopterus), honeycomb stingray(Himantura uarnak), yellow margin triggerfish (Pseudoballistes flavimarginatus), coralgrouper (Cephalopholis miniata), parrotfish (Scarus sp.), blue surgeonfish (Acanthurusleucosternon), trumpetfish (Aulostomus chinensis), indian turkeyfish (Pterois miles),unicornfish (Naso sp.), blackspotted pufferfish (Arothron stellatus), butterflyfish(Chaetodon sp.), christmas tree worm (Spirobranchus giganteus), and from shellswashed up on the beach, the tiger cowrie (Cypraeae tigris), topshells (Trochus sp. andClanculus sp.) and the beautiful nautilus (Nautilus pompilius).Threats to Marine HabitatsWaste disposal from islands, with very limited infrastructure, is primitive and a potentialhealth hazard for localised areas around the two main villages of Haloban and Balai. Itsinfluence on the marine life of these specific areas has not been studied, although it isprobable that some degree of eutrophication occurs particularly in sheltered harbourareas, and an increase in sedimentation on nearby coral reefs is likely. In Pulau Banyak,coral is extensively used as a traditional building material, adding further destructivepressure to the reefs. 16
  17. 17. Ninety percent of the local community’s work force are fishermen who work alone or insmall groups. The majority of fishing activity relies on coral reef fish communities. Coralreef destruction is a problem in Pulau Banyak, as dynamite, bomb and poison fishing byresident and outside fishermen does occur and could potentially outcompete traditionalartisanal fishing practices. Parts of the archipelago’s reefs have been exploited in thisway and the extent of the damage is visible, yet has not been assessed so far. By lack ofclear fishery guidelines, statistics and quotas, the region’s fish stocks remaindangerously unmonitored. The population levels and fish communities are poorlyunderstood and it is therefore impossible to know whether even lightly exploitativefishing has any lasting detrimental effect on the reef communities.In principal, foreign ships are forbidden to enter the waters of Pulau Banyak unlesscarrying necessary permits, and large fishing trawlers have been banned by apresidential decree. In reality, nonresident fishermen (including large foreign shipsreportedly from Taiwan) frequent the waters and, due to no implementation of exclusivefishing zones (or law enforcement should they be in place), the productive shallow seassurrounding the islands are viewed as common grounds, to the aggravation of localfishermen. As these seas are not held in common management and are essentially opento everyone, the situation is a part of the ‘Tragedy of Open Access’ and coral reefdestruction is therefore likely to increase.Incidental catch of sea turtles and dugongs is probably more significant offshore, wherelarge fishing boats net for fish, than inshore where most resident fishermen predominate.Local fishermen seldom use nets inshore and rely on line and hook. Incidents of seaturtle and dugong catches are unlikely to be logged and the fate of the animal purelyspeculative, although they would probably not be kept for food. Turtles are considered‘macro’ by the Muslims of Aceh, which in terms of religion, means that turtles can beeaten but are not recommended. Turtle eggs however, can be eaten. In theneighbouring island of Nias, neither turtle meat nor turtle eggs can be consumed. Here,an animal living in ‘two worlds’ is a forbidden food. The religious status of dugong meatis unknown, but they were once hunted in Pulau Banyak. It seems that dugong huntinghas now stopped for reasons unknown. The nesting green turtle population of PulauBanyak, Amandangan beach on the uninhabited island of Pulau Bangkaru, has beenknown for at least 30 years. Anecdotal evidence suggests that about 10 years ago eggpoaching was a profitable and organised venture that was given written concession bythe Regency of Aceh.The number of eggs that were taken over this period is unknown, but over-harvestingwas likely, since the profits from egg sales funded the development of parts of PulauBanyak, the building of fishing boats and were used to pay government charges.Currently, poaching is thought to be of low intensity, although quantitative information isnot available, since the beach is not constantly monitored. The present day turtle project 17
  18. 18. seems to have reduced poaching to a very low opportunistic level. Litter is relativelyabundant on Amandangan beach and to a lesser extent on more sheltered beaches.Plastic bottles for example, are washed in from the Indian Ocean, their origin being wide-ranging, not only from Indonesia, highlighting this global problem.Protection StatusIn 1996 the protection status of Pulau Banyak was upgraded from a Wildlife Reserve(Suaka Margasatwa) to a Protected Nature Tourism Park (Taman Wisata Alam).This upgraded legislative protection from the administration of regional government tothat of central government, but with this, the Wildlife Reserve status was removed. Copyrighted@BHow this declared status can assist the protection of Pulau Banyak’s vulnerable marinehabitats is questionable. The boundaries of the Nature Tourism Park are not demarcatedin the field, and as such provide no basis for enforcing the park laws. Even if the park’sboundaries were defined, fish, sea turtles and dugongs would still roam areas beyondthese boundaries. 18
  19. 19. Enforcing protective legislation via civilian jurisdiction would be very hard to achieve in astrong community and traditional law based archipelago; such remote areas are far fromthe influence of civil law and central government.A quid pro quo approach would be necessary with defined obligations and incentives;only then could protective legislation and enforcement be effective.Protected area management, particularly for the Pulau Bangkaru Marine Reserve, whichis non existent should be considered to play a significant part thru coastal management.Program to help promote sustainable development.Post Disaster ThreatBACKGROUNDThe First Great EarthquakeOn the morning of December 26, 2004, a massive earthquake, registering 9.0 on therichter scale hit Indonesia with its epicenter in the Indian Ocean, within 150 kilometerssouth of Meulaboh and about 250 kilometers from Banda Aceh, the capital of Acehprovince, of the coast of Sumatra, Indonesia.The earthquake was a megathrust event, where one tectonic plate subducts beneathanother. In this case, the quake occurred along the boundary of the India and Burmaplates, along the Sunda Trench. The India plate moves an average of 6 centimeters peryear in relation to the Burma plate, and generates strike-slip faulting several hundredkilometers east of the Sunda Trench. Analyses of their characteristics indicate thatnearly 1200 kilometers of the plate boundary fractured and slipped, with a likely width ofmore than 100 kilometers and a displacement of about 15 meters.The earthquake originated at a shallow point, some 30 kilometers below the IndianOcean, The first quake was followed by many strong aftershocks ranging from 6 to 7.3,themselves large enough to destroy thousands of lives and livelihoods. it was asfollowed by a massive tidal wave or “tsunami” that devastated the human populationliving on the coastline of Aceh and parts of North Sumatra Province. 19
  20. 20. The TsunamiThe tsunami traveled at high speeds. BMG estimates the tsunami took 45 minutes toreach places 120 kilometers from the epicenter; in 2 hours, it had traveled 1000kilometers.The greatest human loss is due to the massive tsunami that swept away and killed tensof thousands of people living on the coast. The west and north-west parts of Aceh werethe most heavily hit by the tsunami which followed the earthquake, the same tsunamiscaused death and destruction throughout southern Asia and as far away as Africa.Without effective early warning systems, people were unaware of the incoming tsunami,and the death toll was extremely high as a result, while infrastructure, productiveactivities and the natural environment were either destroyed or damaged. The human tollin Indonesia due the earthquake and the tsunamis has been massive, and larger than inany other country in the region. As of January 14, 2005, 110,229 (Dept. of Social AffairData) were accounted for as dead, 12,132 as missing and 703,518 as InternallyDisplace Persons (IDPs) living in termporary shelters and camps within Aceh and NorthSumatra. This figure is incomplete as not all IDPs have been accountedData is still unreliable for many areas , a further breakdown to identify specific individualsectors reveals that housing, both urban and rural, was the single most affected one(Rp. 13 trillion or 32% of the total), followed by agriculture and fishery (about Rp. 6.8trillion), industry and trade (Rp. 4.1 trillion) and transport (Rp. 5 trillion). This is of specialrelevance since it reveals the amounts of the special and urgent needs of housing,means of production in agriculture, fishery and micro to medium-size businesses; thatthe essential social and economic infrastructure requires immediate replacement. Manyenvironmental services will not be available until environmental assets are restored bynature.Second Great EarthquakeA Second great earthquake was noted at 23:09:36 hrs, local time at epicenter, onMonday, March 28, 2005. The magnitude was 8.7 on the Richter scale and located inNORTHERN SUMATRA, INDONESIA. The epicenter was located 90 km south ofSinabang with 30 Km Depth 2.065 N 97.010 EEvidence emerges that earthquake generated significant tsunami. A US GeologicalSurvey tsunami expert said “a tsunami estimated at almost half the size of the one thatstruck on December 26 hit some areas along the north-west coast of Sumatra. Weregetting reports of about four meters in certain areas." 48 aftershocks following the initialearthquake, a further 628 over the following two days and 51 in the first eight hours ofThursday. Multiple aftershocks measuring 6.0 or higher in the early hours after initialquake. Latest aftershock reported at 6.1 and 6.3 in magnitude off of Indonesias coast,recorded in Hong Kong at 01.05 GMT and 03.16 GMT and was centered about 280kilometers west-northwest of Padang and south-south southwest of Medan, .Area affectedMajor affected areas are the following:1. Pulau Banyak, Singkil Region, NAD Province (Closest to the Epicenter)2. Nias Island, Nias Province, Capital Gunung Sitoli, Gido, Gomo and Teluk Dalam (District Capital of South Nias)3. Simeulue Island, NAD Province 20
  21. 21. Pulau Banyak (Banyak Island) is the nearest area from the epicenter. Banyak Island,located far way from Sumatra Island in the Indian Ocean, consist of some small islandsand belong to Aceh Singkil region. ‘’What we already know is, as reported by head of thedistrict, there is 3-4 meters wave hit the coastal area,’’Tuesday, 29-March-2005, 14:33:00 Banda Aceh, detikcomPulau Banyak lies between the islands of Simeulue to the north-west and Nias to thesouth-east, off the west coast of Aceh, Sumatra’s north-westernmost province 21
  22. 22. Population at risk Affected populationTHE LOST EXPERIENCE OF THE PEOPLE OF PULAU BANYAKDAMAGE ASSESSMENTMajority of housing damage in the Banyak Group was experienced on P. Tuangku whereDesa Haloban and Teusa were seriously damaged. The affected population is 1100persons the majority of whom derive their family livelihood from fishing. They have losttheir boats, nets and income stream.The food security and income situation on the Island group has collapsed as the fishingindustry has been devastated.Tsunami deposits at Tuangku Island recorded two waves from the 28 March tsunami.Run-up elevations were 2 to 3 m above sea level at the time the tsunami arrived. Onnorthern Tuangku, the tsunami went into a dense jungle and the team was not able tomeasure maximum inundation distances because they could not get through the jungle.Tsunami flow depths were greater than 2 m near the shore. Subsidence was hard toestimate, but the island appeared to have subsided, perhaps by 0.5 m or less. The teamheard reports that the tsunami was about 3 m on the backside (eastern side) of Tuangkuat Sialit. The tsunami inundated more than 200 meters inland. Flow depths wereapproximately 2 meters and run-up was approximately 3 meters above present sealevel. Tsunami deposit with two distinct layers indicates at least two waves. On SWTuangku, the team did not see evidence for uplift or subsidence. Farther north, therewas approximately 0.3 meter subsidence.Boats have been lost and fishing grounds disturbed through turbidity and destruction ofcoral. It is feared fishing and breeding grounds may have been destroyed which willprevent the return of economically viable stocks of fish in areas where the villagers canaccess them.Secondly, the Banyak Group has a lobster fishing industry for export and localconsumption which has similarly been destroyed through loss of pots, boats anddamage to lobster beds. The infrastructure can be replaced fairly quickly, but thereluctance to put to sea again may take some time to pass. 22
  23. 23. An assessment of breeding and fishing grounds by a marine biologist will assistconsiderations of the larger environmental and fishing viability issues.The jetty at Haloban has been seriously damaged, but small cargo boats can still tie upand unload. The mooring will take boats of 2-3 MT capacity.There was no report of the status of unloading at Teusa. 23
  24. 24. There is concern on P. Tuangku for increases in malaria and GI disease as a result ofincreased contaminated surface water.The schools in Haloban was flooded and lost its contents. Children have reportedly lostmost of their shoes as they fled without putting them on. 24
  25. 25. The Banyak group has five schools which were flooded losing materials and equipment.The bulk of the other islands, whilst used for Coconut Palm plantations arepredominately uninhabited. There is a small coconut oil / copra industry in the BanyakGroup where copra is produced and transported to P. Nias for oil extraction. Althoughthat industry is not profitable at the moment due to the low copra price.Food stress crops such as forest sago are being used which is an indicator in Indonesiaof community food insecurity. 25
  26. 26. Pulau Balai (Kec. Kep. Banyak)The capital, Pulau Balai is one of the smallest islands in the group and contains theprincipal town. On P. Balai (pop. 5600), which is only 2m above sea level at its highestpoint, the tsunami of about 1m covered a large part of the main town.Wells 50-100m from the coast were inundated and are now saline. 26
  27. 27. There are three assistant Puskesmas on the islands which are all still operational and asthe group still has power the cold chain has been retainedAfter receiving information on the water crisis in the island it was thought that thefreshwater lens of this coral atoll might have collapsed which might necessitate theevacuation of the island for one or more yearsHowever, it was discovered by the joint AusAID / CARE assessment on 12 January2005 that wells further inland were not affected and hence the island’s lens must beintact.The wells near the coast, which comprise 40% of wells on P. Balai are generally 2-3 mdeep and may recharge during this year’s rains if they are heavy enough. Water is beingdrawn from wells further in land and provided to homes closer to the coast. The situationmight benefit in the short term from the introduction of two ‘Oxfam Bladders’ and tapstands to assist families with saline wells to source clean water. In the long term there isscope for a rain water harvesting programme as most buildings have CGI roofs. 27
  28. 28. OTHER CROSS CUTTING ISSUESLOSS OF SOCIAL CAPITALTHE EXPERIENCE OF TRAUMAONGOING SECURITY ISSUESCONFLICTAceh has experienced two decades of continued, albeit low-intensity, conflict in theprovince. The conflict has taken the lives of some 10,000 people, and led to thedestruction of infrastructure and basic services such as health and education. Thisnatural disaster came at a time when the Indonesian Government has scaled-downmartial law status in Aceh to that of a civil emergency status.It is estimated that 35,000 people, predominantly women, children and the aged, hadalready been displaced by the conflict. Some of those displaced have also been affectedby the tsunami (many conflict IDPs are from West Sumatra, one of the areas mostheavily hit by the tsunami 28
  30. 30. - CHILDREN AS ORPHANS 30
  31. 31. ECONOMIC IMPACTSI was employed as a fisherman, along with some of my friends here. Wewould prefer to continue fishing in the future, but I guess we could changeprofessions if necessary. The important thing is to obtain a living – anythingreally, as long as it is well planned.You know we don’t have a tent yet. We shall weave some leavesinto a temporary roof to keep the rain away. I do want to return. ActuallyI will return if the majority decides that this is the best thing to do.Head of family in Haluban Village (Tuangku Island Pulau - Banyak) 31
  32. 32. Environment Damage assessmentThe most serious threat to the coastal environment from the tsunami currently n Acehregion, North Sumatra Provinces and the western islands of Indonesia an estimated 30per cent of the nearly 100,000 hectares of coral reefs were damaged. Besides coralreefs, highly productive seagrass meadows, are found off the coast of Banyak Islands.Functionally, they also serve to trap coastal sediments, provide coastalprotection from high waters and support endangered Green Sea Turtle anddugong populations in the area.Reports from residents state that coconut trees that stretched along the beach wereuprooted by the tsunami. This situation leads to strong speculation that the entire coralreef ecosystem, the turtle breeding beach, and seagrass beds (habitat for dugong) werecompletely destroyed.The National Development Planning Agency (BAPPENAS) initial national damageassessment estimated 20 per cent loss of seagrass meadows, approximately 600hectares, for a net loss of $2.3 million ($2,684/ha estimated value). For coral reefs theestimated valuation of 30 per cent damage to 97,250 hectares is a net loss of $332.4million ($1,599/ha). Wetlands International has also conducted preliminary assessmentsof the impact on seagrass in a number of Islands. 32
  33. 33. Critical coastal habitats.The earthquake and tsunami had enormous impacts on thecoastal environment, causing damage and loss of animals, plants and habitats, andimportant ecosystem functions. This assessment covers, in order of priority: criticalcoastal habitats, water bodies, terrestrial ecosystems, debris and waste, land,environmental management capacity, and chemical contamination.Debris and waste. The earthquake and tsunami generated a huge amount of buildingrubble and other debris as well as redistributed municipal and industrial wastes. All theserequire collection, processing and disposal. If not properly managed, wastes may pose arisk to human health as well as ecological functions.Appropriate waste management is a key to the environmental rehabilitation of theaffected areas. Storage and recycling of building rubbles should be given a top prioritynot only to clear the transport network and to improve living environment, but also toprovide an opportunity to reduce recovery cost through recycling of debris, as well asavoiding impacts on the environmental conditions.The need to view the removal of debris as an opportunity for employment generation,resource recovery for reconstruction and fill for coastal protection, Heightenedvulnerability of the coastline to tides, storm surges and high winds due to the loss ofbeaches, coral reefs and mangroves. Contamination of some rural drinking waterresources (shallow wells) from mud, silt, debris, and saltwater, Increased vulnerability toflooding in urban areas due to changes in river flow patterns, The long-term loss ofeconomic opportunities and environmental services from damaged reefs and forestswhich will need at least a generation to recuperate.Water bodies (rivers, lakes, wetlands, and groundwater systems). It is expected that thefreshwater resources in rivers will recover quickly, probably in a matter of days, fromany impact. It is therefore unlikely that the quantity and quality of river water in the upperreaches have been impacted. In the lower parts, i.e. 2 to 4 kilometers from the coastalregion, most rivers have wider river beds that have received both saline water andsediment from marine areas, sludge from lower river parts and topsoil.Replacement cost has been calculated for the rehabilitation of shallow wells by removingsand and sediments and pumping out saline water, followed by disinfection. Some repairwork on wells and pumping equipment may be required. No data on the number and 33
  34. 34. condition of the shallow wells are available except for some rapid assessments made byNGOs like Oxfam.A rough estimate based on rural population, service level and the areas that have beenflooded is that 1,000 shallow wells may have been affected. Rehabilitation of each ofthese, undertaken by local people with technical assistance from NGOs, is estimated tocost an average $1,000 per well. This yields a total cost of $1 million for shallow wellrehabilitation in the rural coastal areas.Agricultural, forest and other terrestrial ecosystems.Forest areas are included in the coastal strips, but actual coverage of forests in thecoastal strip is not clarified. Damages to the patch forest areas were not evaluated indetail, an attempt should be made to evaluate the damages to forests.Foregone land use opportunities due to lost or degraded land.The tsunami modified not only land surface, but also the coastal lines and channelmorphology in the lower stretches of the rivers. Consequently some land around rivermouths and coastal lagoons lost critical functions such as shoreline protection andsupport for coastal habitats. 34
  35. 35. Further, the modified coastal and riverine land has simply disappeared along withassociated land uses. Information on the extent of the lost land is not available atthe time of the current assessment. However, an attempt is made to estimate, using thetotal housing unit destroyed, the magnitude of the land loss.The total housing units destroyed in Pulau Banyak is 290 houses. The average value ofhouse and land US$5,000, while the land value constitutes approximately 35%.The value of the lost land is calculated at US$94.1M, but this estimate is taken as anupper side. Assuming 20% and 50% scenarios, the range of value is US$23.5 –US$47.1.Local environmental management capacity. Local environmental and solid wastemanagement institutions (buildings, equipment, staff, records) have been significantlyaffected. The recovery cost for these authorities in local governments is included in theCivil Service report. However, it is noted that early re-establishment of solid wastemanagement services and local environmental management capacity is essential for therehabilitation and reconstruction program, including data collection, EIA, licensing andenvironmental monitoring.CURRENT INSTITUTIONAL SET UPIndonesia regularly experiences a wide range of disasters, such as earthquakes, floods,storms, wild fires, volcanic eruptions and tsunamis. The National Coordinating Board forDisaster Management and Internally Displaced People Affairs (Bakornas PBP)coordinates disaster prevention, mitigation, response and recovery nationally.Bakornas is chaired by the Vice-President of Indonesia and is placed under theCoordinating Minister of People’s Welfare. It has a core staff of about 40 people andrelies on the line ministries for the implementation of disaster relief. The ministries ofHome Affairs, Social Affairs, Health, Settlement and Regional Infrastructure,Communications and the Chief Commander of the Armed Forces and the Police aremembers of Bakornas.Coordinating units are established in provincial levels (Satkorlak PBP), with subsidiarystructures at district or municipal levels (Satlak PBP) Bakornas has evolved over itsalmost 40 years of existence as warranted by changing national needs and theemergence of different types of disaster risks.Bakornas controls a limited budget to execute its coordination task. A contingencybudget is placed with each member line ministry that can be released by the Ministry ofFinance in case of emergency.While Bakornas has a coordinating role, it has little authority over how spendingdecisions are made in the event of an emergency. This coordination has beenundertaken in liaison with the remaining local authorities and the international relief effortled by the UN with the participation of many bilateral and international donors, officialrelief agencies and national as well as international NGOs.Foreign support and response to the disaster UN bodies that continue to participate isaid among others: UN-OCHA, UNICEF,UNHCR, WFP, WHO, ION as for internationalNGOs are OXFAM, CARE, SurfAID, JICA, International Rescue Team, ICRC, alsoNGO’s from countries such as Singapore, Australia, Poland, Hungary, France etc. 35
  36. 36. THE HELP THAT NEVER CAMEThe Local Government had not managed to reach the western islands- Bakornas Posko for Singkil is situated at Kantor Kodim 0109/Aceh Singkil, additional secondary and health posko are set up in every district in Singkil.- There is not Bakornas Posko in Pulau Banyak.Relief webThe first difficulty looks then however in such a way that there is no regularferryOCHA-02: 29-Mar-05West Coast:The main area of concern is now Singkil District, which includes part of the coastline onSumatra and islands including Pulau Banyak. As it is not possible to land on PulauBanyak an aerial assessment using low-flying aircraft was made. This assessmenthas indicated little damage but unconfirmed reports suggest a more serious situation.An initial assessment of the situation in Singkil District is being conducted by theauthorities and an OCHA led inter-agency assessment to Singkil via road will beconducted. Coordination meetings for the situation on the West Coast are being held inMeulaboh.OCHA Situation Report No. 3 Indonesia Earthquake,30 March 2005The government latest plan for house reconstructions and replacement fordamaged fishing fleets, but this plan does not include anything for PULAUBANYAK 36
  37. 37. Map 7 shows the total timber requirement for the construction of barracks, houses,fishing fleets, schools and pesantrens, as well as public facilities (minimum scenario).This timber will be very difficult to supply from domestic sources, considering that, todate, Indonesia’s forests have already had difficulty in supplying the raw material forindustry. This total timber requirement could potentially soar in execution, consideringthe extensive construction planned that has not yet been recorded, including the plansfor office building construction, and other public buildings that will naturally requirelarge amounts of timber.Sources:• Digital map of the Province of NAD, Forestry Planning Agency, Ministry of Forestry(2002)• Recapitulation of minimum timber requirement for constructions of barracks, houses,schools and pesantrens,public facilities and rebuilding of fishing fleets (official figures, February 2005)Total timber requiredSawn timber : 446,041 m3Logs : 1,115,102 m3f. Minimum Timber Requirementthe minimum timber requirement for the construction of barracks, houses, schools andpesantrens, public facilities, and fishing fleets is estimated at 446,041 m3 of sawn timber,equivalent to 1,115,102 m3 of logs. This means that, in practice, this timber requirementwill naturally be far greater, considering the extensive other housing and infrastructurenot yet included in this estimate of the minimum timber requirement above.• Digital map of the Province of NAD, Forestry Planning Agency, Ministry of Forestry (2002)• Data on level of damage of fishing fleets, Ministry of Maritime Affairs and Fisheries (February2005) 37
  38. 38. The community assessment, conducted at three different spontaneoussettlements in Pulau Banyak , confirmed the following issues emerged asbeing of key concern:− Guidance is necessary to enable communities to be better informed of the likelihood of natural disasters happening, and to enable them to prepare better for future eventualities;− Communities expressed concern for greater community involvement in environmental management decision-making and practical management;− Clearly, there is uneven distribution of relief assistance between the settlements, with some apparently being more .favoured. than others;− Loss of jobs as a result of the tsunami is a concern . there are no immediate prospects of this situation improving;− Solid (domestic) waste . collection and disposal . is an issue in most settlements;− Sanitation, especially inadequate numbers of latrines is a widespread concern;− Ground water quality shown no obvious signs of improving: water shortages are reported from some settlements;− Presence of disease-carrying insects as a result of standing water bodies; no protection offered against mosquitoes. 38
  39. 39. Short Term InterventionsShort term relief programme initiatives should include the following:i. Assist the island community in starting an immediate logistic center, help create a proper data collections and distribution system, Requirement for 7 village logistic center (7 buildings, 14 manual type writers, 35 officers, 35 desk and chair, stationeries)ii. Immediate need for donors for satellite phone x 7 for each village office (7 x Rp 6.000.000,-. Rupiahs = Rp 42.000.000,-.) and additional Rp 1.000.000 credit per village.iii. Immediate need for land clearance for and lights for helicopter landing pad per village.iv. Immediate need to assist the village coordination to network with aid and donors agenciesv Immediate need to repair all the broken jetties for unloading, and to coordinate storage capacity in port Singkilvi Immediate need to source up 3 x 3 ton cargo boat to deliver from Singkil to each island on a weekly basisvii Aid to northern, western and southern villages and IDP settlements, plus P. Tuangku in the Banyak Group. Food aid should be predominately rice and efforts should be made to reduce bulky, heavy bottled water provision supplementing water availability with other strategies.Viii Secure clean water availability in terms of Sphere minimum standards via management of streams, use of bladders and distribution networks. Availability of CARE Safe Water Systems and jerry cans / bladders will be an immediate initiative ahead of the provision of bladders. Subsequent monitoring of water quality and availability should be sought by implementing partners in co-operation with local Government. Consideration to the dispatch of a RedR water expert might be considered.ix. Support should be given to the medical system in terms of drugs, vaccines, dressings, temporary medical facilities where required and provision of power through generators and fuel.x. Interim support to those who have lost their houses in the form of tools and emergency shelter materials.xii. Immediate hygiene initiative in latrine construction and public health campaign concerning use and maintenance of field latrines.xii.Commencement of children’s activities such as provision of footwear, clothes and medical outreach servicesxiii. Support to schools in the form of temporary building materials and school kits to assist the re-commencement of school and recreational activities. Total school kits required for 1250 children ( we hope to bring this on our next trip 24 June 2005). 39
  40. 40. xiv. Immediate support to food security through re-establishment of low technology fishing via boat repair, large boat and small throw nets.xv. A second level of support to food security through the provision of seeds and tools. Seeds should include a variety of vegetable as well as staples to increase micro-nutrient diversity.xvi. Immediate sourcing of mosquito nets and netting material to increase protection against malaria.xvii.Immediate need for 1 x police patrol boat 40
  41. 41. xviii and additional 7 regular ferries designated to 7 villages on a daily basis.Longer Term StrategiesAn array of longer term strategies can be considered for bilateral and multi-lateral donorsas well as private NGO funds in association with local Government, but as a result of theearthquake and tsunami the following could be considered.i. Support to the fishing industry to commence with professional assessment of the fisheries and breeding grounds and a strategy for safe, environmentally secure fishing undertaken across the island. This might involve the provision of expertise in assessment and advice from Australia, equipment and training for fishermen and local guidance on fishing policies and practices. 41
  42. 42. ii. A programme to diversify the farming activities on the island with a view to protecting the environment and increasing micro-nutrient diversity within the diet of islanders. This could include provision of a range of seed types, instruction in growing and use and the initiation of community managed seed / seedling nurseries. Trees could also be produced to reduce erosion from hillsides on to settled areas and in to water sources.iii. Expert advice and solutions to secure water sources on the island from salt water inundation. Clearing of saline wells is a priority, but a parallel programme in both island groups to promote rain water harvesting from roofs should be encouraged through assistance from Australia. Both community and household rain water tanks can be developed, the former being stone structures built by communities and managed within communities.iv. Assessment and support for other community based income initiatives outside of fishing, rice growing and Government coconut / palm oil farms.v. Support to the Government in repair and completion of the ‘ring road’, power and communications infrastructure to link the entire island.vi. An island wide disaster preparedness and early warning network with all communities linked to Sinabang (& the mainland). This would be extended to include codes for planning, building & construction to minimize earthquake / tsunami damage and to protect citizens and vital assets.vii. Public health initiatives to promote malaria awareness, diverse nutrition and public health / sanitation in association with the existing community outreach programmes. 42
  43. 43. REFERENCES - Stringell, T. B., M. Bangkaru, A. P. J. M. Steeman, and L. Bateman. 2000. Green turtle nesting at Pulau Banyak (Sumatra, Indonesia). Marine Turtle Newsletter 90:6-8. - Community Turtle Conservation at Río, SUMMER ~ AUTUMN 99, Volume II, Number 2. On The Coast of Pulau Banyak, Indonesia, By Thomas Stringell – Environment Programme Pulau Banyak. - MARINE TURTLE SPECIALIST GROUP REVIEW, IUCN 2004 GLOBAL STATUS ASSESSMENT Green turtle (Chelonia mydas) - A GLOBAL OVERVIEW OF PROTECTED AREAS ON THE WORLD HERITAGE, LIST OF PARTICULAR IMPORTANCE FOR BIODIVERSITY, A contribution to the Global Theme Study of World Heritage Natural Sites, UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre Cambridge, UK November 2000 - UNJLC (United Nations Joint Logistics Centre) UNJLC-TSUNAMI Bulletin - WHO 28 March earthquake: Situation Report 3 - 9 - ARDUINO, G., 2005. Geological/Hydrological Assessment of the Tsunami. Presentation by UNITED NATIONS SCIENCE AND CULTURE ORGANIZATION. - AUSTRALIAN AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT, 2005. Rapid Assessment of Western Islands of Aceh (Pulau Simeulue, Kepulauan Banyak & Aceh Singkil): 09-14 January 2005. Available from: http://www.reliefweb.int/rw/RWB.NSF/db900SID/EVIU-68XK9V?OpenDocument. - BAPPENAS, 2005. Indonesia: Notes on Reconstruction, the December 26, 2004 Natural Disaster. Government of Indonesia. Available from: http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTINDONESIA/Resources/Publication/28001 6-1106130305439/ reconstruction_notes.pdf. - BAPPENAS, 2005. Indonesia: Preliminary Damage and Loss Assessment. The December 26, 2004 Natural Disaster. Government of Indonesia. Available from: http://www.indonesia-berlin.de/news/release/TsunamiAssesment.pdf. - INTER-AGENCY RAPID HEALTH ASSESSMENT, 2005. West Aceh, Indonesia Earthquake and Tsunami Response End of Mission Report, January 13-19, 2005. Available from: http://www.dec.org/pdf_docs/PNADB796.pdf. - MINISTRY OF ENVIRONMENT, 2005. Rapid Environmental Assessment: Banda Aceh, Sumatra. Jakarta: Government of Indonesia. - PACIFIC DISASTER MANAGEMENT INFORMATION NETWORK, 2005. Indian Ocean Earthquake & Tsunami Emergency Update, February 11, 2005. Available from: http://www.coe-dmha.org. - PARISH F., D. LEE, 2005. Preliminary Information on Impacts of the 26th December 2004 Tsunami on Selected Coastal Ecosystems in Aceh Province, Indonesia, Malaysia: Global Environment Centre. 43
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  45. 45. Samsul-din van Pasai. Bijdrage tot de kennis der Sumatraansche mystiek. Leiden: E.J. Brill.- Regeeringsalmanak 1876Regeeringsalmanak voor Nederlandsch-Indie. Tweede gedeelte: kalender en personalia. Batavia: Landsdrukkerij.- Snouck Hurgronje, C. 1906 The Achehnese. 2 vols. Leyden: E.J. Brill.- Voll, John 1975 `Muhammad Hayya al-Sindi and Muhammad ibn `Abd al- Wahhab: an analysis of an intellectual group in eighteenth-century Madina, in: Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 38: 32-39. Voorhoeve, P. 1980 Handlist of Arabic manuscripts in the library of the University of Leiden and other collections in the Netherlands. Second enlarged edition. The Hague/Boston/London: Leiden University Press. (Codices Manuscripti, 7).- Policy Studies 2 The Free Aceh Movement(GAM): Anatomy of a Separatist OrganizationKirsten E. Schulze 45