Kotler07 11e segmentation, targeting, and positioning

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  • 1. Segmentation, Targeting, and Positioning Chapter 7
  • 2. DefinitionMarket Segmentation: Dividing a market into distinct groups with distinct needs, characteristics, or behavior who might require separate products or marketing mixes. 7- 2
  • 3. Steps in MarketSegmentation, Targeting, and Positioning 7- 3
  • 4. Market SegmentationKey Topics Geographical segmentation  Marketing mixes areSegmenting customizedConsumer Markets geographicallySegmenting DemographicBusiness Markets segmentationSegmenting PsychographicInternational segmentationMarkets BehavioralRequirements for segmentationEffective Using multipleSegmentation segmentation variables 7- 4
  • 5. Market Segmentation Geographic Segmentation VariablesWorld Region or City orCountry Metro SizeCountry Region NeighborhoodCity Density Climate 7- 5
  • 6. Market SegmentationKey Topics Geographical segments DemographicSegmenting segmentationConsumer Markets  Most popular type  Demographics are closelySegmenting related to needs, wantsBusiness Markets and usage ratesSegmenting PsychographicInternational segmentationMarkets BehavioralRequirements for segmentationEffective Using multipleSegmentation segmentation variables 7- 6
  • 7. Market Segmentation DemographicSegmentation VariablesAge OccupationGender EducationFamily size ReligionFamily life cycle NationalityIncome Ethnicity 7- 7
  • 8. Market SegmentationKey Topics Geographic segments DemographicSegmenting segmentationConsumer Markets PsychographicSegmenting segmentation  Lifestyle, social class,Business Markets and personality-basedSegmenting segmentationInternational BehavioralMarkets segmentationRequirements for Using multipleEffective segmentationSegmentation variables 7- 8
  • 9. Market SegmentationKey Topics Geographic segments DemographicSegmenting segmentationConsumer Markets PsychographicSegmenting segmentationBusiness Markets Behavioral segmentationSegmenting  Based on knowledge,International attitude, use or response toMarkets a productRequirements for  Typically done firstEffective Using multipleSegmentation segmentation variables 7- 9
  • 10. Behavioral Segmentation VariablesOccasions: According User Rates: Light, mediumto occasions buyer get & heavy product users.the idea to buy or use Loyalty Status: Loyalty tothe purchased item. brands, stores &Benefits sought: companies can be a base.According to different Consumers can bebenefits consumers somewhat loyal &seek from the product. completely loyalUser Status:Nonusers, ex-users,potential users, first-time users & regularusers. 7- 10
  • 11. Market SegmentationKey Topics Geographic segments DemographicSegmenting segmentationConsumer Markets PsychographicSegmenting segmentationBusiness Markets BehavioralSegmenting segmentationInternational Using multipleMarkets segmentationRequirements for variablesEffectiveSegmentation 7- 11
  • 12. Market SegmentationKey Topics Demographic segmentation  Industry, company size, locationSegmenting Operating variablesConsumer Markets  Technology, usage status,Segmenting customer capabilitiesBusiness Markets Purchasing approachesSegmenting Situational factors  Urgency, specificInternational application, size of orderMarkets Personal characteristicsRequirements for  Buyer-seller similarity,Effective attitudes toward risk, loyaltySegmentation 7- 12
  • 13. Market SegmentationKey Topics Geographic segmentation  Location or regionSegmenting Economic factors  Population income or level ofConsumer Markets economic developmentSegmenting Political and legal factorsBusiness Markets  Type / stability ofSegmenting government, monetary regulations, amount ofInternational bureaucracy, etc.Markets Cultural factorsRequirements for  Language, religion, values,Effective attitudes, customs,Segmentation behavioral patterns 7- 13
  • 14. Market SegmentationKey Topics Measurable  Size, purchasing power, and profile of segmentSegmenting AccessibleConsumer Markets  Can be reached and servedSegmenting SubstantialBusiness Markets  Large and profitable enoughSegmenting to serveInternational Differentiable  Respond differentlyMarkets ActionableRequirements for  Effective programs can beEffective developedSegmentation 7- 14
  • 15. Target MarketingEvaluating Market Segments Segment size and growth Segment structural attractiveness  Level of competition  Substitute products  Power of buyers  Powerful suppliers Company objectives and resources 7- 15
  • 16. Target Marketing Strategies 7- 16
  • 17. Target Marketing Key Topics Ignoring marketUndifferentiated segments differences &(mass) Marketing make one offer to wholeDifferentiated market(segmented) Target several segmentsMarketing & designs offer for eachConcentrated Going after a large share(niche) Marketing of a segmentMicromarketing Tailoring to the needs &(local or individual wants of the localsmarketing) Tailoring to the needs & wants of the individuals 7- 17
  • 18. Target MarketingChoosing a Target Marketing StrategyRequires Consideration of: Company resources The degree of product variability Product’s life-cycle stage Market variability Competitors’ marketing strategiesSocially Responsible Target Marketing 7- 18
  • 19. PositioningPositioning: The place the product occupies in consumers’ minds relative to competing products. Typically defined by consumers on the basis of important attributes. Implanting the brand’s unique benefits & differentiation in customers mind Perceptual Positioning Maps 7- 19
  • 20. PositioningChoosing a Positioning Strategy: Identifying possible competitive advantages- many potential sources of differentiation exist:  Products  Services: speed, convenience, delivery & installation  Channels: coverage, expertise & performance  People: hiring & training  Image: brand image, color & character 7- 20
  • 21. PositioningChoosing a Positioning Strategy: Choosing the right competitive advantage  How many differences to promote? • Unique selling proposition • Positioning errors to avoid  Which differences to promote? 7- 21
  • 22. PositioningCriteria for Meaningful Differences Important Distinctive Superior Communicable Preemptive Affordable Profitable 7- 22
  • 23. Positioning Selecting an overall positioning strategy Price More The Same Less More More for The More for More for Less same Benefits More The The Same for Same Less Less for Much Less Less Developing a positioning statement “To (target segment & need) our (brand) is (concept) that (point-of-difference)” 7- 23
  • 24. PositioningChoosing a Positioning Strategy: Communicating and delivering the chosen position  Entire marketing mix must support the chosen strategy  May require changes to the product, pricing, distribution or promotion. 7- 24