Disasters
Preparedness and Mitigation

By
Molvareen Langstieh
Assistant Professor,
Disaster Management Cell,
Meghalaya Adm...
TYPES OF DISASTER

NATURAL DISASTERS………..
EARTHQUAKES
CYCLONES
FOREST FIRES
FLOODS
FAMINE
LANDSLIDES
TYPES OF DISASTER
MANMADE

DISASTERS………..
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NEUCLEAR, CHEMICAL &
BIOLOGICAL
WAR
TERRORISM
FIRE
BUILDING...
What can we do???

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•

Prevention
Preparedness
Mitigation
Response
Introduction
• You can prepare to meet the challenges brought on
by a major disaster by planning ahead.
• In any emergency...
Your Personal Network
• How do you create a support network?
• Ask people you trust if they are willing to
help you in cas...
• Tell these support people where your
emergency kit is stored. Give one
member a key to your home.
• Include a support ne...
Emergency Kit Checklist
• In an emergency you will need some basic
supplies. Be prepared to be self-sufficient
for at leas...
Basic emergency kit checklist
• Water – at least two litres of water per person
per day. Include small bottles that can be...
* First aid kit
• Special items such as prescription
medications, or identification
• Extra keys to your car and house
• C...
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

Recommended additional items checklist
Two additional litres of water per person per day
for cooking and cl...
• Minimum of a week's supply of prescription medications
• Household chlorine bleach or water purifying tablets
• Basic to...
Persons With a Disability / Special Needs – Tips
•
•

•

•

Make sure all your emergency kit items are organised in one pl...
For People in a Wheelchair: Your emergency plan
•

•

•

If you use a wheelchair emergency an evacuation chair may be
stor...
For the Hearing Impaired: Your emergency plan
•

•
•

Communicate your hearing loss by moving your lips without making
a s...
For the Hearing Impaired: Recommended additional items checklist
•
•
•

•
•
•

Writing pads and pencils for communication
...
For the Visual Impaired: Your emergency plan
•

•

•

Have a longer white cane available to readily man oeuvre around
obst...
For the Visual Impaired: Recommended additional items checklist
•
•
•
•
•

Extra white cane, preferably longer in length
L...
•

•
•
•

•
•
•

Practice the Buddy System:
There should be at least two buddies willing to help you at work, and
you shou...
• During an emergency, if your support
network is unable to help, ask others for
help and inform them of your special
need...
What is an EARTHQUAKE???
Earthquake is a sudden shaking of earth’s
surface.
Earthquakes can be felt over large areas altho...
WHAT ARE THE EFFECTS OF
EARTHQUAKES?

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HOW EARTHQUAKES AFFECT?
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HOW EARTHQUAKES AFFECT?
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HOW EARTHQUAKES AFFECT?
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HOW EARTHQUAKES AFFECT?

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HOW EARTHQUAKES AFFECT?

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HOW EARTHQUAKES AFFECT?

BRIDGE
If you are indoors during an earthquake, keep calm and
take cover under a heavy table or desk.
Stay away from glass, windo...
If you are home and you smell gas or hear a hissing
or blowing sound, open a window and get out of the
building right away...
REMEMBER

10
SIMPLE RULES
RULE -01

DROP
COVER
HOLD
PROTECT YOURSELF FROM FALLING OBJECTS
During an Earthquake
You are advised to take cover. The greatest danger is from
falling objects. But it is important that ...
If you have difficulty moving, but you
are not in a wheelchair, assess the
situation. Often, you will be safest just
stayi...
The Care Giver:
The important thing to do at this time is to protect
yourself. You will be needed most after the earthquak...
After an Earthquake
What you do after an earthquake depends on
where you are and what your personal situation
is.
Check yo...
RULE -02

TURN OFF GAS,
ELECTRICAL APPLIANCES
RULE - 03

AVOID RUSHING OUT OF
YOUR HOUSE
RULE - 04

OPEN THE DOOR TO
SECURE AN EXIT
RULE - 05

WHEN OUTSIDE PROTECT YOUR
HEAD AND KEEP AWAY FROM
DANGEROUS OBJECTS
RULE - 06

IF IN A MALL, THEATRE FOLLOW THE
INSTRUCTIONS OF THE STAFF
RULE - 07

PARK YOUR VEHICLE ON THE LEFT
SIDE OF THE STREET & GIVE WAY TO
AMBULANCE AND FIRE BRIGADE
RULE - 08

EVACUATE ON FOOT RATHER THAN
BY CAR & CARRY ONLY WHAT YOU
NEED
• To Evacuate or Not to Evacuate?
The decision to evacuate is an important one. If
evacuation is easy, and if there is any...
• To Evacuate or Not to Evacuate?
If it is necessary to evacuate, persons with
disabilities should be evacuated last. This...
RULE - 09

AVOID BEING MISLED BY FALSE
RUMORS & TRY TO OBTAIN CORRECT
INFORMATION
RULE - 10

ALWAYS
BE
PREPARED
Fires in buildings are very dangerous
ne of the most important things to remember is that your house
should have a working...
WHEN A FIRE STRIKES
Crawl low under the smoke to escape. Keep
your head at least one/two feet above the ground
This should be practiced before...
Before you exit a room, feel the door first.
Close the door when you exit a room, and feel closed
doors before you enter a...
IF YOU ARE TRAPPED INSIDE A ROOM,
PREVENT THE SMOKE FROM ENTERING THE
ROOM BY BLOCKING THE SMOKE USING
PILLOWS, BLANKETS O...
STOP, DROP, AND ROLL.
IF ANY PART OF YOU CATCHES FIRE, DO NOT
RUN AND DO NOT TRY TO EXTINGUISH THE
FLAMES WITH YOUR HANDS....
DO NOT HIDE ... SUCH AS IN CLOSETS/ PLACES
WHERE YOU MIGHT BE TRAPPED
When a fire occurs, there's no
time for planning. So sit down
with your family today, and
make a step-by-step plan for
esc...
Make An
Escape Plan
.
Closet

Sample – Floor Plan
Bedroom 1

Door

Window
Fi
re
pl
ac

e

Closet

Bedroom 2

Covered Porch

Legend

Dining
Room
...
Scenario 1 – Escape Route Bedroom 2 Meeting
Family
(repeat for each room and location of fire)
Bedroom 1

Fi
re
pl
ac

Bed...
Scenario 2 – Escape Route Bedroom 2 Meeting
Family
(repeat for each room and location of fire)
Bedroom 1

Fi
re
pl
ac

Bed...
In an apartment, use the stairways to leave the
building. Never use the elevator during a fire; it
may stop between floors...
Get Out Fast! In case of a fire, don't stop for
anything. Do not try to take possessions or pets.
Just get out. Call the f...
Always keep an oven mitt and a lid nearby when you are
cooking. If a small grease fire starts in a pan, smother the
flames...
BE SAFE
• Helpers, Buddies and Rescue Workers:
First, try to locate everyone who might
need assistance. Look for people with
visua...
• Helpers, Buddies and Rescue Workers:
When assisting someone with a disability
begin by asking the person if they need
he...
• Helpers, Buddies and Rescue Workers:
When assisting someone who uses a cane, crutches or
walker, remember that these wil...
Assisting a person with a mobility disability –
what to do
• If possible, use gloves when providing personal
care.
• Try t...
Assisting a person with a hearing impairment – what to
do
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•
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•
•
•
•
•

•

Get the person's attention via a visual cue ...
Assisting a person with a vision disability – what to do

• For people who are deaf-blind, draw an "X" on their back
with ...
Assisting a person with a vision disability – what to do

• Watch for obstacles that the person could walk into.
• Never g...
Assisting a person with a hearing impairment – what to
do
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

•

Get the person's attention via a visual cue ...
THANK YOU ALL!!!
Disasters-What you should and should not do
Disasters-What you should and should not do
Disasters-What you should and should not do
Disasters-What you should and should not do
Disasters-What you should and should not do
Disasters-What you should and should not do
Disasters-What you should and should not do
Disasters-What you should and should not do
Disasters-What you should and should not do
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Disasters-What you should and should not do

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The Lack of Awareness or Ignorance has been the major cause of Disasters. Not knowing what to do has brought about a series of loss. This Presentation focuses on the Safety Measures that can be adapted by Persons with Disabilities (PWDs) as well as highlight the general principles of safety to all Individuals in the hope that Knowing what to do exactly will help avert a Disaster

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Disasters-What you should and should not do

  1. 1. Disasters Preparedness and Mitigation By Molvareen Langstieh Assistant Professor, Disaster Management Cell, Meghalaya Administrative Training Institute, Shillong.
  2. 2. TYPES OF DISASTER NATURAL DISASTERS………..
  3. 3. EARTHQUAKES
  4. 4. CYCLONES
  5. 5. FOREST FIRES
  6. 6. FLOODS
  7. 7. FAMINE
  8. 8. LANDSLIDES
  9. 9. TYPES OF DISASTER MANMADE DISASTERS……….. • • • • • • • • • • NEUCLEAR, CHEMICAL & BIOLOGICAL WAR TERRORISM FIRE BUILDING COLLAPSE FLOODS (WEAK DAM STRUCTURE) AIR CRASH TRAIN ACCIDENTS SHIP WREKS ROAD ACCIDENTS
  10. 10. What can we do??? • • • • Prevention Preparedness Mitigation Response
  11. 11. Introduction • You can prepare to meet the challenges brought on by a major disaster by planning ahead. • In any emergency situations, One should be “Self Sufficient”. • Being Self Sufficient means to be prepared. It also means to take care of yourself and your loved ones. • In emergency situations, help from outside may be delayed… you are to plan for your own well being.
  12. 12. Your Personal Network • How do you create a support network? • Ask people you trust if they are willing to help you in case of an emergency. Identify contacts for important locations such as home, work or school. Neighbours are often the closest and most available contacts in an emergency.
  13. 13. • Tell these support people where your emergency kit is stored. Give one member a key to your home. • Include a support network contact who is far enough away that they are unlikely to be affected by the same emergency. • Work with your support network to develop a plan that meets your needs. • Practice your emergency plan with your network. If applicable, show them how your special needs equipment works.
  14. 14. Emergency Kit Checklist • In an emergency you will need some basic supplies. Be prepared to be self-sufficient for at least 72 hours. These items may not apply to every situation or every person; for additional recommended items select them according to your own needs. Check your kit twice a year to ensure contents are up to date. Re-stock as needed • This is your “go Kit”
  15. 15. Basic emergency kit checklist • Water – at least two litres of water per person per day. Include small bottles that can be carried easily in case of an evacuation order • Food that won't spoil, such as canned food, energy bars and dried foods (replace food and water once a year) • Manual can-opener • battery-powered flashlight (and extra batteries) • battery-powered radio (and extra batteries)
  16. 16. * First aid kit • Special items such as prescription medications, or identification • Extra keys to your car and house • Cash in smaller bills, and change • Special items according to your needs (i.e., prescription medication, infant formula, special equipment, pet food and water, etc) • A copy of your emergency plan and contact information
  17. 17. • • • • • • • Recommended additional items checklist Two additional litres of water per person per day for cooking and cleaning Candles and matches or lighter (place candles in sturdy containers and do not burn unattended) Change of clothing and footwear for each household member Sleeping bag or warm blanket for each household member Toiletries, hand sanitizer, utensils Garbage bags for personal sanitation Toilet paper
  18. 18. • Minimum of a week's supply of prescription medications • Household chlorine bleach or water purifying tablets • Basic tools (hammer, pliers, wrench, screwdrivers, work gloves, dust mask, pocket knife) • Small fuel-operated stove and fuel (follow manufacturer's directions and store fuel properly) • A whistle (in case you need to call for help) • Duct tape (i.e., to tape up windows, doors, air vents) • Detailed list of all special needs items, in the event that they need to be replaced
  19. 19. Persons With a Disability / Special Needs – Tips • • • • Make sure all your emergency kit items are organised in one place, easy to find and to carry. Tag all of your special needs equipment including instructions on how to use and/or move each assistive device during an emergency. Complete a checklist and personal assessment sheet and provide a copy to your designated network(s). Keep a copy in your emergency kit(s). List all food/drug allergies and current medications (for each medication, specify the medical condition being treated, the generic name, dosage, frequency, and the name and contact information of the prescribing physician). Provide this list to your designated network and keep a copy in your emergency kit(s).
  20. 20. For People in a Wheelchair: Your emergency plan • • • If you use a wheelchair emergency an evacuation chair may be stored near stairs, or the floor where you work or live, so that your network can readily access it to help you evacuate. The person with the disability should be involved in the selection of the evacuation chair. People who require the use of an evacuation chair should designate a primary and backup contact to assist them in the event of an evacuation. Create an evacuation and practice using the chair with them. In your personal assessment checklist, identify areas of your body that have reduced sensation so that these areas can be checked for injuries after an emergency, if you cannot do so yourself.
  21. 21. For the Hearing Impaired: Your emergency plan • • • Communicate your hearing loss by moving your lips without making a sound, pointing to your ear, using a gesture, or if applicable, pointing to your hearing aid. Keep a pencil and paper handy for written communication. Install a smoke detection system that includes flashing strobe lights or vibrators to get your attention if the alarms sound.
  22. 22. For the Hearing Impaired: Recommended additional items checklist • • • • • • Writing pads and pencils for communication Flashlight, whistle or personal alarm Pre-printed phrases you would use during an emergency, such as "I use Sign Language" or "If you make announcements, I will need to have them written simply or signed". Assistive equipment according to your needs (i.e., hearing aid, personal amplifier, etc.) Portable visual notification devices to know if someone is knocking on the door, ringing the doorbell, or calling on the telephone Extra batteries for assistive devices
  23. 23. For the Visual Impaired: Your emergency plan • • • Have a longer white cane available to readily man oeuvre around obstacles (there may be debris on the floor or furniture may have shifted). Identify all emergency supplies in advance with fluorescent tape, large print or Braille text, such as gas, water and electric shutoff valves. Familiarize yourself in advance with all escape routes and locations of emergency doors/exits on each floor of any building where you work, live and visit.
  24. 24. For the Visual Impaired: Recommended additional items checklist • • • • • Extra white cane, preferably longer in length Large print timepiece with extra batteries Extra vision aids such as an electronic travel aid, monocular, binocular or magnifier Extra pair of prescription glasses (if applicable) Any reading devices / assistive technology
  25. 25. • • • • • • • Practice the Buddy System: There should be at least two buddies willing to help you at work, and you should try to find two or more at home. These buddies should be willing to check on you after any emergency or disaster, and to assist you when needed. Most people are happy to help, but they need to know what to do: First explain to them that you are getting prepared for an earthquake or other disaster, and encourage them to do the same. Tell them about your special needs and concern. Familiarize them with any equipment you use. For example, show then how your wheel chair works, whether the arms come off, and how to go up or down a curb. Let them know of any particular harm that untrained help might cause. Invite your neighbourhood buddies into your home to let them become familiar with the layout and the location of supplies. Give a key to a trusted friend.
  26. 26. • During an emergency, if your support network is unable to help, ask others for help and inform them of your special needs and how they can assist you. • Carry a personal alarm that emits a loud noise to draw attention. • Be aware that experiencing an emergency can be overwhelming and stress can worsen some medical conditions.
  27. 27. What is an EARTHQUAKE??? Earthquake is a sudden shaking of earth’s surface. Earthquakes can be felt over large areas although they usually last less than one minute It is a sudden release of energy accumulated in deformed rocks causing the ground to tremble or shake.
  28. 28. WHAT ARE THE EFFECTS OF EARTHQUAKES? ?
  29. 29. M I L D E A R T H Q U A K E HOW EARTHQUAKES AFFECT?
  30. 30. M I L D E A R T H Q U A K E HOW EARTHQUAKES AFFECT?
  31. 31. M I L D E A R T H Q U A K E HOW EARTHQUAKES AFFECT?
  32. 32. M I L D E A R T H Q U A K E HOW EARTHQUAKES AFFECT?
  33. 33. M I L D E A R T H Q U A K E HOW EARTHQUAKES AFFECT?
  34. 34. M I L D E A R T H Q U A K E HOW EARTHQUAKES AFFECT?
  35. 35. M I L D E A R T H Q U A K E HOW EARTHQUAKES AFFECT?
  36. 36. M I L D E A R T H Q U A K E HOW EARTHQUAKES AFFECT?
  37. 37. M I L D E A R T H Q U A K E HOW EARTHQUAKES AFFECT?
  38. 38. S T R O N G E A R T H Q U A K E HOW EARTHQUAKES AFFECT? HOUSE
  39. 39. S T R O N G E A R T H Q U A K E HOW EARTHQUAKES AFFECT? DAM
  40. 40. S T R O N G E A R T H Q U A K E HOW EARTHQUAKES AFFECT? BRIDGE
  41. 41. If you are indoors during an earthquake, keep calm and take cover under a heavy table or desk. Stay away from glass, windows or anything that could fall, like a bookcase. If you are outdoors, move away from buildings, street lights and utility wires. If you are in a crowded public place, do NOT rush for the doors. Everyone will be doing that. Instead, take cover under something heavy and stay away from things that could fall on you. Stay calm. Do not get in an elevator during an earthquake!
  42. 42. If you are home and you smell gas or hear a hissing or blowing sound, open a window and get out of the building right away. It may mean that a gas line in your house has been broken. Make sure you are wearing shoes after an earthquake. There may be broken glass on the ground and inside your home
  43. 43. REMEMBER 10 SIMPLE RULES
  44. 44. RULE -01 DROP COVER HOLD PROTECT YOURSELF FROM FALLING OBJECTS
  45. 45. During an Earthquake You are advised to take cover. The greatest danger is from falling objects. But it is important that after you take cover you will be able to move to a safer place if necessary. If it would be impossible or even difficult for you to get out from under a desk or table, don’t get under it. If you are in a wheelchair, stay in it. Turn away from windows. Move the chair into a doorway with your back towards the hinge, or move away from hazards such as falling books or furniture. Set the brake on the chair and, if possible, lean over or hold a pillow, book or even an empty wastebasket over your head and neck for protection. .
  46. 46. If you have difficulty moving, but you are not in a wheelchair, assess the situation. Often, you will be safest just staying where you are. If you are in bed or sitting down, stay there while the ground is shaking. If you are on your feet, sit down on the floor or in a chair if it is very close.
  47. 47. The Care Giver: The important thing to do at this time is to protect yourself. You will be needed most after the earthquakes. So take cover, and if possible, call to the other person with reassurance. When the quake is over, proceed carefully to check on those for whom you are responsible, and assess the situation of the building as you check them for injuries. If an evacuation is necessary, move carefully, and take essential equipment with you.
  48. 48. After an Earthquake What you do after an earthquake depends on where you are and what your personal situation is. Check yourself carefully for injuries. Use the telephone only if you desperately need help. If you are trapped, use your whistle, bell, or flashlight to attract attention. Pound on beams or windows, walls or pipes, or wave a sheet or jacket out the window.
  49. 49. RULE -02 TURN OFF GAS, ELECTRICAL APPLIANCES
  50. 50. RULE - 03 AVOID RUSHING OUT OF YOUR HOUSE
  51. 51. RULE - 04 OPEN THE DOOR TO SECURE AN EXIT
  52. 52. RULE - 05 WHEN OUTSIDE PROTECT YOUR HEAD AND KEEP AWAY FROM DANGEROUS OBJECTS
  53. 53. RULE - 06 IF IN A MALL, THEATRE FOLLOW THE INSTRUCTIONS OF THE STAFF
  54. 54. RULE - 07 PARK YOUR VEHICLE ON THE LEFT SIDE OF THE STREET & GIVE WAY TO AMBULANCE AND FIRE BRIGADE
  55. 55. RULE - 08 EVACUATE ON FOOT RATHER THAN BY CAR & CARRY ONLY WHAT YOU NEED
  56. 56. • To Evacuate or Not to Evacuate? The decision to evacuate is an important one. If evacuation is easy, and if there is any possibility of fire or structural damage, then evacuate to a safe outdoor place. If evacuation would be difficult, then take time to decide. In general, the rule is to evacuate if there is a threat of injury by remaining where you are. If there is no fire, gas leak, or chemical spill and no significant structural damage, then you do not need to evacuate, particularly if the evacuation might be hazardous to you.
  57. 57. • To Evacuate or Not to Evacuate? If it is necessary to evacuate, persons with disabilities should be evacuated last. This is for your own protection, so that you will not be injured in a rush of people. If you are in a wheelchair, on crutches, or use a walker, be sure to ask assistance. It takes two people to assist a person in a wheelchair. Give directions for helping you clearly and calmly. Tell people what items you will need at the evacuation area.
  58. 58. RULE - 09 AVOID BEING MISLED BY FALSE RUMORS & TRY TO OBTAIN CORRECT INFORMATION
  59. 59. RULE - 10 ALWAYS BE PREPARED
  60. 60. Fires in buildings are very dangerous ne of the most important things to remember is that your house should have a working smoke detector our family should have a fire plan of how to escape from your house if it is on fire NEVER hide during a fire. Always get out. And once you are out, stay out. DO NOT go back for a toy. Get help from a parent or adult to check if your smoke detectors are working. Check also to see if your family has a working fire extinguisher.
  61. 61. WHEN A FIRE STRIKES
  62. 62. Crawl low under the smoke to escape. Keep your head at least one/two feet above the ground This should be practiced beforehand to prepare you for an actual fire.
  63. 63. Before you exit a room, feel the door first. Close the door when you exit a room, and feel closed doors before you enter a room. A hot door or door knob usually means the room is on fire. When you leave, close the door behind you to help contain the fire
  64. 64. IF YOU ARE TRAPPED INSIDE A ROOM, PREVENT THE SMOKE FROM ENTERING THE ROOM BY BLOCKING THE SMOKE USING PILLOWS, BLANKETS OR EVEN CURTAINS. IF POSSIBLE, USE WET CLOTHES TO BLOCK OUT SMOKE. CALL FOR HELP AND SIGNAL RESCUERS FROM A WINDOW WITH A LIGHT-COLORED CLOTH TRY TO OPEN A WINDOW TO LET SMOKE OUT, TO BREAK OPEN A WIDOW, USE A HEAVY BLUNT OBJECT AND BREAK OPEN THE BOTTOM LEFT CORNER OF THE WINDOW.
  65. 65. STOP, DROP, AND ROLL. IF ANY PART OF YOU CATCHES FIRE, DO NOT RUN AND DO NOT TRY TO EXTINGUISH THE FLAMES WITH YOUR HANDS. COVER YOUR FACE WITH YOUR HANDS. DROP TO THE GROUND, ROLLING OVER AND OVER
  66. 66. DO NOT HIDE ... SUCH AS IN CLOSETS/ PLACES WHERE YOU MIGHT BE TRAPPED
  67. 67. When a fire occurs, there's no time for planning. So sit down with your family today, and make a step-by-step plan for escaping a fire and protecting yourselves from one
  68. 68. Make An Escape Plan .
  69. 69. Closet Sample – Floor Plan Bedroom 1 Door Window Fi re pl ac e Closet Bedroom 2 Covered Porch Legend Dining Room Living Room Garag e Bathroom Kitche n Furnace Rm Bedroom 3 Washer & Dryer Closet Covered Porch 72
  70. 70. Scenario 1 – Escape Route Bedroom 2 Meeting Family (repeat for each room and location of fire) Bedroom 1 Fi re pl ac Bedroom 2 First Escape Route Second Escape Route e Living Room Garag e Kitche n Bedroom 3 Furnace Rm Dining Room Place 73
  71. 71. Scenario 2 – Escape Route Bedroom 2 Meeting Family (repeat for each room and location of fire) Bedroom 1 Fi re pl ac Bedroom 2 First Escape Route Second Escape Route e Living Room Garag e Kitche n Bedroom 3 Furnace Rm Dining Room Place 74
  72. 72. In an apartment, use the stairways to leave the building. Never use the elevator during a fire; it may stop between floors or even take you to the floor where the fire is burning. In a two story house, if you must escape from a second story window, be sure you have a safe way to reach the ground. Make special arrangements for small children and people with disabilities.
  73. 73. Get Out Fast! In case of a fire, don't stop for anything. Do not try to take possessions or pets. Just get out. Call the fire department from a neighbour's phone after you get out. Don't go back, no matter what. Make sure everyone in your family knows that once they are out, they must not go back for any reason. If people are trapped, fire fighters have the best chance of rescuing them. Call the fire department after you escape. Everyone should gather at one meeting place outside, preferably at the front, where the fire department will arrive. Each family member should know how to call the fire department from a neighbour's home.
  74. 74. Always keep an oven mitt and a lid nearby when you are cooking. If a small grease fire starts in a pan, smother the flames by carefully sliding the lid over the pan (make sure you are wearing the oven mitt). • Turn off the burner. Do not move the pan. To keep the fire from restarting, leave the lid on until the pan is completely cool. • In case of an oven fire, turn off the heat and keep the door closed to prevent flames from burning you or your clothing. • If you have a fire in your microwave oven, turn it off immediately and keep the door closed. Never open the door until the fire is completely out. Unplug the appliance if you can safely reach the outlet. NEVER USE EXTENSION CORDS TO PLUG IN COOKING APPLIANCES Keep clothes, curtains, and other potentially combustible
  75. 75. BE SAFE
  76. 76. • Helpers, Buddies and Rescue Workers: First, try to locate everyone who might need assistance. Look for people with visual or hearing disabilities. Be respectful and considerate. Try to help without endangering human dignity. Get enough people to do what is necessary without injuring anyone.
  77. 77. • Helpers, Buddies and Rescue Workers: When assisting someone with a disability begin by asking the person if they need help and what can you do to assist. Listen to the answer. If you have trouble understanding, ask them to clarify or write down the requests. The person with the disability is in the best position to know the type of assistance required. The person who rushes to help without asking first could cause serious injury. •
  78. 78. • Helpers, Buddies and Rescue Workers: When assisting someone who uses a cane, crutches or walker, remember that these will be needed in the evacuation area. Evacuate the disabled person last, and remember that a hazardous evacuation is the last resort. It requires at least two persons to take a person in a wheelchair up or down a flight of stairs, and it can be dangerous. If there is no compelling threat to safety, a person in a wheel chair would be better off remaining in the building. •
  79. 79. Assisting a person with a mobility disability – what to do • If possible, use gloves when providing personal care. • Try to ensure that the person's wheelchair is transported with the person. • If this is not possible, employ other evacuation techniques as appropriate, such as use of the evacuation chair, shelter-in-place (if instructed to do so), or lifts and carries by trained personnel. • Do not push or pull a person's wheelchair without their permission, unless it is a matter of life or death.
  80. 80. Assisting a person with a hearing impairment – what to do • • • • • • • • • Get the person's attention via a visual cue or a gentle touch on their arm. Do not approach the person from behind. Face the person, make eye contact when speaking to them as they may rely on lip reading and communicate in close proximity. Speak clearly and naturally. Do not shout or speak unnaturally slowly. Try to rephrase, rather than repeating yourself. Use gestures to help illustrate your meaning. If there is time, it may be helpful to write a message. Hearing aids amplify sounds and can create a physical shock to the user, so do not make loud noises. Note that some people may be deaf-blind.
  81. 81. Assisting a person with a vision disability – what to do • For people who are deaf-blind, draw an "X" on their back with your finger to let them know you can help them. • To communicate with someone who is deaf-blind, trace letters in their hand with your finger. • To guide a person, keep half a step ahead, offer them your arm and walk at their pace. • Do not shout at a person who is blind or has reduced vision. Speak clearly and provide specific directions. • Provide advance warning of upcoming stairs, major obstacles or changes in direction.
  82. 82. Assisting a person with a vision disability – what to do • Watch for obstacles that the person could walk into. • Never grab a person with vision loss, unless it is a matter of life or death. • Do not assume that the person cannot see you. • Avoid the term "over there"; describe positions such as, "to your right / left / straight ahead / behind you", or by using the clock face positions (i.e., the exit is at 12 o'clock). •
  83. 83. Assisting a person with a hearing impairment – what to do • • • • • • • • • Get the person's attention via a visual cue or a gentle touch on their arm. Do not approach the person from behind. Face the person, make eye contact when speaking to them as they may rely on lip reading and communicate in close proximity. Speak clearly and naturally. Do not shout or speak unnaturally slowly. Try to rephrase, rather than repeating yourself. Use gestures to help illustrate your meaning. If there is time, it may be helpful to write a message. Hearing aids amplify sounds and can create a physical shock to the user, so do not make loud noises. Note that some people may be deaf-blind.
  84. 84. THANK YOU ALL!!!

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