Restorative PracticePutting a relational culture at thecentre of the educational experienceand responding to harmA tasterMike Stone
• “There is growing evidence that bullying inschools (Internationally) is on the rise , speciallywith the emergence of cyber-bullying and thatbullying does have a negative impact on studentseducational achievement” PIRLS (Published 2013)• Students bullied at school (InternationalComparison) 2012• NZ toward the very bottom of the OECDcountries.
• “Various international comparisons over the past15 years have found that New Zealand• students—both primary and secondary—findinteractions with peers more intimidating and• less safe than students in many other countries.New Zealand’s comparatively high youth• suicide rate reinforces the importance ofattending to this finding.”• BES Leadership MOE Document.
Margaret Thorsborne and Associates,2010Authoritarian Insists authority is not questionedInsists authority is not questioned Demands obedience/complianceDemands obedience/compliance Relates through the ROLE - cannot afford toRelates through the ROLE - cannot afford tobe seen as abe seen as a realreal personperson No requirement to explain (do as you’re told)No requirement to explain (do as you’re told) Use of punishment, threats, rewardsUse of punishment, threats, rewardsPurpose is toPurpose is to traintrain the child, and serves thethe child, and serves theneed for order, discipline and predictability,need for order, discipline and predictability,is rule driven and ADULT centredis rule driven and ADULT centredDiscontent, withdrawn, mistrustful, defiant, desensitised
School response driven by individual studentbehaviour - more disruption, more removals Strict adherence to rules regardless ofcontext The need for strong unequivocal action as adeterrent Removing troublemakers will improve schoolclimate Zero tolerance for some behaviours Higher rates of suspensionMargaret Thorsborne and Associates,2010
Punishment as a Quick Fix For students who are well connected, solidFor students who are well connected, solidpeer group, rational control…peer group, rational control… But not for our troubled kids.But not for our troubled kids.
Donald Nathanson, 1992. Shame and Pride: Affect, Sex, and the birth of the Self.The Compass of Shame
What happened?What happened? What rule was broken?What rule was broken? Who’s to blame?Who’s to blame? What punishment is deserved?What punishment is deserved?Margaret Thorsborne and Associates,2010
Need to put the relationship before the role, to beauthentic and interested in them Use stories about real life to make a point – kids learnteachers, not subjects Must teach them how to think – knowledge is a clickaway Need recognition and positive affirmations Gen Y toughness hides insecurity – need leadership,boundaries, mentoring and close connection withadultsMichael McQueen,“NextGen”, 2007Margaret Thorsborne and Associates,2010
• Greater willingness to understand the contextof student behaviour and work with parentsto find solutions• Greater reliance on preventative measuresdesigned for forestalling or avoiding the lossof instructional time• Beliefs around long term risk to individualsand communities v’s the quick fix• Lower rates of suspensionsMargaret Thorsborne and Associates,2010
Margaret Thorsborne and Associates,2010Thinking about discipline…What outcomes do we seek for:What outcomes do we seek for: the school community/class as a whole?the school community/class as a whole? the wrongdoer?the wrongdoer? the wrongdoer’s parents?the wrongdoer’s parents? the victim?the victim? the victim’s parents?the victim’s parents? staff involved in the incident?staff involved in the incident?What strategy will deliver the outcomes weWhat strategy will deliver the outcomes weseek?seek?Punitive or restorativePunitive or restorative
Restorative Response• What harm has been done?What harm has been done?• EEg Who has been hurt?g Who has been hurt?What are their needs?What are their needs?• Whose obligations are these?Whose obligations are these?• What needs to be done to restore theWhat needs to be done to restore therelationships?relationships?
Fundamental concepts of RestorativePractice Misconduct is a violation of people andMisconduct is a violation of people andrelationshipsrelationships Violations create obligations and liabilitiesViolations create obligations and liabilities Restorative practices seek to heal and putRestorative practices seek to heal and putthings rightthings right The people in the problem are the people inThe people in the problem are the people inthe problem-solvingthe problem-solvingAdapted from Zehr and Mika, 1997
A personal ‘continuum of action’INFORMALFORMALAffective statementsAffective questionsRestorative discussionSmall impromptu conferenceCircle or classroom conferenceFormal community conferenceRestorative enquiry
Using the Restorative Chat• Commit the questions to memory or have acard handy.• The script is skeleton• Our job is to flesh this to make it meaningfuland relevant to a situation.• Rattling off questions will have limited effect.
To the wrongdoer (s)“ What happened?”• Crucial question because it invites everyone totell their story.• Creates a context where negative emotionsare shared and people can empathize witheach other.• Helps form a place to begin to deal with thepresent and then to repair harm (future)
What were you thinking of at thetime?• This question works;• Firstly to establish the wrongdoers intent at thetime(s) that hurtful actions occurred.• Secondly, it gives the facilitator and the rest of thegroup an understanding of where this person is atabout their own values and their understanding of thefeelings and needs of others.• (If a student is reluctant to share it maybe usefulto ask a support person or parent what theymight have been thinking.)
What have you thought about since?• This question reveals;– How the wrongdoing assesses or appraises theirown behaviour after they have had time to reflect– Whether the behaviour of the wrongdoer was“normal” or whether they were having a badmoment.
Who do you think has been affectedby what you did? In what way?• This questions tells us ;– The wrongdoer’s level of understanding about theimpact their actions have been.– It can be an opportunity for the victim to havetheir hurt/pain acknowledged.– It can explore empathy.
To the victim(s)• What did you think when it happened?• This is an opportunity to share their version ofevents.
What have you thought about since?• This is a chance for the victim to shareconcerns about how the incident has stayedwith them in the time since the incident• This is an empathy building experience forwrongdoers as they are given insight into howit has been for the victim.
How has this affected you?• This is the clincher question and anopportunity for the victim to share the impact.• Sometimes victims will rely on “head talk” dueto fear of being seen as weak. (Hounding isnot recommended).• A follow-up questions maybe “ Since thishappened how have things been for you?”
“ What has been the worst of it foryou?• This question aims to uncover the deeper hurtthat the incident has caused the victim andmay provide a different response to theprevious.• This question can be an important one to askthe parent in front of their children.
What’s needed to make things right?• This question is asked of the victims before itis asked of the wrongdoer. Asking thewrongdoer first may revictimise the victim iftheir response is inappropriate or “lacking” ortrivializes eg “I said sorry.”• Asking the victim first gives the wrongdoer acue for a more appropriate response later.
(Wrongdoer) “ What’s needed to makethings right?”• This is an opportunity for the wrongdoer totake the lead from the victim in putting forthideas about restoring the harm done/reparation.• They get an opportunity to say what elseneeds to happen over and above the victim’sideas, thus showing good will.
Apologies• Often a victim will choose an apology as an appropriate outcome.• Most of us know implicitly what a sincere apology needs to look,feel and sound like. We have had it modeled to us and may havehad some real life experience at apology making ourselves!• We can’t assume that a wrongdoer understands how to make anapology or follow through on a sincere one.• It is sometimes the case that a wrongdoers facial expression or bodylanguage doesn’t look apologetic. This maybe nerves or a lack ofunderstanding.• If an apology seems insincere, some useful questions are;– “ What exactly are you apologizing for?– Would you like to make this apology here in this circle or private?– You have agreed an apology is needed for what you did. Is there anyway I can help you to do this?
O’Connell, T.,Wachtel, T & Wachtel, B. (1999) Conferencing Handbook: The New REAL JUSTICE Training ManualThe Piper’s Press, Pipersville, Pennsylvania.Community ConferenceIntroductionsPreambleOffender’s StoryVictim’s StorySupporters’ StoriesReturn to OffendersAgreement PhaseClosingReintegrationPASTPRESENTFUTURE The Conference sequence and dynamicembodies the fundamental values,principles and processes of RestorativePractices.I believe that understanding theConference and its dynamics……can help teachers gain insights intothe ‘day-to-day’ practice of RP.
• “Where you put your attentionis where you get results.”• Tony Robbins
• "If you treat an individual as he is, he willremain how he is.• But if you treat him as if he were what heought to be and could be, he will becomewhat he ought to be and could be. "• Johann Goethe