Poverty and Vulnerability of Fishermen in the East        Coast of Peninsular Malaysia and   Potential for a Community Soc...
Outline of presentation1. Concept of poverty & vulnerability2. Why fishermen?3. What type of fishermen are vulnerable?4.  ...
Concept of poverty & vulnerability Poverty – a static concept (a snapshot in  time), below PL Insecurity & vulnerability...
Vulnerability is a function of1) household’s asset endowment2) insurance mechanisms (informal and/or   formal)3) character...
Why fishermen? Among the poorest in Malaysia Switching between chicken and fish In 1970s, fish was the people’s food, c...
Which fishermen are vulnerable? “Vulnerability” depends on whom we ask:  •   Small (coastal) fishermen  •   Medium size  ...
Types of vulnerabilities Depends on where we ask (along the east coast)  •   In Kelantan state (bordering with Thailand):...
8
Picture of a fish trawler                            9
Small or coastal fishermen are the         most vulnerable                                     10
11
12
Types of vulnerabilities• Income• Health• Erosion due to strong waves (January 2012)• Others                              ...
Process of vulnerability of fishermenFishermen are socio-economically vulnerable due to external as well asinternal factor...
Main sources of vulnerability• Encroachment by Malaysian licensed  “chartered” foreign-owned trawlers operated  by foreign...
A Thai boat (with Thai letters) using Malaysian licensedC2 Boat, flying Kelantan flag (with dock painted in red –required ...
Even the buyer from one of the seven C or  C2 boats landed at a non-governmentowned jetty in Tok Bali, Kelantan, is a Thai...
Lack of activities at federal government built          jetty in Tok Bali, Kelantan                                       ...
Bustling of activities at a private-owned jetty             in Tok Bali, Kelantan                                         ...
Mitigation and the roles of         Fishermen’s Associations (FA)• Fishermen associated with FAs only to obtain papers (do...
AREA BRANCH FA attached to the LKIM    jetty in Dungun, Terengganu                                      21
AREA BRANCH FA in Bachok, Kelantan                                 22
Not all of fishermen’s associationprogrammes are up and running                                     23
Idled Fishermen Group Economic Activity                                     24
Potential for Community Social                Enterprise• Existing Fishermen’s Cooperative (belonging to  AREA BRANCH FA) ...
Rates for landing charges at a small jetty run by         the Bachok AREA BRANCH FA                                       ...
No activity at the Bachok AREABRANCH FA Jetty except for fishermen  doing maintenance of their nets                       ...
Fishermen’s shop next to the LKIM jetty in Mersing,Johor; but it is privately run on a small scale (it does      not belon...
A tuition centre operated by an Mersing Area Branch  FA; but the facility seems abandoned. In Malaysia,exam-oriented priva...
Fishermen Coop (FC) as a community social                enterprise• Re-examine business model of FC shops• FC must compet...
Overall proposals1. Re-examine current licensing & subsidy   system affecting particularly particularly small   (coastal) ...
“Wealth granted by God to His Prophet from thepeople of many places are for God, for HisProphet and his family, for orphan...
TERIMA KASIH THANK YOU               33
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Vulnerability of fishermen in the East Coast Economic Region (ECER) of Malaysia

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Vulnerability of fishermen in the East Coast Economic Region (ECER) of Malaysia

  1. 1. Poverty and Vulnerability of Fishermen in the East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia and Potential for a Community Social Enterprise Mohd Shukri Hajinoor COMMACT Malaysia and Faculty of Economics and Management Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia March 4, 2012 Presentation at the COMMACT International Conference on “New directions and connections for the soladirity economy and people- centred development, 1-4 March 2012, Kochi, Kerala, India
  2. 2. Outline of presentation1. Concept of poverty & vulnerability2. Why fishermen?3. What type of fishermen are vulnerable?4. What kind of vulnerabilities?5. Sources of vulnerabilities6. Reducing, mitigating, coping7. Potential for a community social enterprise 2
  3. 3. Concept of poverty & vulnerability Poverty – a static concept (a snapshot in time), below PL Insecurity & vulnerability are dynamic; they describe the response to changes over time Insecurity – exposure to risk Vulnerability – the resulting possibility of a decline in wellbeing 3
  4. 4. Vulnerability is a function of1) household’s asset endowment2) insurance mechanisms (informal and/or formal)3) characteristics (severity, frequency) of the shock 4
  5. 5. Why fishermen? Among the poorest in Malaysia Switching between chicken and fish In 1970s, fish was the people’s food, chicken was a luxury Since early 1990s, fish has become food of the rich, in turn, chicken is the people’s food It means, fish is relatively more expensive than chicken Yet most fishermen remains poor No NGO has dealt specifically with poor fishermen 5
  6. 6. Which fishermen are vulnerable? “Vulnerability” depends on whom we ask: • Small (coastal) fishermen • Medium size • Large scale (deep sea) enterprise 6
  7. 7. Types of vulnerabilities Depends on where we ask (along the east coast) • In Kelantan state (bordering with Thailand): encroachment by Thai fishermen • In Terengganu, Pahang, eastern Johor: Marine Park Act prohibiting fishing near islands (where most fish are) But what is common among them: • Vulnerabilities caused by TRAWLERS 7
  8. 8. 8
  9. 9. Picture of a fish trawler 9
  10. 10. Small or coastal fishermen are the most vulnerable 10
  11. 11. 11
  12. 12. 12
  13. 13. Types of vulnerabilities• Income• Health• Erosion due to strong waves (January 2012)• Others 13
  14. 14. Process of vulnerability of fishermenFishermen are socio-economically vulnerable due to external as well asinternal factors to them Global / Regional Forces Institutional factors Breakdowns in social Lack of assets capital and other skills Vulnerable Fishermen Vagaries of Illegal fishing climate & practices nature 14
  15. 15. Main sources of vulnerability• Encroachment by Malaysian licensed “chartered” foreign-owned trawlers operated by foreign fishermen (ALIBABA)• Encroachment by foreign-owned large boat (C & C2)• For small (coastal) fishermen, marginalization (of obtaining FISHERMAN CARD) due to politics 15
  16. 16. A Thai boat (with Thai letters) using Malaysian licensedC2 Boat, flying Kelantan flag (with dock painted in red –required for Kelantan boats) employing Thai fishermen landed at a non-government jetty in Tok Bali, Kelantan 16
  17. 17. Even the buyer from one of the seven C or C2 boats landed at a non-governmentowned jetty in Tok Bali, Kelantan, is a Thai 17
  18. 18. Lack of activities at federal government built jetty in Tok Bali, Kelantan 18
  19. 19. Bustling of activities at a private-owned jetty in Tok Bali, Kelantan 19
  20. 20. Mitigation and the roles of Fishermen’s Associations (FA)• Fishermen associated with FAs only to obtain papers (documents) to apply for KAD E-NELAYAN (Fisherman’s Card) from the Fisheries Development Authority (LKIM) (Ministry of Agriculture)• A Fisherman’s Card enables fishermen to obtain subsidies:1) RM200/month Living Allowance2) Diesel at RM1.80/litre (instead of RM2.10/litre3) RM0.10/kilogramme Catch Allowance• Mitigating role by FAs has been limited• Although there is the umbrella NATIONAL FA, not all AREA BRANCH FA are up and running to the fullest potential 20
  21. 21. AREA BRANCH FA attached to the LKIM jetty in Dungun, Terengganu 21
  22. 22. AREA BRANCH FA in Bachok, Kelantan 22
  23. 23. Not all of fishermen’s associationprogrammes are up and running 23
  24. 24. Idled Fishermen Group Economic Activity 24
  25. 25. Potential for Community Social Enterprise• Existing Fishermen’s Cooperative (belonging to AREA BRANCH FA) has been limited in scope• Private dealers buy catches directly from large C2 boats• AREA BRANCH FA operates small jetties only collecting landing fees (bringing in only small income) Potential for AREA BRANCH FA and its LOCAL FISHERMEN COOP to venture into enterprises bringing back benefits to its members 25
  26. 26. Rates for landing charges at a small jetty run by the Bachok AREA BRANCH FA 26
  27. 27. No activity at the Bachok AREABRANCH FA Jetty except for fishermen doing maintenance of their nets 27
  28. 28. Fishermen’s shop next to the LKIM jetty in Mersing,Johor; but it is privately run on a small scale (it does not belong to Fishermen’s Cooperative) 28
  29. 29. A tuition centre operated by an Mersing Area Branch FA; but the facility seems abandoned. In Malaysia,exam-oriented private tuition centres are a big business 29
  30. 30. Fishermen Coop (FC) as a community social enterprise• Re-examine business model of FC shops• FC must compete with fish dealers by purchasing catches directly at all types of jetties (government and privately-run) to secure competitively priced supply• Remodel and rebrand FC shops as the centre for merchant as well as retail fish shop 30
  31. 31. Overall proposals1. Re-examine current licensing & subsidy system affecting particularly particularly small (coastal) and medium2. Re-examine current system of monitoring of subsidies3. Re-examine current marine surveillance enforcement4. Social enterprise of FISHERMEN COOP that truly benefit its members – it GOES BEYOND COOPERATIVES 31
  32. 32. “Wealth granted by God to His Prophet from thepeople of many places are for God, for HisProphet and his family, for orphans, for the poorand for those on journey so that the wealth isnot only circulating among the riches amongyou” (Al-Hasyr 59:7) 32
  33. 33. TERIMA KASIH THANK YOU 33

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