TRANSFORMATION IN     BACTERIA     PRESENTED BY   MONA ALBUREIKAN
What is transformation?• Genetic transformation is the  incorporation of naked DNA  from the extracellular  environment.• ...
Types of transformation ?FIRST: Natural Transformation
Types of transformation ?FIRST: Natural Transformation
Types of transformation ?SECOND:Artificial Transformation - chemical treatment. - physical treatment. - enzymatic treatment
Types of Competent Cells for          Transformation?Chemically Competent Cells  - calcium chloride-treated = attachment o...
Types of Competent Cells for         Transformation?Electrocompetent Cells - using electroporation - create pores - geneti...
What is The basic procedure of           transformation?First:Isolation of CELL-FREEor NAKED DNA. Thecells are broken and ...
What is The basic procedure of          transformation?Second:Mixing of Donor DNA with Recipient Competent Cells. The nake...
What is The basic procedure of           transformation?Third:Uptake and Recombination of  Donor DNA. Donor DNA  binds to ...
What is The basic procedure of transformation?
"Naked" DNA could be fragments of DNA or                plasmids• "Naked" DNA is  generated when  fragments of DNA or  pla...
REFRENCES•   http://www.slic2.wsu.edu:82/hurlbert/micro101/pages/Chap9.html#Transformatio    n•   http://medicine.jrank.or...
THANK YOU
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Transcript of "Transformation in bacteria"

  1. 1. TRANSFORMATION IN BACTERIA PRESENTED BY MONA ALBUREIKAN
  2. 2. What is transformation?• Genetic transformation is the incorporation of naked DNA from the extracellular environment.• It is one of three possible mechanisms of HGT (Horizontal gene transfer)• Cells that can be used for transformation are called competent.
  3. 3. Types of transformation ?FIRST: Natural Transformation
  4. 4. Types of transformation ?FIRST: Natural Transformation
  5. 5. Types of transformation ?SECOND:Artificial Transformation - chemical treatment. - physical treatment. - enzymatic treatment
  6. 6. Types of Competent Cells for Transformation?Chemically Competent Cells - calcium chloride-treated = attachment of the plasmid DNA - heat-shocked in a water bath = opens the pores of the cell membrane - entry of plasmid DNA from the buffer.
  7. 7. Types of Competent Cells for Transformation?Electrocompetent Cells - using electroporation - create pores - genetic material enters the cells.
  8. 8. What is The basic procedure of transformation?First:Isolation of CELL-FREEor NAKED DNA. Thecells are broken and theDNA released. The cell-free DNA is subsequentlyisolated and collected.
  9. 9. What is The basic procedure of transformation?Second:Mixing of Donor DNA with Recipient Competent Cells. The naked donor DNA is incubated with the competent recipient cells to which it binds.
  10. 10. What is The basic procedure of transformation?Third:Uptake and Recombination of Donor DNA. Donor DNA binds to competent recipient cells, following which it enters the recipient cells. Portions of the donor DNA align, at random, with genes on the recipient DNA and segments of the two DNAs are exchanged. The exchange inserts Donor genes into the recipient cell"s DNA.
  11. 11. What is The basic procedure of transformation?
  12. 12. "Naked" DNA could be fragments of DNA or plasmids• "Naked" DNA is generated when fragments of DNA or plasmids are released from damaged or dying cells. The fragments of DNA are then taken up by a living recipient cell and recombined with the recipient cell genome.
  13. 13. REFRENCES• http://www.slic2.wsu.edu:82/hurlbert/micro101/pages/Chap9.html#Transformatio n• http://medicine.jrank.org/pages/2890/Transformation-Discovery- Transformation.html• http://www.sci.sdsu.edu/~smaloy/MicrobialGenetics/topics/transformation/• http://www.invitrogen.com/site/us/en/home/Products-and- Services/Applications/Cloning/Transformation.html• http://www.invitrogen.com/site/us/en/home/Products-and- Services/Applications/Cloning/Transformation.html• http://biology200.gsu.edu/houghton/4564%2011/figures/lecture%203/transforma tion.jpg• http://www.pc.maricopa.edu/Biology/rcotter/BIO%20205/LessonBuilders/Chapter %209%20LB/Ch9b_print.html• http://textbookofbacteriology.net/resantimicrobial_3.html• http://www.nicerweb.com/doc/class/med/Transformation.jpg• http://www.uni-frankfurt.de/fb/fb15/institute/inst-3-mol-biowiss/AK- Averhoff/pictures/res1.png• http://www.odec.ca/projects/2006/sidh6h2/images/bgdiagram.gif
  14. 14. THANK YOU

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