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Chap 13 managing change and innovation management by robbins & coulter 8 e
Chap 13 managing change and innovation management by robbins & coulter 8 e
Chap 13 managing change and innovation management by robbins & coulter 8 e
Chap 13 managing change and innovation management by robbins & coulter 8 e
Chap 13 managing change and innovation management by robbins & coulter 8 e
Chap 13 managing change and innovation management by robbins & coulter 8 e
Chap 13 managing change and innovation management by robbins & coulter 8 e
Chap 13 managing change and innovation management by robbins & coulter 8 e
Chap 13 managing change and innovation management by robbins & coulter 8 e
Chap 13 managing change and innovation management by robbins & coulter 8 e
Chap 13 managing change and innovation management by robbins & coulter 8 e
Chap 13 managing change and innovation management by robbins & coulter 8 e
Chap 13 managing change and innovation management by robbins & coulter 8 e
Chap 13 managing change and innovation management by robbins & coulter 8 e
Chap 13 managing change and innovation management by robbins & coulter 8 e
Chap 13 managing change and innovation management by robbins & coulter 8 e
Chap 13 managing change and innovation management by robbins & coulter 8 e
Chap 13 managing change and innovation management by robbins & coulter 8 e
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Chap 13 managing change and innovation management by robbins & coulter 8 e

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  • 1. 8th edition Steven P. Robbins Mary CoulterPowerPoint Presentation by Charlie Cook Copyright © 2005 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 2. LEARNING OUTLINEFollow this Learning Outline as you read and study this chapter. What Is Change? • Define organizational change. • Explain how managers are affected by change. Forces for Change • Discuss the external and internal forces for change. • Contrast internal and external change agents. Two Views of the Change Process • Contrast the calm waters and white-water rapids metaphors of change. • Explain Lewin’s three-step model of the change process. • Discuss the environment that managers face today.Copyright © 2005 Prentice Hall, Inc. Allrights reserved. 13–2
  • 3. L E A R N I N G O U T L I N E (cont’d)Follow this Learning Outline as you read and study this chapter. Managing Change • Explain how managers might change structure, technology, and people. • Describe why people resist change and how resistance might be managed. Contemporary Issues in Managing Change • Explain why changing organizational culture is so difficult and how managers can do it. • Describe employee stress and how managers can help employees deal with stress. • Discuss what it takes to make change happen successfully.Copyright © 2005 Prentice Hall, Inc. Allrights reserved. 13–3
  • 4. L E A R N I N G O U T L I N E (cont’d)Follow this Learning Outline as you read and study this chapter. Stimulating Innovation • Tell why innovate isn’t just creativity. • Explain the systems view of innovation. • Describe the structural, cultural, and human resource variables that are necessary for innovation. • Explain what idea champions are and why they’re important to innovation.Copyright © 2005 Prentice Hall, Inc. Allrights reserved. 13–4
  • 5. What Is Change?• Organizational Change  Any alterations in the people, structure, or technology of an organization• Characteristics of Change  Is constant yet varies in degree and direction  Produces uncertainty yet is not completely unpredictable  Creates both threats and opportunities • Managing change is an integral part of every manager’s job.Copyright © 2005 Prentice Hall, Inc. Allrights reserved. 13–5
  • 6. Forces for Change• External forces • Internal Forces  Marketplace  Changes in  Governmental laws organizational strategy and regulations  Workforce changes  Technology  New equipment  Labor market  Employee attitudes  Economic changesCopyright © 2005 Prentice Hall, Inc. Allrights reserved. 13–6
  • 7. The Manager as Change Agent• Change Agents  People who act as catalysts and assume the responsibility for changing process are called change agents.• Types of Change Agents  Managers: internal entrepreneurs  Nonmanagers: change specialists  Outside consultants: change implementation expertsCopyright © 2005 Prentice Hall, Inc. Allrights reserved. 13–7
  • 8. Change Process Viewpoints• The Calm Waters Metaphor  Lewin’s description of the change process as a break in the organization’s equilibrium state  Unfreezing the status quo  Changing to a new state  Refreezing to make the change permanent• White-Water Rapids Metaphor  The lack of environmental stability and predictability requires that managers and organizations continually adapt (manage change actively) to survive.Copyright © 2005 Prentice Hall, Inc. Allrights reserved. 13–8
  • 9. Types of Change• Structural  Changing the organization’s structure or its structural components• Technological  Adopting new equipment or operating methods that displace old skills and require new ones• Automation  Replacing certain tasks done by people with machines• Workforce  Changing attitudes, expectations, perceptions, and behaviors of the workforceCopyright © 2005 Prentice Hall, Inc. Allrights reserved. 13–9
  • 10. Managing Resistance to Change• Why People Resist Change?  The ambiguity and uncertainty that change introduces  The comfort of old habits  A concern over personal loss of status, money, authority, friendships, and personal convenience  The perception that change is incompatible with the goals and interest of the organizationCopyright © 2005 Prentice Hall, Inc. Allrights reserved. 13–10
  • 11. Issues in Managing Change (cont’d)• Changing Organizational Cultures  Cultures are naturally resistant to change  Conditions that facilitate cultural change:  The occurrence of a dramatic crisis  Leadership changing hands  A young, flexible, and small organization  A weak organizational cultureCopyright © 2005 Prentice Hall, Inc. Allrights reserved. 13–11
  • 12. Issues in Managing Change• Handling Employee Stress due to Change  Stress  The physical and psychological tension an individual feels when confronted with extraordinary demands, constraints, or opportunities and their associated importance and uncertainties.  Functional Stress – Stress that has a positive effect on performance.  How Potential Stress Becomes Actual Stress  Thereis uncertainty over the outcome  When the outcome is importantCopyright © 2005 Prentice Hall, Inc. Allrights reserved. 13–12
  • 13. Issues in Managing Change• Reducing Stress  Engage in proper employee selection  Match employees’ KSA’s to jobs’ TDR’s  Use realistic job interviews for reduce ambiguity  Improve organizational communications  Develop a performance planning program  Use job redesign  Provide a counseling program  Offer time planning management assistance  Sponsor wellness programsCopyright © 2005 Prentice Hall, Inc. Allrights reserved. 13–13
  • 14. Issues in Managing Change• Making Change Happen Successfully  Embrace change—become a change-capable organization.  Create a simple, compelling message explaining why change is necessary.  Communicate constantly and honestly.  Foster as much employee participation as possible— get all employees committed  Encourage employees to be flexible  Remove those who resist and cannot be changed.Copyright © 2005 Prentice Hall, Inc. Allrights reserved. 13–14
  • 15. Stimulating Innovation• Creativity  The ability to combine ideas in a unique way or to make an unusual association.• Innovation  Turning the outcomes of the creative process into useful products, services, or work methodsCopyright © 2005 Prentice Hall, Inc. Allrights reserved. 13–15
  • 16. Creating the “Right” Environment forInnovation• Structural Variables  Adopt an organic structure  Make available plentiful resources  Engage in frequent interunit communication  Minimize extreme time pressures on creative activities  Provide explicit support for creativityCopyright © 2005 Prentice Hall, Inc. Allrights reserved. 13–16
  • 17. Creating the “Right” Environment forInnovation (cont’d)• Cultural Variables  Accept ambiguity  Tolerate the impractical  Have low external controls  Tolerate risk taking  Tolerate conflict  Focus on ends rather than means  Develop an open-system focus  Provide positive feedbackCopyright © 2005 Prentice Hall, Inc. Allrights reserved. 13–17
  • 18. Creating the “Right” Environment forInnovation (cont’d)• Human Resource Variables  Actively promote training and development to keep employees’ skills current  Offer high job security to encourage risk taking  Encourage individual to be “champions” of changeCopyright © 2005 Prentice Hall, Inc. Allrights reserved. 13–18

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