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Chapter 11 blood

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  • 1. Chapter 11 BloodTransportation, regulation and protection
  • 2. Summary Blood Composition  Plasma  Cells  Red blood cells  White blood cells  Platelets  Myeloid tissue Clotting process Blood types
  • 3. Blood Composition Blood is a fluid tissue made up of water, many types of chemicals and millions of cells. Blood volume – 4-6 liters depending on sex, size and age. Color – arterial blood is bright red and venous blood is dark red.
  • 4. Blood Composition pH – normal is 7.35 – 7.45; venous blood will have a lower pH because it has a higher concentration of CO2.  pH (parts hydrogen) is a measure of the amount of H+ in a solution. Values range from 0-14. Neutral pH is 7.0 and a pH below 7 is acid while a pH above 7 is alkaline.  Blood is slightly ?
  • 5. Blood Composition Plasma  91% water, with proteins (albumen and globulins), salts, a little oxygen, nutrients, wastes, hormones, antibodies and clotting factors.  Also contains formed elements – cells and cell fragments. Serum – plasma minus the clotting factors; retains antibodies.
  • 6. Blood Composition - Cells Red blood cells (RBCs) or erythrocytes  Function: transport oxygen to other cells of the body. Key – hemoglobin contained in the RBC. Hemoglobin (Hgb) has 4 iron (Fe) atoms that bind O2. Hgb picks up O2 as it passes through the lungs.  Life cycle – 120 days  Normal Hgb – 12-18 grams per 100 ml of blood (dl).  Normal RBC count – 4.5 – 5.5 million/cubic mm  Hematocrit – %, volume of RBC in a volume of blood; normal is 35-50%.
  • 7. Blood Composition - Cells Anemia – Term used to describe a number of different conditions caused by an inability of the blood to carry sufficient O2 to the cells of the body. May be a result of low RBC count or low Hgb.  Causes – inadequate diet, hemorrhage, infections, cancers or treatments where the myeloid tissue is not able to produce enough RBCs.
  • 8. Blood Composition - Cells Anemias  Pernicious anemia – a deficiency of RBCs due to lack of vitamin B12.  Iron deficiency anemia – caused by lack of dietary iron.  Aplastic anemia – caused by suppression of myeloid tissue resulting in decreased RBCs. May be due to radiation or chemical exposure.  Hemolytic anemia – disorder that causes RBCs to rupture before the end of their normal life span. Includes malaria and sickle cell anemia.
  • 9. Blood Composition - Cells Other RBC abnormalities  Polycythemia vera – condition in which the myeloid tissue produces an excess of RBCs; blood becomes too thick to flow properly.
  • 10. Blood Composition - Cells White Blood Cells (WBCs) or leukocytes  Normal WBC count = 5,000 to 10,000/microliter  Buffy Coat – after blood is centrifuged (separating cells from plasma) the thin layer between the RBC and the plasma consists of WBCs and platelets.  5types of WBCs
  • 11. Blood Composition - Cells WBC types  Neutrophils – phagocytes (phagocytosis means that they “eat” and destroy invaders, etc.”)  Eosinophils – defense against parasites; helps protect the body from irritants that cause allergies.  Basophils – function in the inflammatory response/allergic reactions; produce histamines and Heparin.
  • 12. Blood Composition - Cells WBC types  Lymphocytes – “B” cells produce antibodies, T- cells recognize foreign antigens and destroy them = immune response.  Monocytes – phagocytes; become macrophages.
  • 13. Blood Composition - Cells WBC – abnormalities  Leukopenia – abnormally low WBC count (viral infections).  Leukocytosis – abnormally high WBC count (bacterial infections)  Leukemia – malignant disease in which the number of WBCs increases tremendously but cells do not function normally.
  • 14. Blood Composition - Cells Platelets or thrombocytes  Not cells but fragments of megakryocytes that live in the bone marrow.  Function in the clotting process.  Normal value – 150,000 to 300,000/cubic millimeter.  Thrombocytopenia – low platelet count.
  • 15. Cells – Myeloid Tissue 2 types of connective tissue that produce blood cells for the body:  Myeloid tissue – red bone marrow located in the sternum, ribs and pelvis. Stem cells produce all types of blood cells except some lymphocytes and monocytes.  Lymphatic tissue – located primarily in the lymph nodes, thymus, and spleen. Produces lymphocytes and monocytes.
  • 16. Clotting Process Hemostasis – prevention of blood loss.  Injury to a blood vessel occurs.  Myogenic response – smooth muscle lining of blood vessel contracts causing vasoconstriction.  Rough spot forms on the lining of the vessel (lining is simple squamous epithelium).  Platelets break up as they pass over the injured area – releasing platelet factors that make the platelets sticky and they stick to the wound. (In small vessels the platelet plug is all that is necessary to stop the bleeding).
  • 17. Clotting Process Hemostasis  Platelet factors combine with prothrombin (protein manufacture in the liver), calcium and other substances to form thrombin (an enzyme).  Thrombin reacts with fibrinogen (a blood protein) to change it into fibrin that forms a fibrous gel in the area of the wound. Fibrin is like a web of fine threads that traps RBCs and form a barrier across the vessel.
  • 18. Clotting Process Hemostasis  Clot retraction – fibrin threads pull the edges of the break in the vessel together.  Note: vitamin K (produced in the colon) stimulates the production of prothrombin by the liver. Embolus – blood clot that moves Thrombus – stationary blood clot
  • 19. Blood Types ABO Blood Group  4 blood types – A, B, AB, O  Types are identified by antigens located on the RBC surface.  Antigens – protein substances that can stimulate the body to make antibodies.  Antibody – proteins made by the body in response to stimulation by an antigen – causes clumping or agglutination in the case of RBCs.
  • 20. Blood Types ABO group  A person with Type A blood has A antigens on their RBC and a person with Type B blood has B antigens. What antigens does a person with type AB blood have? type O?  Natural antibodies are also present in the plasma: A person with type A blood has anti-B antibodies and a person with type B blood has anti A antibodies. What antibodies do people with type AB or type O blood have?
  • 21. Blood Types Typing and cross-matching – process by which blood type is identified and donor blood is tested for possible transfusion. Transfusion:  Type O is a “universal donor”, i.e.can give blood to anyone.  Type AB is the “universal recipient”, i.e. can receive blood from anyone.
  • 22. Blood Types Transfusion  Type A can receive type A or type O blood  Type B can receive type B or type O blood  Type AB can receive type B, A, AB, or O  Type O can receive type ??? Blood.
  • 23. Blood Types Rh factor – another antigen which may be present (Rh +) or absent (Rh -) on RBCs.  Rh negative (-) do not have natural antibodies to the Rh antigen. If they receive blood that is Rh positive (+) antibodies form but not a problem. The second exposure can produce a transfusion reaction (hemolysis and possible kidney damage).
  • 24. Blood Types Rh factor  People with Rh negative blood should receive Rh negative blood.  ??? What blood type is the “real Universal donor”?