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Trade blocks & business centres
Trade blocks & business centres
Trade blocks & business centres
Trade blocks & business centres
Trade blocks & business centres
Trade blocks & business centres
Trade blocks & business centres
Trade blocks & business centres
Trade blocks & business centres
Trade blocks & business centres
Trade blocks & business centres
Trade blocks & business centres
Trade blocks & business centres
Trade blocks & business centres
Trade blocks & business centres
Trade blocks & business centres
Trade blocks & business centres
Trade blocks & business centres
Trade blocks & business centres
Trade blocks & business centres
Trade blocks & business centres
Trade blocks & business centres
Trade blocks & business centres
Trade blocks & business centres
Trade blocks & business centres
Trade blocks & business centres
Trade blocks & business centres
Trade blocks & business centres
Trade blocks & business centres
Trade blocks & business centres
Trade blocks & business centres
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Trade blocks & business centres

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  • 1. Trade Blocks 1TRADE BLOCKS &BUSINESS CENTRES
  • 2. Economic Integration2  Countries create business opportunities for themselves by integrating their economies  To avoid unnecessary competition among themselves & also from other countries  Covers different kinds of arrangements between or among countries Trade Blocks
  • 3. Different kinds of Economic3 Integration  Free Trade Area:  Group of countries  Agree to abolish all trade restrictions & barriers  Or charge low rates of tariffs  Countries impose w.r.t trade with countries other than members of the group Trade Blocks
  • 4. Different kinds of Economic4 Integration  Custom Unions:  2 basic features:  Member countries abolish all restrictions & barriers on trade among themselves or charge low rates of tariffs  They adopt uniform commercial policy of barriers & restrictions jointly w.r.t. trade with non-member countries Trade Blocks
  • 5. Different kinds of Economic5 Integration  Common Market:  3 basic characteristics:  Allow free movement of HR & capital among the member countries  Thus superior than customs union Trade Blocks
  • 6. Different kinds of Economic6 Integration  Economic Union:  4 basic characteristics:  Achieve uniformity in monetary policy & fiscal policy among the member countries  Economic union>common mkt>customs union>free trade area Trade Blocks
  • 7. Advantages of integration..7 Trade Blocks
  • 8. European Union8  Origin: European Coal & Steel Community (ECSC)  Formed by West Germany, France, Italy, Belgium, Netherlands & Lexumbourg – 1952  Aim: to eliminate import duties on coal, iron ore, steel & scrap  Facilty then extended by Treaty of Rome in 1957  & gave birth to European Economic Community Trade Blocks
  • 9. European Union9  Requirements for joining:  Country – to be European  Democratic country Trade Blocks
  • 10. Objectives..10 Trade Blocks
  • 11. Activities..11 Trade Blocks
  • 12. Organization of EU12  European Council – main administrative body of EU  Each member country – represented by – minister of this council  Each member holds presidency – 6 months  Committee of permanent representatives – Secretariat  Committee also called “Corper”  Makes all imp decisions  Link between EU & member govt… Trade Blocks
  • 13. NAFTA13  North American Free Trade Agreement – 1st January 1994  USA, Canada & Mexico  Objectives..  Measures..  Trade Blocks
  • 14. The Association of South-East14 Asian Nations ( ASEAN)  6 countries  Singapore  Brunei  Malaysia  Philippines  Thailand  Indonesia Trade Blocks
  • 15. Asean Free Trade Area (AFTA)15  Objectives:  Encourage inflow of foreign investment into this region  Establish free trade area in member countries  Reduce tariff Trade Blocks
  • 16. AFTA & India..16 Trade Blocks
  • 17. European Free Trade Association17 (EFTA)  1959  Austria  Norway  Portugal  Sweden  Switzerland  Associate member countries are:  Finland  Iceland  Great Britain  Denmark Trade Blocks
  • 18. European Free Trade Association18 (EFTA)  Objectives:  To eliminate almost all tariffs among member countries  To abolish trade restrictions regarding imports & exports among member countries  To enhance economic development, employement, incomes & living stds of people of member countries  Enable free trade in Western Blocks Trade Europe
  • 19. Latin American Integration19 Association (LAIA)  Latin American Free Trade Association (LAFTA)  Countries:  Argentina  Brazil  Chile  Mexico  Paraguay  Peru  Uruguay  Colombio  Venenzula  Bolivia Trade Blocks
  • 20. Latin American Integration20 Association (LAIA)  Objectives:  To eliminate restrictions on trade among the member countries  To reduce the customs & tariffs & eliminate them gradually Trade Blocks
  • 21. Organization Structure21 Council of Ministers Foreign Ministers of Member Countries Conference of Contracting Parties Makes Decisions on Joint Issues Secretariat Performs Technical & Administrative Functions Trade Blocks
  • 22. Operations22  Members prepare a list of goods on which they consider duty reductions  They negotiate once in 3 years for complete exemption on tariffs &  Decide the list of products eligible for complete exemption of tariffs… Trade Blocks
  • 23. South Asian Association for23 Regional CO-operation (SAARC)  December 6, 1985  India  Bangladesh  Bhutan  Pakistan  Maldives  Nepal  Sri Lanka Trade Blocks
  • 24. Objectives..24 Trade Blocks
  • 25. Organization Structure25 The Council Highest Policy-Making Body Council of Ministers Represented by foreign Ministers of Member Govts Formulates Policies, reviews the Functioning Standing Committee Represented by Foreign Secretaries of member govts Monitors & Co-ordinates the Programmes Trade Blocks
  • 26. Organization Structure26 Programming Committee Represented by Senior Officials of the Member govt Scrutinizes Budget & Annual Schedule Technical Committees Comprises representatives of all countries Formulates, Implements & Monitors Projects Trade Blocks
  • 27. The Economic & Social Commission for Asia & The Pacific27 (ESCAP)  48 member countries & 10 associate countries  Sub-divided into:  Pacific Island countries  The developing ESCAP countries  ASEAN  Developed ESCAP countries  China & newly industrializing countries  South Asian Countries Trade Blocks
  • 28. Asia-Pacific Economic Co-28 Operation (APEC)  Forum for facilitation economic growth, co- operatio, trade & investment in Asia-Paacific region  Established in 1989 – to enhance economic growth & prosperity for the region & to strengthen the Asia-Pacific Community  Worked to reduce tariffs & other trade barriers across Asia-Pacific region Blocks Trade
  • 29. Asia-Pacific Economic Co-29 Operation (APEC)  Free & Open trade & investment in Aisa- Pacific  Free Trade:  helps economies to grow  Create jobs  Provides greater opportunities for international trade  Lower the costs of production & reduces prices of goods & services Trade Blocks
  • 30. MERCOSUR30  Treaty of Asuncion signed by Argentina, Paraguay – march 26, 1991 created MERCOSUR  Chile & Bolivia – associate member – 1996  South America’s largest trade block Trade Blocks
  • 31. ANDEAN31  Sub regional organization endowed with an international legal status  Made of Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela Trade Blocks

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