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  1. 1. OPERATING SYSTEMS IN CLOUD ENVIRONMENT Term papersubmitted By To Department of Computer Science and Engineering In partialfulfilmentoftheRequirementforthe CA of Operating Systems To Mr.Sir (Asstt. Professor) (December 2013)
  2. 2. CONTENTS  Acknowledgement  Introduction to Operating Systems in Cloud Environment  Abstract of Cloud Operating Systems  Architecture of Cloud Operating Systems  Goals of Cloud Operating Systems  Different Types of Cloud Operating Systems  Benefits of Cloud Operating Systems  Applications  Advantages offered by Cloud Operating Systems  Future Scope  Conclusion  References
  3. 3. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The satisfaction that accompanies the successful completion of any task would be incomplete without the mention of people whose ceaseless cooperation made it possible, whose constant guidance and encouragement crown all efforts with success. I am extremely grateful to my teacher „Mr. Sir‟ for being a source of inspiration and for her constant support in the design, implementation and evaluation of this term paper. I am thankful to him for his constant constructive criticism and valuable suggestions, which benefited me a lot while developing the term paper on „Operating Systems in Cloud Environment‟. Through this column, it would be my utmost pleasure to express my warm thanks to him for his encouragement, co-operation and consent as without which I mightn‟t be able to accomplish this term paper. I would also like to express my thanks to almighty god for his grace and mercy. Above all, I am extremely thankful to my friends who always remained aside me.
  4. 4. INTRODUCTION TO OPERATING SYSTEMS IN CLOUD ENVIRONMENT Like a server Operating System (OS), a cloud OS is responsible for managing resources. In a server (e.g., a PC), the OS is responsible for managing the various hardware resources, such as CPU, memory, disks, network interfaces – everything inside a server‟s chassis. It hides the hardware operation details and allows these scarce resources to be efficiently shared. A cloud OS serves the same purpose. Instead of managing a single machine‟s resources, a cloud OS is responsible for managing the cloud infrastructure, hiding the cloud infrastructure details from the application programmers and coordinating the sharing of the limited resources. But unlike a traditional OS, a cloud OS has to do everything at scale. IBM CEO Thomas J. Watson is well known for his 1943 statement (although only scant evidence exists): “I think there is a world market for maybe five computers.” Although it is often laughed at since the advent of Personal Computers, it is becoming a reality again. The only difference is that we refer to these computers as clouds. Today, only a handful of companies, such as Google, Microsoft, Amazon and Yahoo, need and are capable of building a cloud–a large server farm with hundreds of thousands of servers. For example, it is reported that Google has well over 1 million servers. Managing such big an infrastructure requires the OS to be extremely scalable. Cloud Operating System is an open source web desktop following the cloud computing concept. It is mainly written in PHP, XML, and JavaScript. It acts as a platform for web applications written using the Cloud Computing concepts. It includes a Desktop environment with number of applications and system utilities. It is accessible by portable devices via its mobile front end. Every Cloud Operating System lets you upload your files and work with them no matter where you are. It contains applications like Word Processor, Address Book, PDF reader, and many more developed by the Cloud vendor. Cloud is a simplified Operating System that runs just on a Web browser, providing access to a variety of web-based applications that allow the user to perform many simple tasks without booting a full-scale Operating System. Because of its simplicity, Cloud can boot in just a few seconds. The Operating System is designed for Net books, Mobile Internet Devices, and PCs that are mainly used to browse the Internet. From Cloud the user can quickly boot into the main OS, because Cloud continues booting the main OS in the background.
  5. 5. An operating system for the cloud by ‘Microsoft’ …. Service 1 Service 2 Service N Service 3 ……
  6. 6. ABSTRACT OF CLOUD OPERATING SYSTEMS The idea behind Cloud Operating Systems is that the whole system lives in the web browser. The client must have only a web browser to work with Cloud Operating Systems and all its applications, including Office and PIM ones. This applies to for both modern and obsolete PC's An Open Source Platform designed to hold a wide variety of Web Applications. Cloud Operating Systemswas thought of as a new definition of an Operating System, where everything inside it can be accessed from everywhere inside a Network. All you need to do is login into your Cloud Operating Systemsserver with a normal Internet Browser, and you have access to your personal desktop, with your applications, documents, music, movies... just like you left it. Cloud Operating Systems lets you upload your files and work with them no matter where you are. It contains applications like Word Processor, Address Book, PDF reader, and many more developed by the community. There are many Cloud Operating Systems like Eye OS, Glide, Amoeba, Ghost, Jolly e.t.c.
  7. 7. ARCHITECTURE OF CLOUD OPERATING SYSTEMS Architecture of Cloud Operating System structure is divided into 4 parts:-  Kernel: Unify the system services..  Sevices:Functions of the lower level.  Library:Do not handle low level tasks (such as files, users or processes), instead they make the development of applications easier.  Applications:Able to call a function of the any part.
  8. 8. GOALS OF CLOUD OPERATING SYSTEMS  Being able to work from everywhere, regardless of whether or not you are using a full- featured, modern computer, a mobile gadget, or a completely obsolete PC.  Sharing resources easily between different work centers at company, or working from different places and countries on the same projects.  Always enjoying the same applications with the same open formats, and forgetting the usual compatibility problems between office suites and traditional operating systems.  Being able to continue working if you have to leave your local computer or if it just crashes, without losing data or time: Just log in to your Cloud Operating System from another place and continue working. Cloud Computing Layers
  9. 9. DIFFERENT TYPES OF CLOUD OPERATING SYSTEMS The following are the various Cloud Operating Systems available in the Real-Time world provided by the Cloud Vendors. 1. GLIDE Glide OS 4.0 is a comprehensive Ad-Free cloud computing solution. Glide is a free suite of rights-based productivity and collaboration applications with 30GBs of storage. Users who want extra storage or would like to add extra users can upgrade to Glide Premium now with 250 GBs for $50.00 a year or 20 cents per GB per year. With a Glide Premium account you can set up and administer up to 25 users. The Glide OS provides automatic file and application compatibility across devices and operating systems. With Glide OS you also get the Glide Sync App which helps you to synchronize your home and work files. 2. AMOEBA Amoeba Cloud OS is an advanced Online Cloud Operating System. Log in to your free account and join a cloud computing revolution that begins with great apps like Shutterborg, Exstream and Surf. 3. MY GOYA MyGoya is a free online operating system. Your own personal desktop can be accessed from any Internet PC in the world and includes e-mail, chat, file sharing, calendar and an instant messenger. Manage your contacts from anywhere in the world. 4. KOHIVE Kohive is an online desktop where you can easily collaborate with others. It‟s perfect for freelancers, small businesses, students and groups with similar interests. 5. ZIMDESK Zimdesk Operating System is your computer on the web – the entire functionality of a PC – online. There is nothing to install. A web browser and internet connection are all you need to access your desktop, files and favorite applications. You can access your data anytime from anywhere, from any PC. 6. GHOST Ghost Cloud Computing is a leading company in the cloud computing industry specializing in cloud computing for the end user. Ghost offers individuals and businesses file storage and apps in the cloud to enable secure personal computing from any device. Ghost is distributed directly from its web site and through channels. Ghost web interface is very simple and easy to use, it make it quick and easy to manage your files and folders. We can upload data of any type to your cloud storage from any device. We can view and edit any of your files in any browser. We can instantly share files and documents with any friend by sending them a link. Wherever you are, you can edit documents and pictures directly online within Ghost portal. It also offers full mobile support, you can browse your file and folders from your cellular device or we can mount as a Windows drive; just like a USB flash drive. We can move files between local hard disk and your Cloud File.
  10. 10. 7. JOLI “Joli OS is a free and easy way to turn any computer up to 10 years old into a cool new cloud device. Get on the Web and instantly connect to all your Web apps, files and services using the computer you already own. You may never need to buy a new computer again. It‟s easy. Just download Joli Operating System. It installs in just 10 minutes.” 8. CLOUDO Cloudo is a free Cloud Operating System that lives on the Internet, right in your web browser. This means that you can reach your documents, photos, music and all other files no matter where you are, from any computer or mobile phone. It features an open, powerful, stable and versatile development environment. With the click of a mouse button you can get started with creating applications for yourself, a group of people or even everyone. And if we are good, we can make money out of this as well. We can easily share a set of files, images or set up a joint account with friends and colleagues. 9. CORNELI The CorneliOS Web OS is an easy-to-use, multi-user and cross-browser “Web Desktop Environment”, “Web Operating System” or “Web Office” and comes with a set of cool applications. 10. LUCID Lucid comes with lots of applications. One can browse photos, listen to music, and edit documents. It also comes with an RSS feed reader, some games, a calculator, and a bash-like terminal application. We can install additional third-party applications, which allows we do even more! 11. EYE OS EyeOS is one of the most used WebOperating System which is released under the AGPLv3 license and only needs Apache + PHP5 + MySQL to run. With EyeOS you can build your private Cloud Desktop. Using EyeOS Web Runner we can open your EyeOS files from your browser with your local apps and save them automatically on our cloud. In EyeOS 2.0 we can work collaboratively with other users simultaneously in the same document, it is the Safe Cloud Computing system because we can host it in your own company or organization. We will get privacy and cloud computing at its best. 12. STARTFORCE With Startforce, we can run Windows apps such as MS Office, Adobe Acrobat and Quickbooks. We can also stitch in web apps such as, Google or your company‟s intranet web apps.
  11. 11. BENEFITS OF CLOUD OPERATING SYSTEMS  Worldwide availability of Cloud Operating Systems:  As it‟s available through internet .  Requires only browser:  A browser with Java support is more than enough.  Dynamic content and design:  Interface can be customized according your needs, windows are floating so that they can be repositioned.  Extensive list Applications:  Office applications, Multimedia applications, Network applications and Chat applications etc. all are available.  Remote storage facility:  Through the file browser you can store files over the internet and edit them as you want.  Browser and Platform independent:  All browsers and all operating systems are supported.  Rich text editing facility
  12. 12. APPLICATIONS EyeOSprovides system for the users where they work with EyeOS and all its applications, including Office and PIM ones. EyeOS provides a toolkit to create new applications easily EyeOS can provide schools and universities with a full web platform where students, teachers and parents will have a personal yet collaborative desktop to work and, communicate between themselves and get organized inside and outside the school. With a private server, EyeOS can provide city councils, public library networks, free Internet points and other public environments the perfect system for their users to have a web place to work and communicate with the network managers, registering once and using it from every point. EYE OS Example
  13. 13. ADVANTAGES OFFERED BY CLOUD OPERATING SYSTEMS A cloud OS is complex to implement. There are two reasons for this complexity. First, the sheer scale of the cloud infrastructure pushes the technology limit. Few companies have had the experience of managing such a big infrastructure, and the cloud providers are forced to build new solutions from the ground up. For example, Google designed their own GFS to manage files and their own BigTable to store a large amount of semi structured data. Similarly, Amazon designed Dynamo to manage storage and built their own management infrastructure to support their web services API. Second, a cloud has to be robust and scalable because it is designed to be shared by hundreds or thousands of people instead of just a few users on a PC. Just like the computers in the 1940‟s, clouds are expensive to build.Both Google andMicrosoft are aggressively building out their cloud infrastructure. According to their annual 10K reports, both companies are spending close to a billion dollars a year on capital investment. Only a handful companies could afford such a big investment. Yet, many companies or individuals require access to a large computation capacity once in a while; thus, a large number of users could potentially time-share the cloud infrastructure at the same time. It is not trivial to support such a large number of users at the same time. As evidence of the complexity of building a cloud OS, even after 4 years of its introduction, we still found a bug in Amazon SQS through the course of this research. Even though a cloud OS is complex to implement, out of necessity, cloud providers have already spent a large amount of engineering efforts on building a highly scalable cloud OS that can manage a large infrastructure shared by many people. If we leverage the existing cloud OS, we can potentially lower the application complexity, yet achieve high scalability.
  14. 14. INTEROPERABILITY Azure™ Services Platform
  15. 15. FUTURE SCOPE The existence of simple yet powerful and expressive abstractions is essential in realizing the full potential of Cloud Computing. To this purpose we introduced the Cloud operating system, Cloud OS. Cloud OS aims to provide an expressive set of resource management options and metrics to applications to facilitate programming in the Cloud, while at the same time exposing a coherent and unified programming interface to the underlying distributed hardware. This unified interface will provide developers with a quick and transparent access to a massively scalable computing and networking environment, allowing the implementation of robust, elastic, and efficient distributed applications. Our next steps beyond laying out the architecture of CloudOS include, first, a detailed definition of functional elements and interfaces of the kernel-space Cloud processes and of the user-space libraries, and second, the design and implementation of the aforementioned elements with emphasis on fault-tolerance, security, and elasticity.
  16. 16. CONCLUSION Here, I conclude my lines of my term paper on the topic „Operating Systems in Cloud Environment‟ with the extreme satisfaction and contentment. Building a highly scalable system is not an easy task. We have to invest in a great deal of engineering efforts to make sure not only the overall system, but also every single component are robust and scalable. Worst yet, we tend to redo everything for the next system that we have to build. In this paper, we explore a new way of building these systems, i.e., building them on top of a cloud OS. Because of its scale (both the size of the infrastructure and the number of customers), a cloud vendor has to spend a large amount of engineering efforts to make its services scalable, possibly more scalable than any other implementations. We have implemented MapReduce on top of the Amazon cloud OS. That implementation has three primary advantages. First, it is simpler. It has 3,000 lines of Java code, two orders of magnitude simpler than a traditional implementation.Second, that implementation is more scalable because there is no single point of scalability bottleneck, and shows experimentally that this is true. Last, the implementation is faster. In one case, it is 60 times faster than the Hadoop implementation. Added to this, my term paper contains the basic description of Cloud OS. It also includes practical application of Cloud OS in practical life. Also I have sincerely included the references from where I have made my term paper. This term paper is the outcome of my hard and laborious work and contains a complete knowledge on the path independent line integral. Here, I end my lines with the hope that my term paper will be equally appreciated and heartily accepted by all. Also, all my faults and mistakes would be forgiven.
  17. 17. References  accesed on 9 nov,2013 at 8.19pm  os.aspx#fbid=RP78nSRGEMG            cloud.aspx#fbid=RP78nSRGEMG