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Cognitive apprenticeship

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  • Good evening! My Name is Monica Jackson. My project is on the Instructional Strategy: of Cognitive Apprenticeship
  • Apprenticeship has been a widely used educational methodology, one which allows novice to take advantage of the situated nature of knowledge and to model experts in its application. By emerging in an authentic activity under the guidance of an expert, novice learn in an environment that does not abstract conceptual knowledge from the situation in which it is used.
  • First I want to start of with a Definition: “ is a theory of the process where a master of a skill teaches that skill to an apprentice” . The focus of this learning-through-guided-experience is on cognitive and metacognitive skills, rather than on the physical skills and processes of traditional apprenticeships. Applying apprenticeship methods to largely cognitive skills requires the externalization of processes that are usually carried out internally. Observing the processes by which an expert listener or reader thinks and practices these skills can teach students to learn on their own more skillfully
  • The focus of this learning-through-guided-experience is on cognitive and metacognitive skills, rather than on the physical skills and processes of traditional apprenticeships. Applying apprenticeship methods to largely cognitive skills requires the externalization of processes that are usually carried out internally. Observing the processes by which an expert listener or reader thinks and practices these skills can teach students to learn on their own more skillfully
  • Apprenticeship model applies to cognitive skills Cognitive: (i.e. - thinking, reasoning, or remembering) Instructional tactics Situated modeling – the area when the task and skills are demonstrated by the master expert Coaching - occurs when the student performs the task or skill…given by the master expert Scaffolding – occurs in the coaching period and increases as need Fading – occurs in the coaching period and decrease as the students skill devevop ILLISTRATED BY COLLIN, BROWN, AND NEWMAN uses the apprenticeship model as it applies to cognitive rather than physical skills or process
  • Zones of Proximal Development, by Vygotsky has been compared to the methods of Cognitive Apprenticeship ZPD consisted of 4 stages
  • As a Job Developer, for the North Carolina Department of Vocational Rehabilitation, understanding these methods and stages has been tremendously beneficial for the placement of agency clients. Clients that are served rely on the help of the agency for appropriate accommodations to ensure their employment success. Their disabilities are physical, psychiatric or intellectual; and affect the ability to find or keep a job. Depending on the individual performance plan (employment goals), it will be factored into account the plan of action.
  • Cognitive Apprenticeship is a great instructional strategy for the clients of Vocational Rehabilitation. And the instructional techniques are conducive for the way of learning for their clients as well, that require additional supportive measures.

Transcript

  • 1. Monica C. Jackson HRD 847 Instructional System Design March 7, 2011
  • 2.  
  • 3.
    • Definition:
    • “ is a theory of the process where a master of a skill teaches that skill to an apprentice”
    • is a method of teaching aimed primarily at teaching the processes that experts use to handle complex tasks (Collins, Brown, Newman, 1989, p. 457-548).
  • 4.
    • The focus of this learning-through-guided-experience is on cognitive and metacognitive skills, rather than on the physical skills and processes of traditional apprenticeships.
  • 5.
    • “ Apprenticeship model applies to cognitive skills”
    • Instructional Techniques (or tactics)
      • Situated modeling
      • Coaching
      • Scaffolding
      • Fading
  • 6. Vygotsky, L.S. (1978). Mind and society: The development of higher mental processes. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
  • 7.
    • Stage I - “Where performance is assisted by more capable others
    • Stage II – “Where performance is assisted by the self
    • Stage III – “Where performance is developed
    • Stage IV – “de-automation of performance leads to recursion back through the Zone of Proximal Development
    • (Tharp, R. G., & Gallimore, R., 1988)
  • 8. “ Getting or keeping a job is the main goal of the partnership between the consumer and Vocational Rehabilitation. After an evaluation of the consumer’s strengths, skills and experience, an individual plan for employment is jointly developed by the consumer and counselor, carefully monitored and, if needed, adjustments are made.” (North Carolina Department of Vocational Rehabilitation Services – website)
  • 9.