1. ADVERBS IN THEENGLISH LANGUAGE A Short Class to Use Adverbs Effectively
2. IntroductionAccording to the Oxford Dictionary, an adverb is:“a word or phrase that modifies the meaning ofan adjective, verb, or other adverb, expressingmanner, place, time, or degree”The word comes from the Latin wordadverbium, from ad- to (expressing addition)+ verbum word, verb„In this course, we will learn about adverbs, theforms they may take and the types and positionsof adverbs that can be found in a sentence.
3. What are Adverbs?Adverbs are words that allow us to answerquestions such as Where? When? How? AndWhy?Adverbs can be single words that function bythemselves, or they can be joined togetherwith adjectives or other adverbs to form“adverbial clauses” and “adverb phrases”.
4. How many types of Adverbs dowe have in English?The exact amount varies depending on who youask, but some commonly accepted types ofadverbs are:• Adverbs of Time• Adverbs of Place• Adverbs of Reason or Purpose• Adverbs of Manner• Adverbs of Frequency
5. Adverbs of TimeAdverbs of Time answer the question “When?”They‟re usually found at the beginning or at theend of a clause.Examples:• Yesterday I went to the bookstore.• We will have to move the couch later.• After I finish this lesson I will take a shower.
6. Commonly used adverbs of time include days ofthe week, months, dates and times of the day.Phrases that denote a time in particular, in thepast (“in the old times”) or the future (“whenthis project is completed”) are also adverbs oftime. Adverbs of Time
7. Adverbs of PlaceAdverbs of Place answer the question Where? In asentence or clause, they‟re usually located at theend, before the adverbs of reason, manner ortime.Examples:• I am going there tomorrow.• He left his bicycle in the driveway last night• I know the office where she works.
8. Adverbs of place are commonly fulfilled bywords such as “here”, “there”,prepositions, and phrases.Commonly used words that function asadverbs of place include: •Above •Inside •Away •Near •Back •Off •Down •Towards •Elsewhere •Under •Far •Upstairs •In •Where Adverbs of Place
9. Adverbs of MannerAdverbs of manner are the largest group ofadverbs and answer the question How?Most adverbs of manner are closely related tocorresponding adjectives.Although some words can be used as eitheradjectives or adverbs, in most cases, adverbs ofmanner are formed by adding “-ly” to thecorresponding adjectives.
10. It should be noted that while most adverbswhich end in -ly are adverbs of manner, othertypes of adverb may also end in –ly, such as“monthly”. Furthermore, not all words have thesame meaning after being converted intoadverbs by adding –ly (e.g. hard – hardly)Adverbs of Manner also have other exceptions.Some adverbs take the same form as theiradjective counterpart. Others have no knownadjective form. Still, adverbs of manner areimmediately noticeable by adding gradability tothe verb or adjective that they modify. Adverbs of Manner
11. Adverbs of Reason or PurposeAdverbs, adverb phrases and clauses of purposeor reason answer the question Why? Thisquestion is usually answered by a phrase orclause, rather than by a single-word adverb.Adverb phrases and clauses of purpose usuallyoccupy the end of a clause, and follow any otheradverbs, or adverb phrases or clauses.Examples:I went to the store yesterday to buy a coat.I need to buy a new coat soon because my oldone is worn out.
12. In the first example, the adverb phrase of purposeto buy a coat occupies the end position of a clause,following the adverb of time yesterday. In thesecond example, the adverb clause of purposebecause my old one is worn out occupies theend position of a clause, following the adverb oftime soon. Adverbs of Reason or Purpose