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Forests and forest resources
 

Forests and forest resources

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Forests and forest resources

Forests and forest resources

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    Forests and forest resources Forests and forest resources Presentation Transcript

    • Forest and Forest Resources
    • BACKGROUND TO NATURAL RESOURCES      A Natural resource is a thing, people can use which comes from Nature: people do not make it themselves. Examples of natural resources are air, water, wood, oil, solar energy, wind energy, hydro-electric energy, coal ,water, minerals. Two sorts of natural resource: › Renewable resources › Non-renewable resources. A renewable resource grows again or comes back again after we use it. For example, forest, sun, water, trees, fish. A non-renewable resource is a resource that does not grow or come back, or a resource that would take a very long time to come back or grow. For example, coal is a non-renewable resource.
    •        Forest - a living, complexly interrelated community of trees and associated plants and animals Forest canopy - a barrier to direct sunlight and shades the forest floor, influencing the air temperature, soil temperature and soil moisture Pulpwood - wood cut or prepared for manufacture into pulp, which can be made into paper products Reserved forest land - forest land restricted from harvesting Timberland - forest land capable of producing wood in excess of 20 cubic feet per acre per year and not restricted from being harvested Total forest land - the sum of timberland, reserved forest land, and other forest land Urban forestry - the cultivation and management of trees for its benefit to society
    • Forest Resources      Forests cover about 30% of the Earth’s surface. Most of the world’s remaining forest are tropical rain forest. Temperate forests cover a much smaller area because most have been cleared to make way for homes, agriculture, etc. The management of forests is called forestry. The overall goal of forestry is to balance our need for forests as an economic resources vs. our need for them as an ecological resource.
    • The total forest area of the world amounts to 3.6 billion hectares, down from 6 billion hectares 8000 years ago.  56 countries have lost between 90 and 100% of their forests.  15 million hectares of forest were lost annually in the last two decades, largely in the tropics.  12.5% of plants and 75% of animal species are threatened by decline of forests  In the developing countries alone, some US$ 45 billion is lost through poor forest management.  About 14 million hectares of forestland are lost annually, due to conversion of forests into cropland. 
    • Tropical rainforestsHot & humid region Annual rainfall- 2000 to 4500 mm.  Found in south and central America, Western & Central Africa, South East Asia, and some islands of Indian & Pacific Oceans.  Tropical forests are considered important because it helps in recycling water.  
    •     Cold in winter and warm & humid in summer. Annual rainfall is 7502000 mm Soil is rich Found in western and Central Europe, eastern Asia and eastern North America.
    •  Many coniferous trees are found in this region like spruce, fir, pine etc.  Found in northern parts of Northern America, Europe and Asia.  The soil in these forests is acidic and humus-rich.
    •  As per report of Forest survey of India, Dehradun the forest cover in the country is 678,333 sq.km & constitutes 20.63% of its geographical area.  Dense forest contributes 390,564sq.km(11.88%) & open forest 287,769(8.75%).  In India M.P with 76429 sq.km of forest cover has the maximum forest among all States/UT’s followed by AP & Chandigarh.
    •  80% of Indian forest is of three types. Forest type Area in India Place Tropical moist deci. 37% MP,GUJRA T,MAHA. TROPICAL DRY DECI. 28% HIMALAYA TO KANYAKU MARI SUBTROPI CAL PINE 7% HIMALAYA S INDIAN FOREST SURVEY
    • www.mapsofindia.com
    • Area – 53483 sq.km  Forest area – 34662 sq.km  › 64.8% › 4.5% of India’s forests  Forest Cover – 23938 sq.km › 44.8% › Dense – 19023 sq.km › Open -- 4915 sq.km
    •  Threat Category (IUCN ) Extinct Extinct/Endangered Endangered Endangered/Vulnerable Vulnerable Rare Indeterminate Insufficiently Known No information Not threatened  TOTAL           Number of species 19 43 149 2 108 256 719 9 1441 374 3120
    •  For the next 5 years following seven plants require concentrated attention: Aloe vera (Ghrita Kumari)  Bacopa monnieri (Brahmi)  Centella asiatica (Mandookparni, Gotu Kola)  Rauwolfia serpentina (Sarpagandha)  Catharanthus roseus (Periwinkle)  Taxus baccata / Taxus wallichiana (Himalayan Yew)  Artemisia annua 
    • Trees provide food, medicines, fuel, shelter, protection, shade, tools and other needs.  Wood is the raw material from which forest industries manufacture countless products for home, factory and office.  The social values of forests are the benefits they provide for outdoor recreation activities such as: hunting, fishing, bird watching, nature study, camping, picnicking, hiking and scenic or aesthetic value. 
    •          Forests influence temperature, humidity, and wind velocity. The leaves and branches of trees break the impact of rain causing it to drip rather than to reach the earth with force. Upon reaching the forest floor, rain is absorbed by the ground litter and humus, reducing surface runoff The litter and humus keep the soil mellow, porous and permeable The forest soil tends to not freeze as deep Forest vegetation shades water courses Aid in flood control Wildlife obtain food and shelter Forests help to reduce wind erosion
    •        Forest resources have economic value when they yield an income Timber, grazing, recreation, water, minerals, fish, and wildlife are all examples of income-producing values of forests Greatest economic contribution of forests is the products derived from trees Trees from forests are made into lumber, pulpwood, veneer, poles, railroad ties, and piling. The same income producing resources have certain social values that may not be income producing but still have worth in terms of public good or interest Social values are generally values related to aesthetic considerations, such as scenic qualities of a forest area. Other social values are concerned with biological aspects, such as the uniqueness of the plants and animals found in the forest.
    •  INDUSTRIAL WOOD AND FUELWOOD  NON-WOOD PRODUCTS  ECOSYSTEM SERVICES  OTHER CONTRIBUTIONS
    •           Timber Tendu leaves Bamboo Sal seed Honey Medicinal plants Rubber Pickle Biodiesel Ply wood
    •       Urban forestry also considers the present and potential contribution of the trees to the physiological, sociological, and economic well-being of an urban society Trees are established along streets and avenues These benefits include economic, environmental, wildlife, and aesthetic and social values Major benefit of trees is their shade (reduce energy consumed for air conditioning) Deciduous trees lose their leaves in the autumn, which allows more sunlight in the winter Urban trees may also function as windbreaks
    •        Because trees shade the ground, soil temperature is cooler during the summer, resulting in a better retention of soil moisture Urban forests provide watershed protection Urban trees and forests produce oxygen and utilize carbon dioxide Maintaining a diversity of trees, shrubs, and understory plants stimulates a diversity of wildlife species The beauty of trees and shrubs softens the rigid lines of man-made structures and enhances pleasing environments The beauty of the season is another important aesthetic value when establishing trees in the urban landscape When properly considered, established and cared for, trees can greatly improve living conditions in urban environments
    • CONDITION THAT PREVAILED BEFORE:  One of the finest tropical evergreen forests  Rich biodiversity  Low population, tribals living in harmony with nature.
    •       Forest degradation due to legal and illegal logging. Degradation of soil, soil erosion. Heavy flow of sediments into coastal waters killing substantial amount of corals. Threat to the biodiversity (saltwater crocodile and Andaman wild pig have become endangered species). Threat to tribes. Population pressure is high.
    • Extraction of timber : from 1883.  Govt. supported migration of people from other parts of the country.  The 340-km long Andanman trunk road.  Increased interference of man. 
    • Natural   Forest fire Climatic change Human made      Commercial logging Commercial harvesting Construction Intentional fire Mining
    • Deforestation Forest are exploited since early times for humans to meet human demand  The permanent destruction of forest is called deforestation 
    • Erosion of topsoil  Floods  Extinction of plants and animals  Local climatic change  Global warming  Loss of livelihood of local communities 
    • Foresters and local people are working together to conserve forests.  Extractive Reserves-Protected forest in which local people are allowed to harvest products like fruits, fibre , medicine etc.  Main objective is to improve the life of the people while conserving biodiversity. 
    • Afforestation The conservation measure against the deforestation is afforestation. The development of forest by planting trees on waste land is called afforestation  The main objective of afforestation • To control the deforestation • To prevent soil erosion  • To regulate rainfall and maintain temperature etc.
    •  Joint Forest Management  Concept introduced in 1980’s. In JFM local communities are involved in planinng the conservation programme. ` `eg.-The Tamilnadu Afforestation Project(TAP)     SOCIAL FORESTRY Used in India in 1976. Plantation of eucalyptus tree
    • Paper made from natural fibres and agricultural residues.  China plans to make 60 % of its paper from tree free pulp.  In India Navneet publications use eco friendly papers to make copybooks. 
    • CHIPKO MOVEMENT –Gaura Devi  The Green Belt Movement— Wangari Maathai  Struggle in Amazonia—Chico Mendes  Red wood trees California—Julia Butterfly 
    • Stop destructions of forest  Use of sustainaible forest management approach  Research and training programme.  Proper planning for the whole landscape and not the forest in isolation 