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  • Motivation
    psychological processes cause the arousal, direction, and persistence of voluntary actions that are goal directed
  • Content theories of motivation
    focus on identifying internal factors such as instincts, needs, satisfaction, and job characteristics that energize employee motivation.
    Process theories of motivation
    focus on explaining the process by which internal factors and cognitions influence employee motivation
  • Table 8–1 provides an overview of the various content and process theories
    discussed in this chapter. As you study these seven theories, remember that they
    offer different recommendations about how to motivate employees because they
    are based on different sets of assumptions regarding the causes of motivation.
  • Needs
    Physiological or psychological deficiencies that arouse behavior.
  • Motivation is a function of five basic needs – physiological, safety, love, esteem, and self-actualization
    Human needs emerge in a predictable stair-step fashion
  • Maslow proposed that motivation is a function of
    five basic needs. These needs are
    1. Physiological. Most basic need. Entails having enough food, air, and water to
    survive.
    2. Safety. Consists of the need to be safe from physical and psychological harm.
    3. Love. The desire to be loved and to love. Contains the needs for affection and
    belonging.
    4. Esteem. Need for reputation, prestige, and recognition from others. Also
    contains need for self-confidence and strength.
    5. Self-actualization. Desire for self-fulfillment—to become the best one is capable
    of becoming.
    Maslow said these five needs are arranged in the prepotent hierarchy shown
    in Figure 8–1 .
  • Existence needs (E)
    the desire for physiological and materialistic wellbeing;
    Relatedness needs (R)
    the desire to have meaningful relationships with significant others
    Growth needs (G)
    the desire to grow as a human being and to use one’s abilities to their fullest potential
    Managers should keep in mind that employees may be motivated
    to pursue lower-level needs because they are frustrated with a higher-order need.
    People are motivated
    by different needs at different times in their lives
  • The answer is “B” – achievement. See next slide.
    AACSB:  Group-individual dynamics Bloom's Taxonomy:  Application Difficulty:  Medium Page:  148
  • Need for achievement
    Desire to accomplish something difficult.
    Need for affiliation
    spend more time maintaining social relationships, joining groups, and wanting to be loved
    Need for power
    Desire to Influence, coach, teach, or encourage others to achieve.
  • Achievement-motivated people share three common characteristics:
    Preference for working on tasks of moderate difficulty
    Preference for situations in which performance is due to their efforts
    Desire more feedback on their successes and failures
  • Herzberg hypothesized that motivators
    cause a person to move from a state of no satisfaction to satisfaction (see Figure 8–2 ).
    Therefore, Herzberg’s theory predicts managers can motivate individuals by incorporating
    “motivators” into an individual’s job. At best, according to Herzberg’s interpretation, an
    individual will experience no job dissatisfaction when he or she has no grievances
    about hygiene factors (refer to Figure 8–2 ).
  • Motivators
    job characteristics associated with job satisfaction
    Hygiene factors
    job characteristics associated with job dissatisfaction
  • Equity theory
    model of motivation that explains how people strive for fairness and justice in social exchanges or give-and-take relationships
  • Negative inequity
    Comparison in which another person receives greater outcomes for similar inputs.
    Positive inequity
    Comparison in which another person receives lesser outcomes for similar inputs.
  • Three different equity relationships are illustrated in Figure 8-3 : equity, negative
    inequity, and positive inequity. Assume the two people in each of the equity relationships
    in Figure 8-3 have equivalent backgrounds (equal education, seniority, and so
    forth) and perform identical tasks. Only their hourly pay rates differ. Equity exists for
    an individual when his or her ratio of perceived outcomes to inputs is equal to the ratio
    of outcomes to inputs for a relevant coworker (see part A in Figure 8-3 ). Because
    equity is based on comparing ratios of outcomes to inputs, inequity will not necessarily
    be perceived just because someone else receives greater rewards. If the other person’s
    additional outcomes are due to his or her greater inputs, a sense of equity may
    still exist. However, if the comparison person enjoys greater outcomes for similar
    inputs, negative inequity will be perceived (see part B in Figure 7-1 ). On the other
    hand, a person will experience positive inequity when his or her outcome to input ratio
    is greater than that of a relevant coworker (see part C in Figure 7-1 ).
  • No matter how fair management thinks the organization’s policies, procedures, and reward system are, each employee’s perception of the equity of those factors is what counts.
    Managers benefit by allowing employees to participate in making decisions about important work outcomes
  • Employees should be given the opportunity to appeal decisions that affect their welfare.
    Managers can promote cooperation and teamwork among group members by treating them equitably
  • Employees’ perceptions of justice are strongly influenced by the leadership behavior exhibited by their managers
    Managers need to pay attention to the organization’s climate for justice.
  • The correct answer is “C” – positive inequity.
    AACSB:  Group-individual dynamics Bloom's Taxonomy:  Application
    Difficulty:  Hard Page:  214-5
  • Goal
    what an individual is trying to accomplish
    object or aim of an action
  • Goals direct attention
    Goals regulate effort
    Goals increase persistence
    Goals foster the development and application of task strategies and action plans
  • Specific high goals lead to greater performance
    Goal specificity – quantifiability of a goal
    Feedback enhances the effect of specific, difficult goals
    Participative goals, assigned goals, and self-set goals are equally effective.
  • Action planning facilitates goal accomplishment.
    Action plan outlines the activities or tasks that need to be accomplished in order to obtain a goal.
    Goal commitment and monetary incentives affect goal-setting outcomes
    Goal commitment – extent to which an individual is personally committed to achieving a goal
  • Scientific management
    that kind of management which conducts a business or affairs by standards established by facts or truths gained through systematic observation, experiment, or reasoning
  • Job enlargement
    putting more variety into a job
    Horizontal loading
    Job rotation
    moving employees from one specialized job to another
    stimulate interest and motivation while providing employees with a broader perspective of the organization
  • Job enrichment
    Building achievement, recognition, stimulating work, responsibility, and advancement into a job.
  • As shown in Figure 8–4 , internal work motivation
    is determined by three psychological states. In turn, these psychological states are
    fostered by the presence of five core job dimensions. The object of this approach is
    to promote high intrinsic motivation by designing jobs that possess the five core job
    characteristics shown in Figure 8–4 .
  • Transcript

    • 1. © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2013 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Foundations ofFoundations of MotivationMotivation Chapter Eight
    • 2. 8-2 Employee Motivation Motivation  psychological processes cause the arousal, direction, and persistence of voluntary actions that are goal directed
    • 3. 8-3 Employee Motivation Content theories of motivation  focus on identifying internal factors such as instincts, needs, satisfaction, and job characteristics that energize employee motivation. Process theories of motivation focus on explaining the process by which internal factors and cognitions influence employee motivation
    • 4. 8-4 Overview of Motivation Theories
    • 5. 8-5 Need Theories of Motivation Needs  Physiological or psychological deficiencies that arouse behavior.
    • 6. 8-6 Maslow’s Need Hierarchy Theory Motivation is a function of five basic needs – physiological, safety, love, esteem, and self- actualization Human needs emerge in a predictable stair- step fashion
    • 7. 8-7 Maslow’s Need Hierarchy
    • 8. 8-8 Alderfer’s ERG Theory Existence needs (E)  the desire for physiological and materialistic wellbeing; Relatedness needs (R)  the desire to have meaningful relationships with significant others Growth needs (G)  the desire to grow as a human being and to use one’s abilities to their fullest potential
    • 9. 8-9 Question? Rachel has the desire to accomplish something difficult? This relates to McClelland's need for A. Affiliation B. Achievement C. Power D. Glory
    • 10. 8-10 McClelland’s Need Theory Need for achievement  Desire to accomplish something difficult. Need for affiliation  spend more time maintaining social relationships, joining groups, and wanting to be loved Need for power  Desire to Influence, coach, teach, or encourage others to achieve.
    • 11. 8-11 McClelland’s Need Theory Achievement-motivated people share three common characteristics: 1. Preference for working on tasks of moderate difficulty 2. Preference for situations in which performance is due to their efforts 3. Desire more feedback on their successes and failures
    • 12. 8-12 Herzberg’s Motivator-Hygiene Model
    • 13. 8-13 Herzberg’s Motivator–Hygiene Theory Motivators  job characteristics associated with job satisfaction Hygiene factors  job characteristics associated with job dissatisfaction
    • 14. 8-14 Adams’s Equity Theory of Motivation Equity theory  model of motivation that explains how people strive for fairness and justice in social exchanges or give-and-take relationships
    • 15. 8-15 Negative and Positive Inequity Negative inequity  Comparison in which another person receives greater outcomes for similar inputs. Positive inequity  Comparison in which another person receives lesser outcomes for similar inputs.
    • 16. 8-16 Negative and Positive Inequity
    • 17. 8-17 Practical Lessons from Equity Theory No matter how fair management thinks the organization’s policies, procedures, and reward system are, each employee’s perception of the equity of those factors is what counts. Managers benefit by allowing employees to participate in making decisions about important work outcomes
    • 18. 8-18 Practical Lessons from Equity Theory Employees should be given the opportunity to appeal decisions that affect their welfare. Managers can promote cooperation and teamwork among group members by treating them equitably
    • 19. 8-19 Practical Lessons from Equity Theory Employees’ perceptions of justice are strongly influenced by the leadership behavior exhibited by their managers Managers need to pay attention to the organization’s climate for justice.
    • 20. 8-20 Question? At work, if Jamal's outcome to input ratio is greater than that of Tony's (his relevant co- worker), Jamal will experience A.Equity. B.No satisfaction. C.Positive inequity. D.High dissatisfaction.
    • 21. 8-21 Goals: Definition and Background Goal  what an individual is trying to accomplish  object or aim of an action
    • 22. 8-22 How Does Goal Setting Work Goals direct attention Goals regulate effort Goals increase persistence Goals foster the development and application of task strategies and action plans
    • 23. 8-23 Practical Lessons from Goal-Setting Research 1. Specific high goals lead to greater performance  Goal specificity – quantifiability of a goal 1. Feedback enhances the effect of specific, difficult goals 2. Participative goals, assigned goals, and self-set goals are equally effective.
    • 24. 8-24 Practical Lessons from Goal-Setting Research 4. Action planning facilitates goal accomplishment.  Action plan outlines the activities or tasks that need to be accomplished in order to obtain a goal. 4. Goal commitment and monetary incentives affect goal-setting outcomes  Goal commitment – extent to which an individual is personally committed to achieving a goal
    • 25. 8-25 Top-Down Approaches Scientific management  that kind of management which conducts a business or affairs by standards established by facts or truths gained through systematic observation, experiment, or reasoning
    • 26. 8-26 Top-Down Approaches Job enlargement  Involves putting more variety into a worker’s job by combining specialized tasks of comparable difficulty. Job rotation  moving employees from one specialized job to another
    • 27. 8-27 Top-Down Approaches Job enrichment  Building achievement, recognition, stimulating work, responsibility, and advancement into a job.
    • 28. 8-28 The Job Characteristics Model