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  1. 1. Gears
  2. 2. Types of Gears1. Spur Gear - used to transmit rotary motion between parallel shafts
  3. 3. 2. Helical Gears - used to transmit rotary motion between parallel or nonparallel shaft
  4. 4. 3. Herringbone Gears - A herringbone gear consists basically of two rows of helical teeth cut into one gear. - the axial thrust forces are cancelled by direct subtraction. - herringbone gears are used for heavy and continuous load applications.
  5. 5. 4. Bevel Gears - used to transmit rotary motion between intersecting shafts Straight Tooth Bevel Gear Spiral Bevel Gear Hypoid Gear
  6. 6. 5. Worm Gears - used to transmit rotary motion between nonparallel nonintersecting shafts
  7. 7. Gear Terminology
  8. 8. Important Gear Terminology……• Pitch Circle - theoretical circle upon which all calculations are usually based - its diameter is Pitch Diameter, D• Circular Pitch, p - distance measured on the pitch circle from one tooth to adjacent tooth - p = tooth thickness + width of space
  9. 9. • Pitch diameter, D and Pitch Radius, r - diameter and radius of pitch circle• Pitch point - the point in the imaginary line joining the centers of two meshing gears where the pitch circle touch• Addendum, a - radial distance between the top land and the pitch circle• Dedendum, b - radial distance from the bottom land to the pitch circle
  10. 10. • Diametral Pitch, P - ratio of the number of teeth to the pitch diameter, D - By formula, P = N / D , ( N = number of teeth )• Module, M - reciprocal of Diametral Pitch -M=D/N
  11. 11. • Clearance, c - addendum, a minus dedendum, b -c=b–a• Backlash - the width of a tooth space exceeds the thickness of engaging tooth
  12. 12. Backlash & Clearance• Backlash creates looseness between meshing teeth• Too small value of backlash can cause binding• Clearance and backlash is required to prevent binding
  13. 13. • Base Circle - imaginary circle which tooth involute profile is developed• Pressure Angle, Φ - angle between the line of action and a line tangent to the 2 pitch circle at the pitch point
  14. 14. Involute teeth profile- Gear tooth profile must be designed to provide smooth transmission of motion and not interfere with mating tooth- Advantages of Involute Profile:1. Easily manufactured2. Interchangeable with gears having same diametral pitch3. Provides efficient transmission of power due to sliding action is minimized4. Provides linear path of contact  producing constant pressure angle
  15. 15. Interference and Undercutting- Mating teeth will interfere with each other ifcontact is made where either of the twosurfaces are not involute in shape.- Interference can be eliminated bymachining a concave surfaces into the blankareas which is sufficient to avoid contact inthese areas.- This process is called undercutting whichactually weakens the tooth at areas close tothe point of maximum bending moment.
  16. 16. Interference and Undercutting
  17. 17. Rack & Pinion
  18. 18. • A rack is a gear whose pitch diameter has become infinite in size• a straight line for the pitch circle, which is called the pitch line• An involute of a very large base circle approaches a straight line.• Therefore, surfaces of the rack teeth are flat, but mesh properly with the involute surfaces of the mating pinion
  19. 19. The Internal Spur Gear(Planetary Gear)• Circular rings with teeth cut into inner surfaces• Provide much more compact drive system than external Spur Gear• Since the pinion and internal gear rotate in the same direction  less sliding action and wearing of teeth• Provide larger contact ration and can transmit more power
  20. 20. Basic Formulas for Spur Gear• Diametrical pitch, P = N / D• Circular pitch, p = πD / N• Addendum, a = 1 / P• Dedendum, b = 1.25 / P• Clearance, c = b – a• pXP=π where D = pitch diameter N = number of teeth on gear wheel
  21. 21. Speed Ratio ω p 2 × π × rg Dg = = ω g 2 × π × rp D p ω = speed in rpm Dg Ng = Dp Np Dp Dg C = rp + rg = + 2 2 Np Ng N p + Ng C= + = 2P 2P 2P