Stories Stories can be told in many diﬀerent ways—word of mouth, written word, movies, plays. One of the fastest, most universally understandable and information-‐rich ways to tell a story is with a storyboard. Storyboards have been used throughout history to depict events through pictures. Even when created very quickly, storyboards can convey a wealth of information, showing a particular order of events in an interesting and easy-‐to-‐ understand way. (Sova, 2006)
Storyboard Language PAN: A steady, sweeping movement from one point in a scene to another. TILT: Using a camera on a tripod, the camera moves up or down to follow the action. ZOOM: Use of the camera lens to move closely towards the subject. DOLLY: A camera dolly is a specialized piece of ﬁlm equipment designed to create smooth camera movements on the horizontal axis. POV (point of view shot): A shot which is understood to be seen from the point of view of a character within the scene.
Storyboard Language DISSOLVE: A transition between two shots, where one shot fades away and simultaneously another shot fades in. FADE -‐ A transition from a shot to black where the image gradually becomes darker is a Fade Out; or from black where the image gradually becomes brighter is a Fade In. JUMP CUT: A rapid, jerky transition from one frame to the next, either disrupting the ﬂow of time or movement within a scene or making an abrupt transition from one scene to another. HAND-‐HELD: unsteady camera – no tripod, Hand held cameras denote a certain kind of gritty realism, and they can make the audience feel as though they are part of a scene, rather than viewing it from a detached, frozen position.
Storyboard Language REACTION SHOT-‐ 1.: A shot of someone looking oﬀ screen. 2.: A reaction shot can also be a shot of someone in a conversation where they are not given a line of dialogue but are just listening to the other person speak. CRANE SHOT: Basically, dolly-‐shots-‐in-‐the-‐air. A crane (or jib), is a large, heavy piece of equipment, but is a useful way of moving a camera -‐ it can move up, down, left, right, swooping in on action or moving diagonally out of it. AERIAL SHOT: exciting variation of a crane shot, usually taken from a helicopter
Editing Although editing happens in post-‐production for live action ﬁlms, storyboards function to draw up an initial plan for editing. For animation, almost all of the most important editing decisions are taken at the storyboarding phase, since there is no additional coverage -‐ animators will only draw or render what is planned in the storyboards and layout. Although there are a few editing symbols that you should learn to use when storyboarding, Primarily you should be thinking about editing in terms of the decisions you make regarding the continuity (or not) between individual shots, their sequence and the rhythm of the sequence as a whole.
Planning Plan ﬁrst. Before you start any detailed drawing of the mise en scene, it is very important that you should plan your shots and editing in detail. Before drawing anything, annotate your blank storyboards in pencil. Use the space alongside the storyboard to write down the shots that you want for the sequence. Now sketch the shot very lightly in pencil -‐ use stick ﬁgures without any detail. Review the whole sequence of shots -‐ try to imagine what it will look like when ﬁlmed. Make any changes to improve the shot ﬂow.
Drawing Whatever your purpose, your storyboards will beneﬁt from the conﬁdence, ﬂuidity, and improvements in perception brought by extensive drawing practice. You can also get by with posing and taking photographs of artists wooden mannequins or using 3D ﬁgure creation software such as Poser (some storyboard artists even report using Barbie and Ken dolls!)
Rule of Thirds Unless your subject is perfectly symmetrical, the screen should never be divided exactly in half by strong horizontal or vertical lines. Instead, it should be divided approximately into thirds. For example, the horizon (if youre shooting a corn ﬁeld) should be either a third of the way from the bottom of the screen or a third of the way from the top. With the exception of titles, composition should not be perfectly symmetrical, but should rather balance positive and negative (ﬁlled and empty) space