BACKGROUND TO NATURAL RESOURCES
A Natural resource is a thing, people can use which comes from
Nature: people do not make it themselves.
Examples of natural resources are air, water, wood, oil, solar
energy, wind energy, hydro-electric energy, coal ,water,
Two sorts of natural resource:
› Renewable resources
› Non-renewable resources.
A renewable resource grows again or comes back again after
we use it. For example, forest, sun, water, trees, fish.
A non-renewable resource is a resource that does not grow or
come back, or a resource that would take a very long time to
come back or grow. For example, coal is a non-renewable
Forest - a living, complexly interrelated community of trees
and associated plants and animals
Forest canopy - a barrier to direct sunlight and shades the
forest floor, influencing the air temperature, soil temperature
and soil moisture
Pulpwood - wood cut or prepared for manufacture into pulp,
which can be made into paper products
Reserved forest land - forest land restricted from harvesting
Timberland - forest land capable of producing wood in
excess of 20 cubic feet per acre per year and not restricted
from being harvested
Total forest land - the sum of timberland, reserved forest land,
and other forest land
Urban forestry - the cultivation and management of trees for
its benefit to society
Forests cover about 30% of the Earth’s surface.
Most of the world’s remaining forest are tropical rain
Temperate forests cover a much smaller area because
most have been cleared to make way for homes,
The management of forests is called forestry.
The overall goal of forestry is to balance our need
for forests as an economic resources vs. our need for
them as an ecological resource.
The total forest area of the world amounts to 3.6
billion hectares, down from 6 billion hectares 8000
56 countries have lost between 90 and 100% of
15 million hectares of forest were lost annually in
the last two decades, largely in the tropics.
12.5% of plants and 75% of animal species are
threatened by decline of forests
In the developing countries alone, some US$ 45
billion is lost through poor forest management.
About 14 million hectares of forestland are lost
annually, due to conversion of forests into
Tropical rainforestsHot & humid region
Annual rainfall- 2000 to
Found in south and
Western & Central
Africa, South East Asia,
and some islands of
Indian & Pacific
Tropical forests are
because it helps in
Cold in winter and
warm & humid in
Annual rainfall is 7502000 mm
Soil is rich
Found in western
and Central Europe,
eastern Asia and
trees are found in this
region like spruce, fir,
Found in northern
parts of Northern
The soil in these
forests is acidic and
As per report of Forest survey of India,
Dehradun the forest cover in the country is
678,333 sq.km & constitutes 20.63% of its
Dense forest contributes 390,564sq.km(11.88%)
& open forest 287,769(8.75%).
In India M.P with 76429 sq.km of forest cover
has the maximum forest among all States/UT’s
followed by AP & Chandigarh.
80% of Indian forest
is of three types.
INDIAN FOREST SURVEY
Area – 53483 sq.km
Forest area – 34662 sq.km
› 4.5% of India’s forests
Forest Cover – 23938 sq.km
› Dense – 19023 sq.km
› Open -- 4915 sq.km
Threat Category (IUCN )
Number of species
For the next 5 years following seven plants require
Aloe vera (Ghrita Kumari)
Bacopa monnieri (Brahmi)
Centella asiatica (Mandookparni, Gotu Kola)
Rauwolfia serpentina (Sarpagandha)
Catharanthus roseus (Periwinkle)
Taxus baccata / Taxus wallichiana (Himalayan
Trees provide food, medicines, fuel, shelter,
protection, shade, tools and other needs.
Wood is the raw material from which forest
industries manufacture countless products
for home, factory and office.
The social values of forests are the benefits
they provide for outdoor recreation
activities such as: hunting, fishing, bird
watching, nature study, camping,
picnicking, hiking and scenic or aesthetic
Forests influence temperature, humidity, and wind
The leaves and branches of trees break the impact of rain
causing it to drip rather than to reach the earth with force.
Upon reaching the forest floor, rain is absorbed by the
ground litter and humus, reducing surface runoff
The litter and humus keep the soil mellow, porous and
The forest soil tends to not freeze as deep
Forest vegetation shades water courses
Aid in flood control
Wildlife obtain food and shelter
Forests help to reduce wind erosion
Forest resources have economic value when they yield
Timber, grazing, recreation, water, minerals, fish, and
wildlife are all examples of income-producing values of
Greatest economic contribution of forests is the products
derived from trees
Trees from forests are made into lumber, pulpwood,
veneer, poles, railroad ties, and piling.
The same income producing resources have certain social
values that may not be income producing but still have
worth in terms of public good or interest
Social values are generally values related to aesthetic
considerations, such as scenic qualities of a forest area.
Other social values are concerned with biological
aspects, such as the uniqueness of the plants and animals
found in the forest.
INDUSTRIAL WOOD AND FUELWOOD
Urban forestry also considers the present and
potential contribution of the trees to the
physiological, sociological, and economic well-being
of an urban society
Trees are established along streets and avenues
These benefits include economic, environmental,
wildlife, and aesthetic and social values
Major benefit of trees is their shade (reduce energy
consumed for air conditioning)
Deciduous trees lose their leaves in the autumn,
which allows more sunlight in the winter
Urban trees may also function as windbreaks
Because trees shade the ground, soil temperature is cooler
during the summer, resulting in a better retention of soil
Urban forests provide watershed protection
Urban trees and forests produce oxygen and utilize
Maintaining a diversity of trees, shrubs, and understory
plants stimulates a diversity of wildlife species
The beauty of trees and shrubs softens the rigid lines of
man-made structures and enhances pleasing
The beauty of the season is another important aesthetic
value when establishing trees in the urban landscape
When properly considered, established and cared for,
trees can greatly improve living conditions in urban
CONDITION THAT PREVAILED BEFORE:
One of the finest tropical evergreen
Low population, tribals living in harmony
Forest degradation due to legal and
Degradation of soil, soil erosion.
Heavy flow of sediments into coastal
waters killing substantial amount of corals.
Threat to the biodiversity (saltwater
crocodile and Andaman wild pig have
become endangered species).
Threat to tribes.
Population pressure is high.
Extraction of timber : from 1883.
Govt. supported migration of people
from other parts of the country.
The 340-km long Andanman trunk road.
Increased interference of man.
Forest are exploited since early times for
humans to meet human demand
The permanent destruction of forest is
Erosion of topsoil
Extinction of plants and animals
Local climatic change
Loss of livelihood of local communities
Foresters and local people are working
together to conserve forests.
Extractive Reserves-Protected forest in
which local people are allowed to harvest
products like fruits, fibre , medicine etc.
Main objective is to improve the life of the
people while conserving biodiversity.
The conservation measure against the
deforestation is afforestation. The development
of forest by planting trees on waste land is called
The main objective of afforestation
• To control the deforestation
• To prevent soil erosion
• To regulate rainfall and maintain temperature
Joint Forest Management
Concept introduced in 1980’s.
In JFM local communities are involved in
planinng the conservation programme.
`eg.-The Tamilnadu Afforestation Project(TAP)
Used in India in 1976.
Plantation of eucalyptus tree
Paper made from natural fibres and
China plans to make 60 % of its paper
from tree free pulp.
In India Navneet publications use eco
friendly papers to make copybooks.
CHIPKO MOVEMENT –Gaura Devi
The Green Belt Movement— Wangari
Struggle in Amazonia—Chico Mendes
Red wood trees California—Julia Butterfly
Stop destructions of forest
Use of sustainaible forest management
Research and training programme.
Proper planning for the whole landscape
and not the forest in isolation