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    Final mis project Final mis project Document Transcript

    • Management Information SystemProject Report on:Management Information SystemSubject : Management Information SystemSubmitted to: Prof. Lukman PatelPrepared by: Mohd. Adil (45)Date: 6/4/2011 1
    • Management Information System ACKNOWLEDGEMENTFirst and foremost let we sincerely thank ALMIGHTY for the great opportunity andblessings that he has showered up on us for the successful and timely completion of ourproject work.We extent our sincere gratitude to Dr. Vidya Hatangadi Director of AIAIMS institute ofmanagement research and studies for her kind support and guidance for making ourproject great success.We extent our sincere gratitude to guide Mr. Nadeem Merchant, lecturer, AllanaInstitute of Management studies for the kind support and proper guidance without whichthe project would not have been efficiently completedWe render our whole hearted thanks to librarian, for their assistance and co-operationgiven to us in regard to this work. 2
    • Management Information SystemCONTENTS:SR.NO TOPICS PAGE NO. 1. Introduction……………………………………… 04----05 2. Structure of Linear Programming………………… 06----08 3. Assumptions of Linear Programming ……….…... 09----11 4. Limitations of Linear Programming…..……….…. 12----12 5. Applications of Linear Programming……….…….. 13----15 6. Case Study………………………………………. 16----26 7. Conclusion………………………………..……… 27---27 8. Bibliography……………………………….…….. 28---28 3
    • Management Information System EXECUTIVE SUMMERYThere are various agencies involved in the collection and dissemination of statistics onschool education. At the national level, there are three main agencies that collect statistics oneducation on regular basis. They are (a) Planning, Monitoring and Statistics Division,Department of Education, MHRD on annual basis for all sectors of school education; (b)University Grants Commission on higher education; and (c) National Council ofEducational Research and Training (NCERT) on school education through occasionalsurveys. In addition, there are agencies, which collect information from households. TheCensus of India publications provides information on levels of educational attainment ofpopulation and age-education classification of children in the age-group 5-14 years. Inaddition, the National Sample Survey Organization (NSSO), International Institute forPopulation Sciences (IIPS) and National Council of Applied Economic Research (NCAER)also collect statistics on educational variables occasionally through household samplesurveys.Barring Census of India, most of the other agencies generate data with State/UT as a basicunit of consolidation but hardly any data is disseminated at the district level. Only in case ofthe MHRD, selected district level information was also disseminated on quinquennial basisfor a short period. The UGC compiles data according to university area, whereas NCERTcollects data at the district level but releases only state-specific information. The latest sixthsurvey was conducted in 1993 with September 30 as its date of reference. The disseminationof district-specific survey data is left to the discretion of the states. All the states do not bringout publications that contain district-specific data. The Directorate of Education, Bureau ofEconomics and Statistics, Directorate of Economics etc. in a State/UT also brings outstatistical abstracts and other publications but the data that they disseminate is not uniformand the year also varies from state to state. Thus, it can safely be concluded that propermechanism for dissemination of district-specific information is not in existence in most partof the country. 4
    • Management Information SystemSporadic attempts have been made to develop computerized educational managementinformation system with an aim to collect and disseminate district-specific informationamong which the District Primary Education Programme (DPEP) is the most prominentone. One of the important aims of the recently launched SSA is to develop educationalmanagement information system for which data capture formats have been evolved andinfrastructure created at the district level in the office of the District Project Coordinator. Allthe project districts have been provided with adequate hardwares and MIS softwares. Thedata capture format is divided into nine parts. Through the first part, school locationparticulars are envisaged to collect which includes village name and ward number, distancefrom block headquarters, number of non-formal education centres in a village and whetherthe school is governed by a voluntary organization or it is a Government school. This partalso includes information relating to Total Literacy Campaigns and Post Literacy Facilitiesand whether a Village Education Committee is constituted in the village. The otherimportant items included in the format are school particulars, teachers in position,equipments and facilities in terms of adequacy. So far as the information relating toenrolment and repeaters is concerned, all that required for planning at district level includingthe age-grade matrix is envisaged to collect. However, rural/urban distribution will not bemade available.By the end of 2003, the coverage of DISE has extended to about 460 of the 593 districts ofthe country. these districts are spread over 18 DPEP states. It is expected that all the districtsof the country would adopt DISE in a year or two. The Government of India decided thatthe manual collection of information system will gradually be replaced by the DISE and thestatistics generated by it will be accorded the status of the Official Statistics. RecentlyELEMENTARY EDUCATION IN INDIA: WHERE DO WE STAND, ANALYTICALREPORT 2006 was also launched. Barring a few numeric indicators, most of the indicatorsrequired for efficient planning at the district level is now available through the DISE. Thenumber of schools, enrolment, teachers, pupil-teacher ratio, literacy rates etc. is availableover a period of time. however, district-wise information is not available from the MHRD 5
    • Management Information Systemsources. But information on school education is available from the All-India EducationalSurveys but the same is not properly disseminated and it is latest available for 2002-03..The computation of many of the identified indicators need age-specific population which isgenerally not readily available at the district level and for that propose population projectionexercises would have to be initiated. Even though the raw data is available, it is not an easytask to compute indicators especially when the number of districts is more than 600. Becauseof DPEP and SSA interventions, awareness about indicators and its use in planningelementary education has significantly improved in the recent past. It is happy to note that allthe districts across the country now develop annual elementary education plans which areprimarily based on the DISE data. 6
    • Management Information SystemINTRODUCTION:To achieve goals of Education for All envisaged in the National Policy on Education and itsRevised Policy Formulations (1992), proper planning is required. Generally planningexercises are of two types, micro and macro level planning. In micro level planning,educational plans are prepared at the sub-national level, such as, institution, village, blockand district level where as macro plans are developed at the level which is just above thesub-national level i.e. state and national level. At the district level, blocks, villages andeducational institutions are the unit of micro planning but at the state level, district is an unitof micro planning. In India, barring a few states, educational planning is carried-out at thestate level that do not ensure adequate participation of functionaries working at thegrassroots level. Of late, National Policy of Education (NPE,1986 & 1992) and Eighth Planenvisaged disaggregated target setting at least at the district level that is also one of the majorobjectives of a number of projects and programmes currently under implementation indifferent parts of the country. Therefore, development of district plan at the district andlower levels with emphasis on participative planning is of recent origin. Andhra PradeshPrimary Education Project with the main objective of enhancing the professionalcompetence of teachers, UNICEF assisted Bihar Education Project, World Bank sponsoredUttar Pradesh Basic Education Project, SIDA assisted Shiksha Karmi project in Rajasthanand IDA assisted District Primary Education Programme (DPEP) are some of theprogrammes which have focus on district planning with emphasis on disaggregated targetsettings. Among these, the scope and coverage of DPEP project is much more wider thanother programmes of the similar nature. The programme was first introduced in the year1993 in 43 districts of seven states, namely, Assam, Haryana, Madhya Pradesh, Karnataka,Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Maharashtra and later expanded to five districts each of AndhraPradesh and West Bengal in year 1995. In the second phase, four districts each of Gujarat,Himachal Pradesh and Orissa were included in the programme. Further, it is envisaged thatby the end of the Eighth Five Year Plan period i.e. March 1997, about 110 districts wouldcome under the programme (MHRD, 1995). Selections of districts under DPEP are basedon the criteria where female literacy rates are less than the national average of 1991 Census 7
    • Management Information Systemand where Total Literacy Campaigns (TLC) have been successful leading to an increaseddemand for elementary education. The main characteristics of DPEP project (MHRD, 1993)are summarised as follows:• emphasising the local area planning with district plans being formulated in their ownright instead of being derived from a state plan project document;• infusing greater rigour and professional inputs in planning and appraisal;• more focused targeting in educationally backward districts and districts where TotalLiteracy Campaign have been successful;• More focused coverage would initially focus on primary stage (Classes I-V & its NFEequivalent) with stress on girls and for socially disadvantaged groups; and• emphasising capacity building and networking of district, state and national levelinstitutes in the fields of education management and social services to provide the resourcesupport for the programme.The Present Article In the present article, a detailed list of items on which information is required bothat the macro and micro levels of planning is briefly presented which is linked to goals ofEducation for All. Before that, different stages of plan formulation and implementation ispresented. Keeping in view the planning requirements, information needed in future is alsodiscussed in detail which is followed by limitations and gaps in the existing informationsystem. Data gaps have been grouped under different headings, such as, demographic andliteracy, enrolment and repeaters, teaching personnel and financial statistics. In the last,suggestions for improvement have been presented. Before, a detailed list of variables required for planning both at the macro and microlevels is presented, different stages of plan formulation and implementation is brieflypresented below. 8
    • Management Information SystemStages of Planning 1. The different stages of planning in general and education in particular are: 2. Diagnosis of Present Position with respect to: a. General Scenario and b. Educational Scenario 3. Review of Past Educational Plans, Programmes and Policies 4. Projections of Major Socio-Economic and Educational Trends 5. Plan Formulation and 6. Plan Implementation.Data RequirementsIn order to meet data requirements of planning stage at I above, a variety of informationrelating to both general and educational scenario needs to be collected. Information such ason, geography, irrigation, transportation, industry and administrative structure is required soas to prepare a general scenario of the existing infrastructural facilities available in a districtand its sub-units. So far as the educational variables are concerned, required information canbe grouped under information relating to demography, literacy and education sectors. Underthe demographic variables, total population and its age and sex distribution separately inrural and urban areas needs to be first collected. Apart from total population, age-specificpopulation in different age-groups is also required. For programmes relating to primary andelementary education, population of age-groups 6-10, 11-13 and 6-13 years and for adultliteracy and continuing education programmes, population of age-group 15-35 years isrequired. Similarly, single-age population (age `6) is an important variable on whichinformation needs to be collected. In addition, information on some of the vital indicators,such as, expectation of life at birth, mortality (death) rates in different age-groups, fertility(birth) rate and sex ratio at birth is required so that the same can be used to project futurepopulation. For adult literacy and continuing education programmes, number of literatesand illiterates in different age-groups is required which should be linked to population in 9
    • Management Information Systemdifferent age- groups. In addition, complete information of TLC programmes implementedin the past in a district with reference to its objectives, strategies and major achievementswould be useful, if similar programmes are undertaken in future. Universal access to educational facilities is one of the important components ofEducational for All, hence a variety of information relating to population of avillage/habitation is required so that school mapping exercises are undertaken. Exercisesbased on school mapping play an important role in order to open a new school or whetheran existing school is to be upgraded or closed down. Thus, number of villages distributedaccording to different population slabs is required so that opening of school in a habitationis linked to the existing norms. In case of hilly and desert areas, the population norm of 300can be relaxed and lowered down to 200. Habitations served by schooling facilities andwhether they are available within habitation or a walking distance of one and threekilometers along with total number of habitations in a district is also required so as to assessthe existing situation with particular reference to goal of universal access. Similarly,percentage of rural population served by the schooling facilities can also be used as anindicator of access which should be linked to school mapping exercises. Informationrelating to adult learning and non-formal education centers are also required which shouldbe viewed in relation to illiterates, out-of-school children and child workers. Once the population is access to educational facilities, the next important variable onwhich information is required is number of institutions. Within institutions, the firstimportant variable is availability of infrastructural facilities in a school and their utilisation.Information relating to buildings plays grounds and other ancillary facilities, such as,drinking water, electricity and toilets needs to be collected. In other words, completeinformation relating to scheme of Operation Blackboard (1987) with particular reference toits implementation, adequacy, timely supply and utilisation needs to be collected. Similarly,information relating to number of classrooms and their utilisation, class size, number ofschools distributed according to class sizes and number of sections is also required whichcan be used in institutional planning related exercises. 10
    • Management Information SystemThe major objectives of 1987 Operation Blackboard scheme consisting of thefollowing three interdependent components are provision of: • A building comprising at least two reasonably large all-weather rooms with a deep verandah and separate toilet facilities for boys and girls; • At least two teachers in every school, as far as possible one of them a women; and • Essential teaching-learning material including blackboards, maps, charts, toys and equipment for work experience.The scheme was recently revised so as to (MHRD, 1992): • Provide flexibility to schools in providing teaching-learning material relevant to their curriculum and local needs; • To relate the scheme with micro planning wherever undertaken, so that supply of inputs is matched by demand side interpenetrations to promote participation; • Intensify training in the use of teaching-learning equipments; and • Extend the scheme to upper primary schools. 11
    • Management Information SystemEnrolment:Enrolment is the next important variable on which detailed information is required. Bothaggregate and grade-wise enrolment together with number of repeaters over a period of timeneeds to be collected separately for boys/girls & SC/ST population, rural & urban areas andfor all blocks and villages of a district. The enrolment together with corresponding age-specific population can be used to compute indicators of coverage, such as, Entry Rate, Netand Gross Enrolment Ratio, Age-specific Enrolment Ratio and indicators of efficiency.Similarly, detailed information on number of teachers distributed according to age,qualifications, experience, subjects etc. along with income and expenditure data is alsorequired for critical analysis so that optimum utilization of the existing resources is ensured.Thus, from the basic information, a variety of indicators can be generated which can be ofimmense help to understand a district and its sub-units with particular reference to itsdemographic structure. It is not only the past and present information that is required butfor proper and reliable educational planning, information on some of these variables is alsorequired in future. Further, if the emphasis of planning exercises is on disaggregated targetsetting, then the entire set of statistics would have to be collected both at the micro andmacro levels of planning. The POA (1992) identified poor urban slum communities, familylabour, working children, seasonal labour, construction workers, and land-less agriculturallabour, forest dwellers, and resident of remote and isolated hamlets as some of the targetgroups. Thus information on these groups also needs to be collected, if considerable size ofa group(s) is concentrated in a district or its sub-units. A detailed list of items on which information is required for educational planning ispresented below. The list is not exclusive one and more items may be added looking intothe planning requirements at the national, regional and sub-regional levels. 12
    • Management Information SystemDemography and Literacy Data • Number of districts/tehsils/talukas/administrative and educational blocks; • Population by age and sex, school-specific age (6-10, 11-13 & 6-13 years), regions, castes and economic levels, sex ratio, density of population, mortality (death) and fertility (birth) rates; • Distribution of habitations according to provision of primary, middle and secondary schooling facilities, walking distance and population slabs; habitations without schooling facilities; • Number of villages/towns in different population slabs and • Number of literates and illiterates by age and sex separately for rural and urban areas and scheduled caste and scheduled tribe population.Education:(a) Institutions By type, level, management, sex, courses and location; capacity and utilisation ofexisting institutions; number, intake, out-turn and location of teachers training institutions;institution/teacher ratio, institution/pupil ratio, hostel facilities with intake capacity andactual enrolment; number of single teacher primary schools; number of schools withoutblackboards; and number of schools with/without building, type of buildings and vocationaland technical institutions.(b) Enrolment By age i.e. age-grade matrix, sex (boys/girls), grades (I to XII), subjects, area(rural/urban) and institution-wise (primary, middle etc.); average daily attendance; enrolmentof SC and ST population; admission data (entry rate) and data on various courses; out-of-school children in different age-groups, repeaters and drop-outs by age, grade and sex andtransition rates by sex and at terminal classes and scholarships granted and number ofbeneficiaries under different schemes. 13
    • Management Information System(c) Teaching Staff Teachers by age and sex, rural/urban, grade and scales of pay, subjects, qualifications andexperience, trained and untrained and stage for which employed, attrition rate, OperationBlackboard information on teachers post: sanctioned, appointed and transferred, teachers-training institutions, persons trained and type of training.(d) Building and Area Type, ownership and year of construction, present status; number and size of rooms withnature of their utilisation and seating capacity; vacant area available for new or additionalconstruction; intake capacity; availability of drinking water, toilet and electricity facilities,playground facilities and Operation Blackboard information on number ofclassrooms/buildings sanctioned and constructed.(e) Equipment Physical facilities in school library and their utilisation (number of books, averagenumber of readers etc.), laboratory equipment, furniture, sports material, audio-visual aids,additional requirements, and OB information on educational kits and their utilisation, supplyand adequacy.(f) Non-teaching Staff Number and working of inspection and supervisory staff, non-teaching staff by payscales, sex and school-wise supervisions or inspections per month/year, persons involved indata collection according to qualifications and training at different levels.(g) Examination Results Examination results of all terminal classes, results of National Talent SearchExamination, administrative services by state and universities-wise and policy of nodetention.(h) Income and Expenditure 14
    • Management Information System School-wise, scheme-wise, recurring and non-recurring capital and revenue, incomeand expenditure; and expenditure on incentives and scholarships, private cost on education,tuition fee, laboratory fee and other fee.(i) Miscellaneous Information In addition, miscellaneous information on the following items is also required whichin most of the cases either not available or very limited information is available: • Parent Teacher/Mother Parent Organisation • Student Union/Organisation • Student Health Services • Sports Facilities • DIETs • State Institute if Educational Management and Training • Navodaya Vidhalayas • Total Literacy Campaigns • Distance Education • Teaching Material and Text Books • Village Education Committees • Circle Education Committees • Number of Working Days in an Academic Year • Mid-day Meal Scheme and • On-going Programme/Projects. 15
    • Management Information SystemIt is not that all the data required for planning is available but information on a good numberof variables is conspicuous by their absence so as the quality of data which is questioned,time and again, by the data users and researchers (Mehta, 1996,1). Generally, secondarysources are explored for diagnosis of the existing situation but for the variables which arenot available at lower or the lowest level, primary data needs to be collected. For example,age-grade matrix is one such variable which is not available at the micro level but plays animportant role in setting-out disaggregated targets. Hence, information on age-grade matrixand other variables of similar nature is required for which sample surveys at the local levelneeds to be conducted and data generated. So far as the information on demographicvariables is concerned, Census publications should be explored for both present and pastdata. Information on educational variables can be collected and used from the publicationsof State Education Departments which may or may not be available in detail as required inplanning exercises. However, state-wise information is available on most of the variablesfrom the MHRD publications but latest publications are not available (Mehta 1993 &1996,1). As noticed above, information relating to infrastructure, access, ancillary facilities,age-grade matrix etc. is available from the NCERT publications but only at few points oftime. Keeping in view the data requirements at the micro-level, relevant Officers may beapproached for NCERT data at the district level but again time-series information is not atall available at a single place (Mehta, 1996,2). Generally cross-sectional data for analysing existing situation and time-series informationfor capturing trends is required, time period of which depends upon the nature of variablewhich is to be extrapolated. The next important question which may crop-up is the level atwhich information needs to be collected which depends upon the unit of planning. As soonas the diagnosis exercise is over, the next stage of planning needs review of past plans,policies and programmes implemented in the district with respect to their objectives (Mehta,1996,3). Generally, these programmes are related to promotion of education of SC/ST &girls, Total Literacy Campaigns etc.. Reasons of failures and success of a particularprogramme need to be thoroughly analysed. If need be, the existing programme with orwithout modifications can be continued which should be followed by setting-up of targets 16
    • Management Information Systemon different indicators. Broadly, following are the areas on which future targets need to befixed which may vary from block to block even within a district: • Population Growth Rates • Entry Rate • Gross & Net Enrolment Ratio • Drop-out, Repetition and Promotion Rates in different grades • Retention Rates and • Per Pupil/Unit Cost.Targets on the above items should be practicable, feasible, achievable and should be basedon the immediate past and linked to policy guidelines. During the recently concluded (1994)Overseas Development Administration and Government of India Appraisal Mission tonineteen districts of Madhya Pradesh under DPEP project, it was noticed that in most of thedistricts, enrolment projection exercises were not undertaken and target on GrossEnrolment Ratio in year 2001 was fixed arbitrary by assuming 20 per cent as an estimate ofoverage and underage children in all the blocks of nineteen districts without even knowingof the actual grassroots realities. Neither aggregate nor grade-wise enrolments wereprojected. In the absence of which it is rather impossible to estimate reliable annual numberof beneficiaries, additional requirements of teachers, opening of new schools, etc.. Asmentioned one of the other important objectives of the DPEP project is to reduce theexisting level of drop-out rate for all students to less than 10 per cent which means asubstantial increase in existing retention rate. Though retention rate at Grade V has beencomputed in all the DPEP districts of Madhya Pradesh, no attempt has been made tocompute grade-wise promotion, repetition and drop-out rates, all which plays a significantrole to obtain goals of Universalisation of Primary Education. Similarly, the UNICEF,Government of India and Government of Bihar joint Appraisal Mission to Bihar EducationProject (BEP) observed that process of disaggregated target setting in BEP districts has beenstarted but the future targets on drop-out and retention rates are still fixed in an isolationwithout even knowing the present status of grade-to-grade drop-out and retention rates. 17
    • Management Information SystemAlso, targets on enrolment ratio (gross) have been fixed even with out knowing the existingentry rate which infact help us in identifying the disaggregated areas and groups with in thedistrict. In seven BEP districts, the methodology adopted in computing drop-out rate is notconventional which in most of the cases produced retention rate even more than 90 per cent(see BEP Appraisal Mission Report, 1994). If the targets are not reliable, future enrolmentwould also become unreliable which in turn will make all corresponding estimates unreliable.The Eighth Five Year Plan also fixed national targets on access, retention, attainment andmonitoring systems which are summarised below (MHRD, 1993):Access • Universal enrolment of all children, including girls and persons belonging to SC/ST; • Provision of primary school for all children within one kilometer of walking distance and of facility of non-formal education; and • Improvement of ratio of primary school to upper primary school to at least 1:2.Retention • Reduction of drop-out rates between Classes I to V and I to VIII to 20 and 40 per cent respectively; and • Improvement of school facilities by revamped Operation Blackboard, to be extended to upper primary level also.Attainment • Achievement of minimum levels of learning by approximately all children at the primary level, and introduction of this concept at the upper primary stage on a large scale.Monitoring • Local level committee, with due representation to women and teachers, to assist in the working of primary education to oversee its functioning and • Improvement of the monitoring system for UEE. 18
    • Management Information System Future Information RequirementsOnce the reliable targets are set-out, the next important task is to work-out additionalnumber of children who will be joining education system over a period of time which isrequired annually so as to know number of beneficiaries which cannot be reliable unlessdetailed enrolment projection exercises are undertaken. For example, a number of schemesare proposed in the DPEP project which are most likely to benefit children in the schools, itwould be an additional advantage, if disaggregated estimates of enrolment are made availableat the block level separately for boys and girls, rural and urban areas and Scheduled Castesand Scheduled Tribes children. Therefore, apart from the past and present information,information on a number of variables in future is also needed which may or may not bereadily available. Before a list of items on which future information required is presented,we first examine enrolment projection techniques, methods and models with particularreference to availability of data (see for details, Mehta 1995,2). The techniques of enrolment projections can broadly be classified into two groups,namely, mathematical and analytical methods (Mehta, 1996,4). Mathematical methodsrequire aggregate enrolment data at least for ten years, and only total enrolment can beprojected by employing both linear and non-linear equation methods. These methodsinvolve an extrapolation of the past into the future and assume that the past trend inenrolment would continue into the future. On the other hand, in analytical methods, apartfrom actual enrolment, estimation, assumptions and targets on items mentioned above arerequired. The demographic pressures on education can also be captured in the analyticaltechniques as the computation of entry rate is based on the population of school entranceage `6 years. This rate has a significant bearing on future enrolment. Analytical methods arebased on Student Flow Analysis which starts at the point where students enter into aneducation cycle i.e. Grade I. If the information on number of repeaters is available, themethod is known as Grade-Transition method, otherwise it is known as Grade-RatioMethod. Thus, an element of judgement in terms of policy variables can be introduced in 19
    • Management Information Systemanalytical methods, therefore, the method is appropriate for detailed enrolment projections(for details see Mehta, 1996,2). The method requires following set of data:• Future age-specific (6-10 & 11-13 years) and single age population (`6), say up to year2000-01• Grade-wise enrolment for at least two consecutive years and• Grade-wise repeaters (optional) for the same years of which enrolment is available.The above list reveals that age-specific and single-age population are two important variableson which future enrolment is significantly based upon. Projection of age and sexdistribution of population requires detailed information on base year vital rates andassumptions on a number of items mentioned above. Thus, keeping in view scantdemographic data at the state level, it is not possible to undertake detailed populationprojection exercise. Similarly, future population of age `6 plays an important role fromwhich the system is expected to receive continuous flow of students through Grade I inyears which follow but the same is not available on regular basis and whatever is available isthrough Census publications once in a decade. Future estimates on the variable is rarelyavailable at the sub-national level and whatever is available is at state and all-India level andthe same for 1991 is not even released at the state leve (Mehta 1996,5). However, for fifteenmajor states estimates of the Standing Committee of Experts on Population Projections(1989) set-up by the Planning Commission for the period 1990, 1995, 2000 and 2005 areavailable. Both age-specific and single-age population separately for male and femalepopulation is available but the same is based on population up to the 1981 Census. Thus,the Standing Committee estimates are bound to change as and when revised estimates basedon 1991 Census are made available. However, population projections is rarely available atthe district level and hence, there is no option but to undertake independent exercises. Theavailable expertise at the district level do not suggest that they are in a position to undertakeindependent population projection exercises but Mehta (1996, 95) has recently identified thatRatio Method of Population Projections is appropriate for the micro level projections and do nordemand detailed set of data on vital indicators which are generally not available at the micro 20
    • Management Information Systemlevel. Therefore, unless reliable estimates of population are available, different indicators ofplanning would continue to present mis-leading picture. The variables required in future can be grouped under population, enrolment, teachersand cost of education apart from some information on future indicators of efficiency.Broadly, following are the items (quantitative) on which information in future is required:Demographic Variables (I) Population (Rural & Urban & SC & ST) * Total Population * Age-Sex Composition of Population * Rate of Population Growth * Single Age Population and * Age-specific Population: 6-10, 11-13 & 15-35 years. (ii) Literacy Status of Population Literates and Illiterates in different age-groups and distribution of literates accordingto educational level. II. Educational Variables Enrolment * Total * Stage/Level-wise * Grade-wise Indicators of Coverage * Gross Enrolment RatioNet Enrolment Ratio and * Age-Specific Enrolment Ratio Flow Rates * Entry Rate * Promotion Rate * Repetition Rate * Transition Rate and * Drop-Out Rate 21
    • Management Information System(iv) Indicators of Educational Quality * Internal Efficiency of Education System * Input/Output Ratio * Wastage Ratio * Pupil Teacher Ratio * Percentage of Non-teaching Expenditure * Accessibility of Educational Facilities and * Pass Percentage in different Examination(v) Other Miscellaneous Variables * Projection of Teachers Requirements * Projections of Financial Requirements * Additional Number of Schools/Sections Required * Institutional Building Requirements * Subject-wise Surplus and Shortage of Staff and * Manpower Projections. 22
    • Management Information System Data Distortions(i) Enrolment Though state-wise enrolment is available but for many a states the same is not availableeven for the year for which the publication is latest available. In many of the remainingstates, the previous year enrolment data is repeated in the next years publication. In AndhraPradesh grade-wise enrolment for years 1988-89 and 1989-90 and in Haryana, enrolment ofgirls reported in year 1988-89 in Grades V and VI are exactly the same. In Madhya Pradeshboth enrolment and repeaters reported in years 1988-89 and 1989-90 are same where as inOrissa, enrolment of Grade I in year 1988-89 is not at all reported. In Rajasthan, enrolmentin Grade I and II are jointly reported for the same year. Further, it has been noticed that inWest Bengal, grade-wise enrolment reported for three consecutive years namely, 1987-88,1988- 89 and 1989-90 is exctly the same. Thus, keeping in view the limitations in enrolmentdata, it is not possible to undertake detailed enrolment projection exercise in a number ofstates.(ii) Repeaters Similarly, a number of limitations are also noticed in data on repeaters. Though, state-wise number of repeaters is available but many a states do not collect information on itwhich may be due to implementation of no detention policy upto primary level. But at thesame time, till recently states such as, Andhra Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Maharashtra,Tripura and West Bengal did not report incidence of repetition in any grade. On the otherhand some states, such as Haryana and Madhya Pradesh, strictly follow policy of nodetention upto Grade II, where as Nagaland, Tamil Nadu and Uttar Pradesh follows it uptoGrade III. Also, in Jammu & Kashmir, Meghalaya, Rajasthan and Sikkim when repeaters aretaken out from enrolment, they exceed enrolment in the previous grade which givepromotion rate more than hundred per cent. This may be either due to mis-reporting ofnumber of repeaters or due to large scale enrolment of migrants from other areas to aparticular grade. In Madhya Pradesh, till recently (1989-90) a large number of children usedto repeat a particular grade but suddenly, it is reported zero. The drop-out rate in Haryanain Grade I reduced to zero in 1989- 90 from about five per cent in previous year. For 23
    • Management Information Systemcapturing the trend in repetition rate, time-series information on repeaters is required butthe series which was discontinued in 1970-71 but revamped in 1984-85 is available only upto the year 1991-92 (Mehta 1995,1).Since, enrolment and number of repeaters in different grades plays an important role inworking-out indicators of efficiency and future enrolment, unreliable data may dramaticallychange the future scenario and even make the exercise meaningless and futile.Data Gaps Different data gaps can be grouped under the following sub- headings: * General Gaps * Demography and Literacy * Infrastructure and Schools Effectiveness * Enrolment and Repeaters * Teaching Personnel * Financial Statistics and * Miscellaneous Gaps.A.General Gaps(i) Time-series Data Lack of time-series data at the district level is an important limitation of the existinginformation system. At present district-wise statistics on selected educational items isavailable for year 1971-72 and 1977-78 and for the year 1981-82, it is available only for someof the states. As mentioned, the publication which used to disseminate district-wiseinformation was discontinued and hence no data is being disseminated at the district level.The unpublished survey data of NCERT is available for the years 1973, 1978, 1986 and1993, which if made available at single place may help in constructing a time-series at at leastsix points of time. On the other hand statistical abstracts of different States & UTsdisseminate educational statistics at district level but their coverage is too limited toundertake detailed planning exercises. Also the date of reference vary from state to state and 24
    • Management Information Systemthe information available is scattered and coverage not uniform. Due to change inboundaries and creation of a number of new districts, the limited time-series informationthat is available, is not free from the limitations.(ii) Rural/Urban Distribution Until 1970-71, the whole set of data was available separately for rural, urban and all areasbut the series was discontinued in 1971-72 and revamped in the year 1976-77. Also,whatever data is available for rural areas is found to be inadequate and basic information ona good number of variables is simply not available.(iii) Administrative Staff Data on administrative and non-teaching staff is too scanty to be useful, with the resultthat the total requirement of personnel and facilities is difficult to determine.B. Demography and LiteracyThough population figures are available from the Census publications, projections ofpopulation in the specific age-group and single age `6 at the state level have been found tobe suffering with large margin of errors (Mehta, 1996,5). At the district level, the projectionsare rarely available and if available, not reliable. A number of indicators required in planningis based on population which if not available/reliable, may significantly affect the targetswhich are required to set-out at different stages of planning. One of the other importantcharacteristics of population on which information is obtained in the Census is literacy. In1991 Census, on the request of MHRD and Planning Commission, the population agedseven years and above is classified as literates and illiterates as against five years and above inthe previous Census (see Census of India 1991 publications). At this stage, since data onage-population is not available, the two Census figures on literacy cannot be compared.Though, officially the school entrance age is six but studies (NIEPA, 1992, 93,1 & 95) showthat a large number of under-age children are in Grade I which do not justify the change indefinition of literacy which is also supported by NSSO data on Participation in Education(1991). Also, the future population of age-group 15-35 years is rarely available on regular 25
    • Management Information Systembasis at the district and its sub-units level. Therefore, it is very difficult to judge theperformance of literacy promotion programmes in terms of its coverage and achievements.C. Enrolment & Repeaters One of the important indicators of coverage is Net Enrolment Ratio which is based onage-grade matrix but is currently not available. In the absence of which, progress towardsUPE and UEE cannot be judged and monitored efficiently. However, few estimates areavailable at the state level but at the district level reliable estimates are not available.D. Teaching Personnel In order to undertake stock of the existing situation with regards to teachers atdifferent levels, detailed information on number of teachers with respect to its adequacy,distribution of teachers according to sex, qualifications, age, training, subjects etc. seperatelyin rural and urban areas is required but unfortunately information on most of these items issimply not available or the same may be available at the lowest level but is not properlydissminated. In the absence of adequate data, it is not possible to ascertain whetherteachers are equally distributed in rural and urban areas or the distribution of female andqualified teachers are even. Amongst such variables, teachers attrition rate is an importantindicator but not available. In the absence of which, future estimates of teachersrequirement on account of attrition is difficult to obtain. However, on sample basis someestimates of attrition rates are now available (NIEPA, 1995). For the first time, theinformation on the variable is collected in the Sixth All India Educational Survey but thesame has not yet been disseminated.E. Financial StatisticsSelected Educational Statistics provides budgeted expenditure on education as aggregate ofall levels of education but capital account budget is not given. Also, budgeted expenditureon education is not comparable with the data given in the Education in India (Volume II).The statistics on direct expenditure on education is available by levels of education where as 26
    • Management Information Systemindirect expenditure is not available by levels. On the other hand, institutions are classifiedinto primary, middle and high/higher secondary schools, based on the top class in theschool, which possess serious problems in estimating cost of education by levelsmeaningfully.Miscellaneous GapsIn addition to the data gaps identified above, there is a limited or absolutely no dataavailable on the following items; * Average Daily Attendance in School/College; * Distribution of Institutions by Capacity and Size and of Classes by Size and Space; * Unrecognized Institutions; * Correspondence Courses; * Teachers by Age and Qualifications; * Socio-economic Composition of Enrolment; * Non-formal Education; * Information on Scholarships; * Free Student-ships & Free Concessions; * Mid-day Meals; * Operation Blackboard Scheme; * District Institutes of Educational Training; * Navodaya Vidhyalayas; * Distance Education; * Part-time Courses etc.. 27
    • Management Information System ConclusionsGoing through the list of data-gaps identified above, one gets the impression that the same havebeen identified time and again in a number of seminars and conferences organised in the past but tono significant improvement has been noticed.. However, sporadic attempts have been made tobridge the gaps on the basis of sample surveys but the same had a number of limitations in view ofits periodicity and coverage. Till the items on which information is currently missing are included inregular collection of statistics/all-india educational surveys, the statistics so collected on sample basiscannot serve the purpose in a manner for which they are required in planning exercises. It has alsobeen noticed that the existing missing information on a number of variables is available but the sameis scattered, hence need efforts to integrate different data bases which are in existence in the country.Time-series data at the district level is one such gap which can easily be filled-up with the availablestatistics. Similarly future information on variables of vital importance can also be generated, if built-in procedures and routines are developed within the existing information system. Some of themissing variables have already been formed part of the Sixth All India Educational Survey conductedby the NCERT with September 30, 1993 as its date of reference. The functionaries of those who arecurrently engaged in data collection work at different levels unless involved in the formulation ofeducational plans, the existing limitations in the information system cannot be improved upon forwhich disaggregation at the lowest possible level i.e. either at the institutional or village level wouldensure participation of all concerned at different levels. Hence. Local-level Information System (LIS)with focus on infrastructural facilities and classroom interpenetrations would need to be developed.Various steps have been initiated in the recent past to develop an integrated EducationalManagement Information System in the country, which if developed will help us to overcome thelimitations and gaps in the existing information system. Among such efforts, DPEP proposes todevelop an EMIS at the district level which is envisaged to collect information on a number ofmissing items but the same would take some more years to fully develop, as the project is not likelyto be expanded to remaining districts of the country in the near future. 28
    • Management Information System 29