Monica C. Jackson HRD 847 Instructional System Design March 7, 2011
“ is a theory of the process where a master of a skill teaches that skill to an apprentice”
is a method of teaching aimed primarily at teaching the processes that experts use to handle complex tasks (Collins, Brown, Newman, 1989, p. 457-548).
The focus of this learning-through-guided-experience is on cognitive and metacognitive skills, rather than on the physical skills and processes of traditional apprenticeships.
“ Apprenticeship model applies to cognitive skills”
Instructional Techniques (or tactics)
Vygotsky, L.S. (1978). Mind and society: The development of higher mental processes. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Stage I - “Where performance is assisted by more capable others
Stage II – “Where performance is assisted by the self
Stage III – “Where performance is developed
Stage IV – “de-automation of performance leads to recursion back through the Zone of Proximal Development
(Tharp, R. G., & Gallimore, R., 1988)
“ Getting or keeping a job is the main goal of the partnership between the consumer and Vocational Rehabilitation. After an evaluation of the consumer’s strengths, skills and experience, an individual plan for employment is jointly developed by the consumer and counselor, carefully monitored and, if needed, adjustments are made.” (North Carolina Department of Vocational Rehabilitation Services – website)