MARPOL 73/78 
International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, 
1973, as modified by the Protocol of 1...
Special Area: 
Means a sea area where for recognized technical reasons in relation to it’s 
oceanographically and ecologic...
Annex V: Garbage 
Mediterranean Sea 2 Nov 1973 31 Dec 1988 1 May 2009 
Baltic Sea 2 Nov 1973 31 Dec 1988 1 Oct 1989 
Black...
Annex I: Prevention of pollution by oil 
- Annex I Entry into force: 2 October 1983 
(Revised Annex I enters into force 1 ...
Regulation 17 ORB (PART 1) 
 Ballasting or Cleaning of fuel oil tanks 
 Discharge of dirty ballast or cleaning water fro...
Regulation 34 Control of Discharge of oil For an OIL TANKER 
A. Outiside special areas 
1. Vessel should not be in a speci...
Regulation 37: SOPEP (Shipboard Oil Pollution Emergency Plan) 
1. Every oil tanker more than 150 gt and ship other than a ...
Attachments: 
 Form A: Listing equipments, arrangement & procedures in machinery spaces 
 Form B: Listing equipments, ar...
The discharge of these substances into sea is permitted with following discharge 
standards: 
 The ship is en route and d...
Regulation 17: SMPEP 
Every ship above 150 GT certified to carry Noxious Liquid Substance (NLS) to have 
an approved SMPEP...
Annex III: Prevention of pollution by harmful 
substances in packaged form 
- Entry into force: 1 July 1992 
- The first o...
Regulation 10: Standard discharge connections 
OD: 210 mm 
ID: as per pipe OD 
Bolt dia: 170mm 
Slots in flange: 4 hole 18...
Annex V: Prevention of pollution by garbage from ships 
- Entry into force: 31 December 1988 
- Garbage means all kind of ...
For a long while, many people believed that the oceans could absorb anything that was 
thrown into them, but this attitude...
Simplified overview of the discharge provisions of the revised 
MARPOL Annex V which entered into force on 1 January 2013 ...
Annex VI: Prevention of Air Pollution from Ships 
Adoption: September 1997 
Entry into force: 19 May 2005 
Emission Gases ...
of oil tankers 
Regulation 16 - Emissions from shipboard incinerators 
Regulation 17- Reception facilities 
Regulation 18 ...
 Regulation 13: Nitrogen Oxide (NOx) emissions from diesel engines 
Regulation 13 shall apply to: 
- Each diesel engine w...
 Regulation 13 contains further a 3-Tier approach as follows: 
Tier I (current limits) 
For diesel engines installed on s...
13. NOx reducing equipment “emulsified fuel” (fuel/water emulsion) 
14. NOx reducing equipment “exhaust gas recirculation”...
B. For new engines: 
Engine certification 
- Pre-certification, 
- Technical file clarification on engine family and group...
3.50% m/m on and after 1 
January 2012 
1.00% m/m on and after 1 July 
2010 
0.50% m/m on and after 1 
January 2020* 
0.10...
- More strict follow up through sample requirements, and control of 
documentation and procedure to log down. 
Other Metho...
 PVC can only be incinerated in type approved incinerators. 
 Flue gas temperatures shall be monitored and not less than...
- The sample size shall be not less than 400 mls 
- The sample is not to be used for any commercial purpose 
- The sample ...
Certificates issued under MARPOL Annex VI 
International Air Pollution Prevention Certificate with supplement with details...
Any Question? 
Thank you! 
Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Chief Engineer and Maritime Lecturer & Trainer, Bangladesh. 26
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Transcript of "A Short Note on MARPOL Regulations"

  1. 1. MARPOL 73/78 International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, 1973, as modified by the Protocol of 1978. Introduction The MARPOL Convention is the main international convention covering prevention of pollution of the marine environment by ships from operational or accidental causes. It is a combination of two treaties adopted in 1973 and 1978 respectively and updated by amendments through the years. The International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL) was adopted on 2 November 1973 at IMO and covered pollution by oil, chemicals, harmful substances in packaged form, sewage and garbage. The Protocol of 1978 relating to the 1973 International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (1978 MARPOL Protocol) was adopted at a Conference on Tanker Safety and Pollution Prevention in February 1978 held in response to a spate of tanker accidents in 1976-1977. (Measures relating to tanker design and operation were also incorporated into a Protocol of 1978 relating to the 1974 Convention on the Safety of Life at Sea, 1974). As the 1973 MARPOL Convention had not yet entered into force, the 1978 MARPOL Protocol absorbed the parent Convention. The combined instrument is referred to as the International Convention for the Prevention of Marine Pollution from Ships, 1973, as modified by the Protocol of 1978 relating thereto (MARPOL 73/78), and it entered into force on 2 October 1983 (Annexes I and II). Objectives To eliminate the pollution of the sea’s by oil, chemicals and other harmful substances which might be discharged during the operation To minimize the amount of oil that which is released due to accidents, collisions, groundings etc. MARPOL ANNEXES: At present, there are 6 annexes in MARPOL: Annex I: Prevention of pollution by oil Annex II: Control of pollution by noxious liquid substances Annex III: Prevention of pollution by harmful substances in packaged form Annex IV: Prevention of pollution by sewage from ships Annex V: Prevention of pollution by garbage from ships Annex VI: Prevention of Air Pollution from Ships Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Chief Engineer and Maritime Lecturer & Trainer, Bangladesh. 1
  2. 2. Special Area: Means a sea area where for recognized technical reasons in relation to it’s oceanographically and ecological condition and to the particular character of its traffic the adoption of special mandatory methods for the prevention of sea pollution is required. In Annex I Prevention of pollution by oil, Annex II Control of pollution by noxious liquid substances, Annex IV Prevention of pollution by sewage from ships and Annex V Prevention of pollution by garbage from ships, MARPOL defines certain sea areas as "special areas" in which, for technical reasons relating to their oceanographical and ecological condition and to their sea traffic, the adoption of special mandatory methods for the prevention of sea pollution is required. Under the Convention, these special areas are provided with a higher level of protection than other areas of the sea. Annex VI Regulations for the Prevention of Air Pollution from Ships establishes certain sulphur oxide (SOx) Emission Control Areas with more stringent controls on sulphur emissions. Special areas under MARPOL are as follows: Adoption, entry into force & date of taking effect of Special Areas Special Areas Adopted # Date of Entry into Force In Effect From Annex I: Oil Mediterranean Sea 2 Nov 1973 2 Oct 1983 2 Oct 1983 Baltic Sea 2 Nov 1973 2 Oct 1983 2 Oct 1983 Black Sea 2 Nov 1973 2 Oct 1983 2 Oct 1983 Red Sea 2 Nov 1973 2 Oct 1983 * "Gulfs" area 2 Nov 1973 2 Oct 1983 1 Aug 2008 Gulf of Aden 1 Dec 1987 1 Apr 1989 * Antarctic area 16 Nov 1990 17 Mar 1992 17 Mar 1992 North West European Waters 25 Sept 1997 1 Feb 1999 1 Aug 1999 Oman area of the Arabian Sea 15 Oct 2004 1 Jan 2007 * Southern South African waters 13 Oct 2006 1 Mar 2008 1 Aug 2008 Annex II: Noxious Liquid Substances Antarctic area 30 Oct 1992 1 Jul 1994 1 Jul 1994 Annex IV: Sewage Baltic Sea 15 Jul 2011 1 Jan 2013 ** Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Chief Engineer and Maritime Lecturer & Trainer, Bangladesh. 2
  3. 3. Annex V: Garbage Mediterranean Sea 2 Nov 1973 31 Dec 1988 1 May 2009 Baltic Sea 2 Nov 1973 31 Dec 1988 1 Oct 1989 Black Sea 2 Nov 1973 31 Dec 1988 * Red Sea 2 Nov 1973 31 Dec 1988 * "Gulfs" area 2 Nov 1973 31 Dec 1988 1 Aug 2008 North Sea 17 Oct 1989 18 Feb 1991 18 Feb 1991 Antarctic area (south of latitude 60 degrees south) 16 Nov 1990 17 Mar 1992 17 Mar 1992 Wider Caribbean region including the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea 4 Jul 1991 4 Apr 1993 1 May 2011 Annex VI: Prevention of air pollution by ships (Emission Control Areas) Baltic Sea (SOx) 26 Sept 1997 19 May 2005 19 May 2006 North Sea (SOx) 22 Jul 2005 22 Nov 2006 22 Nov 2007 North American (SOx, and NOx and 26 Mar 2010 1 Aug 2011 1 Aug 2012 PM) United States Caribbean Sea ECA (SOx, NOx and PM) 26 Jul 2011 1 Jan 2013 1 Jan 2014 # Status of multilateral conventions and instruments in respect of which the International Maritime Organization or its Secretary-General perform depositary or other functions as at 31 December 2002. * The Special Area requirements for these areas have not yet taken effect because of lack of notifications from MARPOL Parties whose coastlines border the relevant special areas on the existence of adequate reception facilities (regulations 38.6 of MARPOL Annex I and 5(4) of MARPOL Annex V). ** The new special area requirements, which will enter into force on 1 January 2013, will only take effect upon receipt of sufficient notifications on the existence of adequate reception facilities from Parties to MARPOL Annex IV whose coastlines border the relevant special area (regulation 13.2 of the revised MARPOL Annex IV, which was adopted by resolution MEPC.200(62) and which will enter into force on 1 January 2013). Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Chief Engineer and Maritime Lecturer & Trainer, Bangladesh. 3
  4. 4. Annex I: Prevention of pollution by oil - Annex I Entry into force: 2 October 1983 (Revised Annex I enters into force 1 January 2007)  Regulation 14: Oil Filtering Equipment Vessels above 400 GT and less than 1000 GT shall have an oil filtering equipment  Approved by the Administration  Will ensure that any oily mixture discharged into the sea after passing through the equipment has an oil content not exceeding 15 ppm Vessels above 1000 GT shall have an oil filtering equipment  In addition to the above, shall be provided with alarm arrangements to indicate when the level cannot be maintained.  Also arrangements to ensure that any discharge of oily mixture is automatically stopped when the oil content of the effluent exceeds 15 ppm Discharge from Machinery spaces: A. In special Areas : (Regulation 15)  The ship proceeding is en route  The oily mixture is processed through an oil filtering system  The oil content of the effluent without dilution does not exceed 15ppm.  When the vessel is in the special area the oil filtering system apart from having an alarm when the 15ppm cannot be maintained shall also be of a design where the oil filtering system shall stop automatically when the oil effluent exceeds 15ppm  Oily mixtures do not originate from the cargo pump room bilges in case of oil tankers  Oily mixtures in case of oil tankers is not mixed with oil cargo residues B. Outside special Area’s: (Regulation 15)  The ship proceeding is en route  The oily mixture is processed through an oil filtering system  The oil content of the effluent without dilution does not exceed 15ppm.  Oily mixtures do not originate from the cargo pump room bilges in case of oil tankers  Oily mixtures in case of oil tankers is not mixed with oil cargo residues Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Chief Engineer and Maritime Lecturer & Trainer, Bangladesh. 4
  5. 5. Regulation 17 ORB (PART 1)  Ballasting or Cleaning of fuel oil tanks  Discharge of dirty ballast or cleaning water from fuel oil tanks  Collection , Transfer and disposal of oil residues  Non automatic starting of discharge overboard, transfer or disposal otherwise of bilge water accumulated in machinery spaces  Automatic starting of discharge overboard, transfer or disposal otherwise of bilge water accumulated in machinery spaces  Condition of the oil filtering equipment  Accidental or other exceptional discharges of oil  Bunkering of fuel or bulk lubricating oil  Additional operational procedures and general remarks FOR AN OIL TANKER DISCHARGING OIL FROM CARGO RESIDUES: Regulation 29: Slop Tanks Oil tankers above 150 GT shall be provided with a slop tank arrangement having the following provisions 1. Adequate means provided for cleaning of cargo tanks and transfer of dirty ballast residues and tank washing from cargo tanks to slop tanks 2. Slop tank arrangement should be such to allow the transfer or discharge of oily mixture in compliance with the discharge regulations 3. The slop tanks to have a capacity of min 3% of the total cargo carrying capacity of the vessel. Maybe reduced to 2 or 1.5% if such an amount is sufficient for carrying out tank cleaning operations without the introduction of additional water into the system Regulation 31: ODMCS/ ODME Tankers above 150 GT shall be fitted with an ODMCS/ODME 1. Must have a recording device to provide continuous record of the operation showing the ltrs/nm, total qty of oil disch ,the oil content and the rate of discharge 2. Must be identifiable with date and time 3. Should come into operation when there is any discharge of effluents to the sea and should be capable of stopping the operation if the instantaneous rate of discharge exceeds 30 ltrs/nm 4. Failure to the system shall stop the operation 5. In case of failure, the system may be used on manual mode but the defect to be repaired as soon as possible. Vessel maybe allowed to undertake one ballast passage with the defective equipment Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Chief Engineer and Maritime Lecturer & Trainer, Bangladesh. 5
  6. 6. Regulation 34 Control of Discharge of oil For an OIL TANKER A. Outiside special areas 1. Vessel should not be in a special area 2. Vessel should be en route 3. Vessel should be atleast 50 miles from the nearest land 4. Any instantaneous discharge should not exceed more than 30 ltrs/nautical mile 5. Total oil residue discharge less than 1/15000 of the product carried for tankers built before 31 Dec 1979 6. Total oil residue discharged less than 1/30000 of the product carried for tankers built after 31 Dec 1979 7. The tanker has in operation an ODMCS/ODME (oil discharge monitoring and control system) and a slop tank arrangement B. In Special Area(Regulation 34)  Any discharge into the sea of oil or oily residues from cargo spaces of an oil tanker is prohibited when in special area REGULATION 36 ORB (part2) / Cargo Oil record Book Part2 is carried by the tankers and is for the cargo/ballast operations Entries: 1. Loading of oil cargo 2. Internal transfer of oil cargo while on voyage 3. Discharging of oil cargo 4. Ballasting of the cargo tanks and Ballasting of the dedicated clean ballast tanks 5. Cleaning of cargo tanks including crude oil washing 6. Discharge of ballast except from the segregated ballast tanks 7. Discharge of water from the slop tanks 8. Closing of all applicable valves after slop tanks have been discharged 9. Closing of valves for isolation of dedicated clean ballast tanks from cargo and stripping lines after slop tank discharge operations 10. Disposal of residues 11. Accidental discharge of any oil content and the reasons for the same 12. Conditions of the oil discharge monitoring system and the failures of the same to be recorded too 13. All the entries made need to be signed by the responsible officer along with the date and to be counter signed by the master. This record book needs to be maintained onboard for 3 years. Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Chief Engineer and Maritime Lecturer & Trainer, Bangladesh. 6
  7. 7. Regulation 37: SOPEP (Shipboard Oil Pollution Emergency Plan) 1. Every oil tanker more than 150 gt and ship other than a tanker more than 400 gt shall carry and MUST have a SOPEP (shipboard oil pollution emergency plan) 2. Procedures to be followed by the master or other persons having the charge of the ship to report an oil pollution incident 3. List of authorities or persons to be contacted in event of any oil spill/pollution incident 4. Detailed description of the actions to be taken to reduce or control the discharge of oil following the incident 5. Procedures and point of contact on the ship for co-ordinating the shipboard actions with the national and local authorities in combating the pollution 6. All oil tankers of 5000 tones deadweight or more shall have access to computerized shore based damage stability and residual structural strength calculation programs Pollution prevention methods itemised on the tankers ship shore safety checklist  vessel should be securely moored  effective ship shore communication system established  emergency signals to be used by the ship and shore to be decided and understood  cargo hoses are properly rigged and not damaged  SOPEP equipments standby  Scupper plugs in place  High level alarms of the tanks to be operational Checklist will also contain  Fire fighting equipments to be kept standby  Effective deck watch to be maintained to check any overflow  No unauthorised persons onboard  No unauthorised work to be carried out  No naked lights and flames  Tanks inerted and the inert gas systems checked  All doors to accommodation to be closed and the air conditioning systems to be on internal circulation  Appropriate lights and flags shown Certificates issued under annex 1 International Oil Pollution Prevention (IOPP) Certificate Surveys: Initial, Annual, Annual /Intermediate, Intermediate/Annual, Annual & Renewal Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Chief Engineer and Maritime Lecturer & Trainer, Bangladesh. 7
  8. 8. Attachments:  Form A: Listing equipments, arrangement & procedures in machinery spaces  Form B: Listing equipments, arrangement & procedures in cargo spaces Annex II: Control of pollution by noxious liquid substances - Entry into force: 6 April 1987 (Revised Annex II enters into force 1 January 2007). - Annex II details the discharge criteria and measures for the control of pollution by noxious liquid substances carried in bulk. - Annex II: Substances indicated in chapter 17 or 18 of the International Bulk Chemical code Regulation 6: Categories of substances Category X: Noxious Liquid Substance (NLS) which if discharged into the sea from tank cleaning or deballasting operations are deemed to present a major hazard to either the marine environment or human health and therefore justify the prohibition of discharge into the marine environment Category Y: Noxious Liquid Substance (NLS) which if discharged into the sea from tank cleaning or deballasting operations are deemed to present a hazard to the marine environment or to human health or cause harm to the uses of the sea therefore limitations are applied on the quantity and quality of discharge into the marine environment Category Z: Noxious Liquid Substance (NLS) which if discharged into the sea from tank cleaning or deballasting operations are deemed to present a minor hazard to the marine environment or human health or marine resources and therefore less stringent restrictions apply on the quality and quantity of discharge into the marine environment Other Substances: Noxious Liquid Substance (NLS) other than X, Y & Z which at the moment do not pose any threat to the marine environment or human health on discharge into the sea from tank cleaning or deballasting operations. Regulation 13: Discharge standards for Annex 2 (NLS) within and outside the Special area (applies to category X, Y & Z) Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Chief Engineer and Maritime Lecturer & Trainer, Bangladesh. 8
  9. 9. The discharge of these substances into sea is permitted with following discharge standards:  The ship is en route and doing a speed of atleast 7 knots in case of a self propelled ship or atleast 4knots in case of a non self propelled ship  The discharge is made below the water line through the underwater discharge outlets and not exceeding the rate by which the underwater discharge outlets are designed  The discharge is made at a distance of not less than 12 nautical miles from the nearest land and in the depth of water of not less than 25 metres. Discharge Criteria for category X  Tank from which category X substance has been unloaded shall be subjected to a pre wash before the vsl leaves the port of unloading. The residues shall be discharged to port reception facilities until the concentration falls to 0.1% by weight by analysis. All remaining tank washings to be transferred until tank is empty. Entries to be made in the cargo record book  Any water subsequently added maybe discharged into the sea  Where it is not possible to find the concentration of the effluent without delaying the ship then alternate procedures maybe adopted to find the concentration provided that a) Tank is pre washed in accordance with the procedure adopted by the administration b) Appropriate entries are made into the cargo record book Discharge Criteria for category Y & Z  If the unloading of the substance is not carried out in accordance with the manual, a pre wash to be carried out prior the vessel leaves the port of unloading. The tank washings to be discharged to shore reception facilities.  For high viscosity or solidifying substances in cat Y a) Pre wash to be carried out b) The residue to be discharged to shore reception facilities until tank is empty c) Any subsequent water introduced into the tank maybe discharged at sea Regulation 14: P & A manual  Every ship certified to carry CAT X , Y & Z shall have an approved P&A manual.  The main purpose being to help identify the the physical arrangements and all the operational procedures w.r.t a) cargo handling b) tank cleaning c) slops handling d) cargo tank ballasting and deballasting. Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Chief Engineer and Maritime Lecturer & Trainer, Bangladesh. 9
  10. 10. Regulation 17: SMPEP Every ship above 150 GT certified to carry Noxious Liquid Substance (NLS) to have an approved SMPEP  Procedures to be followed to report a NLS pollution incident  List of authorities and persons to be contacted  Detailed description of actions to be taken to reduce or control the discharge of NLS  Procedures and point of contact on the ship for co-ordinating shipboard action with national and local authorities Entries in the Cargo Record Book  Loading of cargo  Internal transfer of cargo  Unloading of cargo  Mandatory pre wash in accordance with the ships P & A manual  Cleaning of cargo tanks except mandatory prewash  Discharge into the sea of tank washings  Ballasting of cargo tanks  Discharge of ballast water from cargo tanks  Accidental or exceptional discharge  Control by authorised surveyors  Additional operational procedures and remarks Certificates issued under annex 2 Certificate of Fitness Surveys: Initial, Annual, Annual /Intermediate, Intermediate/Annual, Annual & Renewal Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Chief Engineer and Maritime Lecturer & Trainer, Bangladesh. 10
  11. 11. Annex III: Prevention of pollution by harmful substances in packaged form - Entry into force: 1 July 1992 - The first of the convention's optional annexes. States ratifying the Convention must accept Annexes I and II but can choose not to accept the other three - hence they have taken much longer to enter into force. AnnexIII applies to substances listed as marine pollutants in the IMDG code:  Annex III contains general requirements for the issuing of detailed standards on packing, marking, labelling, documentation, stowage, quantity limitations, exceptions and notifications for preventing pollution by harmful substances.  No dangerous goods to be carried by the ships unless a marine pollutant or a dangerous goods declaration has been issued to the master  Any dangerous goods carried onboard should be detailed in a stowage plan  Packaged goods shall not be accepted unless they are properly marked  No packaged goods to be carried unless the ship has an cargo securing manual Annex IV: Prevention of pollution by sewage from ships - Entry into force: 27 September 2003. - The second of the optional Annexes, Annex IV contains requirements to control pollution of the sea by sewage. (A revised Annex was adopted in 2004.) Sewage means  Drainage and other wastes from any forms of toilets and urinals  Drainage from medical premises ,wash tubs and scuppers located in these premises  Drainage from spaces containing living animals and other waste waters mixed with drainage as above Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Chief Engineer and Maritime Lecturer & Trainer, Bangladesh. 11
  12. 12. Regulation 10: Standard discharge connections OD: 210 mm ID: as per pipe OD Bolt dia: 170mm Slots in flange: 4 hole 18mm Flange thickness: 16mm Bolts and nuts: 4 x 16mm REGULATION 11: DISCHARGE OF SEWAGE Discharge of sewage into the sea is prohibited except when, 1. The ship is discharging comminuted and disinfected sewage using a system approved by the organization at a distance of 3 nautical miles from the nearest land and that which is not comminuted or disinfected at a distance of 12 nautical miles from the nearest land 2. Sewage shall not be discharged instantaneously, but at a moderate rate when the ship is enroute and doing a speed of not less than 4 knots. 3. Ship has in operation a sewage treatment plant or an approved sewage comminuting and disinfecting system with storage tank or a holding tank of adequate capacity certified by the organization, 4. Test results of the plant are laid down in the INTERNATIONAL SEWAGE POLLUTION PREVENTION certificate. The validity of this certificate shall not exceed more than 5 years. 5. It should not cause any discoloration of the surrounding waters nor produce visible floating solids Certificates issued under Annex IV: International Sewage Pollution Prevention Certificate Surveys: Initial & Renewal Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Chief Engineer and Maritime Lecturer & Trainer, Bangladesh. 12
  13. 13. Annex V: Prevention of pollution by garbage from ships - Entry into force: 31 December 1988 - Garbage means all kind of domestic and operational waste other than fish, generated during the normal operation of the ship. The entries to be made in the garbage record book Entries to be made are as follows:  When garbage discharged at sea  When Discharged at port  When incinerated  Accidental discharge REGULATION 9: Garbage management plans Every ship more than 12m or more in length shall display placards which notify the crew and passengers for the disposal requirements of regulations. The placards shall be written in the working language of the shall also be English, French ,or Spanish. 1. Every ship of 400 gt and above and every ship which is certified to carry 15 persons shall carry a garbage management plan. This plan shall have written procedures for collecting, storing, processing and disposing of the garbage including the use of the equipment onboard. 2. Every ship of 400 gt and above and which is certified to carry 15 persons should have a GARBAGE RECORD book CATEGORY OF GARBAGE A. Plastics, B. Food wastes, C. Domestic Wastes, D. Cooking Oil, E. Incinerator ashes, F. Operational wastes, G. Cargo residues, H. Animal Carcass(es), I. Fishing Gear Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Chief Engineer and Maritime Lecturer & Trainer, Bangladesh. 13
  14. 14. For a long while, many people believed that the oceans could absorb anything that was thrown into them, but this attitude has changed along with greater awareness of the environment. Many items can be degraded by the seas - but this process can take months or years, as the following table shows: Time taken for objects to dissolve at sea Paper bus ticket 2-4 weeks Cotton cloth 1-5 months Rope 3-14 months Woollen cloth 1 year Painted wood 13 years Tin can 100 years Aluminium can 200-500 years Plastic bottle 450 years Source: Hellenic Marine Environment Protection Association (HELMEPA) The MARPOL Convention sought to eliminate and reduce the amount of garbage being dumped into the sea from ships. GARBAGE DISCHARGE REGULATION ON 01 January, 2013: Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Chief Engineer and Maritime Lecturer & Trainer, Bangladesh. 14
  15. 15. Simplified overview of the discharge provisions of the revised MARPOL Annex V which entered into force on 1 January 2013 DISCLAIMER: Additional requirements may apply. This simplified overview is for information or reference purposes only and is not meant as a substitute for the comprehensive provisions in the revised MARPOL Annex V (resolution MEPC.201(62)) or the 2012 Guidelines for the Implementation of MARPOL Annex V (resolution MEPC.219(63)). Type of garbage Ships outside special areas Ships within special areas Offshore platforms and all ships within 500 m of such platforms Food waste comminuted or ground Discharge permitted ≥3 nm from the nearest land and en route Discharge permitted ≥12 nm from the nearest land and en route Discharge permitted ≥12 nm from the nearest land Food waste not comminuted or ground Discharge permitted ≥12 nm from the nearest land and en route Discharge prohibited Discharge prohibited Cargo residues1 not contained in wash water Discharge permitted ≥12 nm from the nearest land and en route Discharge prohibited Discharge prohibited Cargo residues1 contained in wash water Discharge only permitted in specific circumstances2 and ≥12 nm from the nearest land and en route Discharge prohibited Cleaning agents and additives1 contained in cargo hold wash water Discharge permitted Discharge only permitted in specific circumstances2 and ≥12 nm from the nearest land and en route Discharge prohibited Cleaning agents and additives1 contained in deck and external surfaces wash water Discharge permitted Discharge prohibited Carcasses of animals carried on board as cargo and which died during the voyage Discharge permitted as far from the nearest land as possible and en route Discharge prohibited Discharge prohibited All other garbage including plastics, domestic wastes, cooking oil, incinerator ashes, operational wastes and fishing gear Discharge prohibited Discharge prohibited Discharge prohibited Mixed garbage When garbage is mixed with or contaminated by other substances prohibited from discharge or having different discharge requirements, the more stringent requirements shall apply 1 These substances must not be harmful to the marine environment. 2 According to regulation 6.1.2 of MARPOL Annex V, the discharge shall only be allowed if: (a) both the port of departure and the next port of destination are within the special area and the ship will not transit outside the special area between these ports (regulation 6.1.2.2); and (b) if no adequate reception facilities are available at those ports (regulation 6.1.2.3).
  16. 16. Annex VI: Prevention of Air Pollution from Ships Adoption: September 1997 Entry into force: 19 May 2005 Emission Gases from Ships ◦ Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx) – create Ozone ◦ Sulphur Oxides (SOx) – create acidification ◦ Carbon Dioxide (CO2) – is a GHG ◦ Carbon Monoxide (CO) ◦ Hydrocarbons (HC) – gas, soot and some particulates  AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION 1. IMO and Regional Ship Air Emission Developments (cont.) • Baltic Sea – SECA from May 2006 • North Sea/English Channel– SECA from Nov 2007 - Major Revision of MARPOL Annex VI completed in Oct 2008 - Revised Annex VI effective from 1 July 2010 • European Sulphur Directive governing emissions in port (0.1% S at berth 1 Jan 2010) • Port regulations in California (USA), Vancouver (Canada) for ship berthing The California Air Resources Board (CARB) adopted the Regulations to reduce emissions from auxiliary diesel engines and diesel - electric engines operated on ocean-going vessels within California waters and 24 nautical miles off the California baseline. • ISO ongoing work on Marine Fuel Oil specifications • Discussion and development : of on-shore power supply - also called Alternative Marine Power (AMP) or Cold-ironing • Green House Gases (GHG) limitations  MARPOL ANNEX VI applies to all ships but the certification requirements are depending on size of the vessel and when it is constructed.  Annex VI has requirements to the following main issues: Regulation 12 - Emissions from Ozone depleting substances from refrigerating plants and fire fighting equipment Regulation 13 - Nitrogen Oxide (NOx) emissions from diesel engines Regulation 14 - Sulphur Oxide (SOx) emissions from ships Regulation 15 - Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) emissions from cargo oil tanks Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Chief Engineer and Maritime Lecturer & Trainer, Bangladesh. 15
  17. 17. of oil tankers Regulation 16 - Emissions from shipboard incinerators Regulation 17- Reception facilities Regulation 18 - Fuel Oil quality.  MARPOL Annex VI and the Technical Code have retroactive requirements for the following: Regulation 12 - Emissions from Ozone depleting substances from refrigerating plants and fire fighting equipment On all ships constructed on or after 19.05.2005. Annex VI prohibits any deliberate emissions of ozone-depleting substances. Ozone-depleting substances , and equipment containing such substances, shall be delivered to appropriate reception facilities when removed from a ship. Installations which contain ozone-depleting substances, other than hydrochlorofluorocarbons, are prohibited Installations containing hydrochlorflourocarbons (HCFCs) are prohibited on ships constructed on or after 1.01.2020.  For the ships under regulation 12 of Marpol Annex VI, a list of equipment containing ozone depleting substances shall be maintain and in case a ship will have rechargeable systems containing ozone depleting substances, an Ozone depleting Substances Record Book shall be maintained on board. The use of Halon in fire extinguishing systems and equipment is already prohibited for new buildings. For new buildings, this requirement in Annex VI will therefore always be complied with. More restrictive requirements for ozone depleting substances are in place regionally, e.g. in the European Union (EU). Vessels carrying ozone depleting substances (ODS) shall maintain a ozone record book. Entries to be made in terms of mass of substance. Entries should be as follows: a) Recharge (full or partial) of equipment containing ODS b) Repair or maintenance on equipments containing ODS c) Discharge of ODS deliberate or non delibrtae d) Discharge of ODS to land based reception facilities e) Supply of ODS to ships Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Chief Engineer and Maritime Lecturer & Trainer, Bangladesh. 16
  18. 18.  Regulation 13: Nitrogen Oxide (NOx) emissions from diesel engines Regulation 13 shall apply to: - Each diesel engine with a power output of more than 130 kW which is installed on a ship constructed on or after 1 January 2000. - Each diesel engine with a power output of more than 130 kW which undergoes a major conversion on or after 1 January 2000. - Each diesel engine with a power output of more than 5000 kW and a per cylinder displacement at or above 90 litres which is installed on a ship constructed on or after 1 January 1990 but prior to 1 January 2000.  This regulation does not apply to: - Emergency diesel engines, engines installed in life boats or for any equipment intended to be used solely in case of emergency. - Engines used solely to drive machinery dedicated to exploration, exploitation and associated offshore processed of seabed mineral resources The phrase “major conversion”, means a modification of an engine where: 1. The engine is replaced by a new engine built on or after 1 January 2000, or 2. Any substantial modification is made to the engine, as described in the Nox Technical Code 1.3.2 (e.g. changing camshaft,fuel injection system, or any other NOx-related settings or components), or 3. The maximum continuous rating of the engine is increased by more than 10% For this purpose, Substantial Modification is defined as follows:  For engines installed on vessels constructed on or after 1 January 2000, a Substantial Modification means any modification to an engine that could potentially cause the engine to exceed the emission standards set out in Regulation 13 of Annex VI.  For engines installed on vessels constructed before 1 January 2000, a Substantial Modification means any modification made to an engine which increases its existing emission characteristics established by the simplified measurement method as described in 6.3 in excess of the allowances set out in 6.3.11(Ref. NOx Technical file.). These changes include, but are not limited to, changes in its operations or in its technical parameters (e.g. changing camshaft,fuel injection systems, air systems, combustion chamber configuration, or timing calibration of the engine) Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Chief Engineer and Maritime Lecturer & Trainer, Bangladesh. 17
  19. 19.  Regulation 13 contains further a 3-Tier approach as follows: Tier I (current limits) For diesel engines installed on ships constructed from 1 January 2000 to 1. January 2011 allowable emissions of total weighted NOx depending on engine speed, n, are: i. 17,0 g/kWh when n is less than 130 rpm ii. 45,0 × n(-0,2) g/kWh when n is 130 or more but less than 2000 rpm iii. 9,8 g/kWh when n is 2000 rpm or more Tier II For diesel engines installed on ships constructed on or after 1 January 2011 allowable emissions of total weighted NOx depending on engine speed, n, are: i. 14,4 g/kWh when n is less than 130 rpm ii. 44,0 × n(-0,23) g/kWh when n is 130 or more but less than 2000 rpm iii. 7,7 g/kWh when n is 2000 rpm or more Tier III Ships constructed on or after 1 January 2016 will have additional limitations when operating in an Emission Control Area. For Tier III ships operating in the NOx ECAs the allowable emissions of total weighted NOx depending on engine speed, n, are: i. 3,4 g/kWh when n is less than 130 rpm ii. 9,0 × n(-0,2) g/kWh when n is 130 or more but less than 2000 rpm iii. 2,0 g/kWh when n is 2000 rpm or more  The NOx-influencing components and settings depend on the design of the particular engine, and shall be listed in the engine’s Technical File. The below list shows typical NOx-influencing parameters, but are not limited to: 1. Injection timing 2. Injection system components (nozzle, injector, fuel pump) 3. Software no, checksums, or other identification of software version 4. Hardware for fuel injection control 5. Camshaft components (fuel cam, inlet- and exhaust cam) 6. Valve timing 7. Combustion chamber (piston, cylinder head, cylinder liner) 8. Compression ratio (connecting rod, piston rod, shim, gaskets) 9. Turbocharger type and build (internal components) 10. Charge air cooler/charge air pre-heater 11. Auxiliary blower 12. NOx reducing equipment “water injection” Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Chief Engineer and Maritime Lecturer & Trainer, Bangladesh. 18
  20. 20. 13. NOx reducing equipment “emulsified fuel” (fuel/water emulsion) 14. NOx reducing equipment “exhaust gas recirculation” 15. NOx reducing equipment “selective catalytic reduction” The actual Technical File of an engine may include less components and/or parameters other than the list above, depending on the particular engine and the specific engine design. The NOx emissions at Tier I level upgraded for engines of power output > 5,000 kW and per cylinder displacement at or > 90 litres The upgrading is provided with approved and cost effective method for NOx limitation and should not: - reduce the engine rating by more than 1% - increase the fuel consumption by more than 2%, and - have negative effect on the engine durability or reliability For Engines NOT complying with Tier I NOx emission limitations: • measures against ship only if there is a certified, efficient commercially available system • rules for certification, verification and documentation of scrubbers and upgrade at the ship’s first Renewal Survey if there is an approved method for upgrading at least to Tier I standard • if system not available, the next Annual Survey after that method is available  NOx Reduction Options: A. For existing engines: • Use of NOx injectors • Retarding injection timing • Temperature control of the charge air • Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) • Fuel / water emulsion • Water injection • Humid Air Motor (HAM) Technique- addition of wet steam to the engine • Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Chief Engineer and Maritime Lecturer & Trainer, Bangladesh. 19
  21. 21. B. For new engines: Engine certification - Pre-certification, - Technical file clarification on engine family and group, - Final certification • Regulation 13 requirements are fully defined by the NOx Technical Code – recommended technical reading. - Certification of the engine on manufacture and checked on installation for settings - Certificates required for Ships – EIAPP & IAPP - PSC Inspection of the engine by i. Parameter Check method (Engine Technical File) ii. Simplified measurement method  Regulation 14 - Sulphur Oxide (SOx) emissions from ships - 19 May 2005 Annex VI to MARPOL entered into force. - The revised Annex VI to MARPOL was adopted by IMO on 10 October 2008. The sulphur oxide (SOx) and Particulate Matter emissions from ships will in general be controlled by setting a limit on the sulphur content of marine fuel oils as follows. The sulphur content of any fuel oil used on board ships shall not exceed the following limits: * depending on the outcome of a review, to be concluded in 2018, as to the availability of the required fuel oil, this date could be deferred to 1 January 2025. SOx: Relates to the emission due to the sulphur content in the fuel  Under the revised MARPOL Annex VI, the global sulphur cap is reduced initially to 3.50% effective from 1 January 2012  Then progressively to 0.50% effective from 1 January 2020.  The limits applicable in ECAs for SOx and particulate matter were reduced to 1.00%, beginning on 1 July 2010  Being further reduced to 0.10 %, effective from 1 January 2015.  As per EU directives the limits applicable are 0.10% in EU ports Outside an ECA established to limit SOx and particulate matter emissions Inside an ECA established to limit SOx and particulate matter emissions 4.50% m/m prior to 1 January 2012 1.50% m/m prior to 1 July 2010 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Chief Engineer and Maritime Lecturer & Trainer, Bangladesh. 20
  22. 22. 3.50% m/m on and after 1 January 2012 1.00% m/m on and after 1 July 2010 0.50% m/m on and after 1 January 2020* 0.10% m/m on and after 1 January 2015 Emission Control Area, ECA: Means an area where the adoption of special mandatory measures for emissions from ships is required to prevent, reduce and control air pollution from NOx & SOx & particulate matter. A. The ECA established are: i. Baltic Sea area – as defined in Annex I of MARPOL (SOx only); ii. North Sea area – as defined in Annex V of MARPOL (SOx only); iii. North American area (entered into effect 1 August 2012) – as defined in Appendix VII of Annex VI of MARPOL (SOx, NOx and PM); and iv. United States Caribbean Sea area (expected to enter into effect 1 January 2014) – as defined in Appendix VII of Annex VI of MARPOL (SOx, NOx and PM).  Most ships which operate both outside and inside these ECA will therefore operate on different fuel oils in order to comply with the respective limits. In such cases, prior to entry into the ECA, it is required to have fully changed-over to using the ECA compliant fuel oil, regulation 14.6, and to have onboard implemented written procedures as to how this is to be undertaken. Similarly change-over from using the ECA compliant fuel oil is not to commence until after exiting the ECA. At each change-over it is required that the quantities of the ECA compliant fuel oils onboard are recorded, together with the date, time and position of the ship when either completing the change-over prior to entry or commencing change-over after exit from such areas. These records are to be made in a logbook as prescribed by the ship’s flag State, in the absence of any specific requirement in this regard the record could be made, for example, in the ship’s Annex I Oil Record Book.  Sox Control: - Arrangements for LSFO & HSFO: 2 0r more different types of fuels. - Availability: Bunking strategies - Switch-over: (12 to 24 hrs) will need to be changed over the fuel for the SECA passages. - Handling of cylinder oils: 2 qualities may be required. Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Chief Engineer and Maritime Lecturer & Trainer, Bangladesh. 21
  23. 23. - More strict follow up through sample requirements, and control of documentation and procedure to log down. Other Methods for Controlling of Nox and Sox: - Exhaust gas cleaning system or other equivalent system: May be used (abatement technologies). The emission criteria for such systems are 6 g SOx/kWh. - Relifiquation plants for LNG/LPG carriers: Reduction of NOx, Sox & cost saving through boiled off gas reuse. - Alfa Lubricator system: Reduction in cylinder oil consumption. Reduction in particulate emission. - Electronic control engine: Programmed fuel injection and exhaust valve. Reduce fuel & reduction of emission. - Turbo generator plant: Use of high efficiency air flow for power take off. Reduce fuel & reduction of emission. - System integration: Humid air Motor (HAM)- engine intake air operating with water & exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). 50% reduction of emission. - HFO sulfur content – Use of low sulfur oil and modify the equipments to burn LSFO. - Dual fuel option for low sulphur restricted areas: Need for additional tanks and dual fuel engines. Regulation 15 - Volatile Organic compounds emissions from cargo oil tanks of oil tankers  Subject to individual terminal regulations tankers may have to be equipped with Vapour return manifold.  Notification of VOC control by a port to the IMO shall be 6 months before enforcement.  Tankers can be can accept tankers upto 3 years after the date of VOC control enforcement by the Terminal.  The standard for the design of VOC return manifold and operation is contained in MSC/Circ.585 Regulation 16 - Emissions from shipboard incinerators  Incinerators installed after 1st Jan 2000 to meet regulations and must certified to meet the specifications in MEPC Resolution 76(40) (Appendix IV of Annex VI).  Each incinerator must have a manufacturers operations manual.  Crew responsible for the incinerator operation shall be trained and follow the operations manual.  The following substances are prohibited from incineration:  Annex I, II and III cargo residues and related packing material. PCBs.  Garbage as defined by Annex V containing heavy metals.  Petroleum Products containing halogens. Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Chief Engineer and Maritime Lecturer & Trainer, Bangladesh. 22
  24. 24.  PVC can only be incinerated in type approved incinerators.  Flue gas temperatures shall be monitored and not less than 850 deg C for continuous feed and reach 600 deg C within 5 minutes for batch feed. Regulation 17 - Reception Facilities • Parties obliged to provide facilities without causing delay for: – Reception of ODS in ship repair yards (Reg.17.1.1) – Reception of Exhaust Gas Cleaning System residues (Reg.17.1.2) • Reception of ODS in ship breaking facilities (Reg.17.1.3) • If unable to provide reception facilities then Party shall inform IMO (Reg.17.2 & 17.3) Regulation 18 - Fuel Oil quality.  “Fuel oil shall be blends of hydrocarbons derived from petroleum refining”  “Fuel oil shall be free from inorganic acid”  “Fuel oil shall not include any added substance or chemical waste which either: ◦ Jeopardises the safety of ships or adversely affects the performance of the machinery, or ◦ Is harmful to personnel, or ◦ Contributes overall to additional air pollution” Bunker Delivery Note (BDN): - Becomes a Statutory document - Must be kept on board for 3 years for inspection and a copy may be taken for further examination by PSC. - Must contain all data required by Appendix V - Name and IMO number of vessel Port - Date of Commencement of delivery - Details of fuel oil supplier - Product name, quantity , Density at 15 0C and Sulphur content % m/m - A declaration that fuel supplied meets Regulation 14 and 18 requirements Fuel Oil Sampling - A sealed sample meeting the requirements in associated guidelines has to supplied to the ship by the bunker supplier - For each individual BDN a sample has to be taken at the vessel’s bunker receiving manifold. (see procedure in associated guidelines) – ISM Manuals. - The sample label has to be signed by both the bunker supplier’s representative and the vessel’s Chief Engineer. Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Chief Engineer and Maritime Lecturer & Trainer, Bangladesh. 23
  25. 25. - The sample size shall be not less than 400 mls - The sample is not to be used for any commercial purpose - The sample is to be retained on board for at least 1 year for inspection by PSC as required Shipboard Procedures for BDN and Samples  Adequate bunker manifold location for sampler attachment  External safe storage location for samples for 1 year period  Log book for sample retention and custody transfer  Safe storage for BDNs and other documents relating to bunkering onboard  Port/Flag State Control Guidelines  Proposed Guidelines from FSI 13 for MEPC 53 approval.  Initial inspections and Primary survey parameters – then “Clear Grounds” for in-depth inspections  “In depth” inspection parameters  Detainable deficiencies  Non-Party ship inspections Port/Flag State Control Guidelines Parties are required to: – inform the Party or non-Party under whose jurisdiction the BDN was issued in cases of delivery of non- compliant fuel oil (Reg.10.1) – ensure non-compliant fuel oil is brought into compliance (Reg.10.2) • For ships on scheduled services with frequent and regular port calls Administration can provide alternative procedure to retaining on board BDN (Reg.11) Enforcement – port State control • Resolution MEPC.181(59) adopted 17 July 2009 • Identifies key compliance issues: – Documentation - IAPP, EIAPP, BDN’s – Compliance with SOx limits – fuel record book/EGS – Compliance with engine limits for NOx – Compliance with ODS provisions – ODS record book – VOC management plan (if required) – Type approval certificate for incinerator Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Chief Engineer and Maritime Lecturer & Trainer, Bangladesh. 24
  26. 26. Certificates issued under MARPOL Annex VI International Air Pollution Prevention Certificate with supplement with details on the above 5 criteria Surveys: Initial, Annual, Annual /Intermediate, Intermediate/Annual, Annual & Renewal International Energy Efficiency certificate Shipboard Energy Efficiency Management Plan  Ships of 400 gross tons and above engaged in international voyages involving countries that have ratified the conventions, or ships flying the flag of those countries, are required to have an International Air Pollution Prevention Certificate (IAPP Certificate). The IAPP certificate will be issued following an initial survey carried out by the Flag Administration or by the Class (e.g. DNV, ClassNK) on behalf of the Flag Administration, confirming compliance with MARPOL Annex VI. For ships with the flag of an Administration that have not yet ratified Annex VI, a Certificate of Compliance with Annex VI issued by the Class.  Annex VI also requires diesel engines (as described above) to carry individual certificates with regard to NOx emissions, named Engine International Air Pollution Prevention (EIAPP) Certificates. Annex VI requires that every ship of 400 gross tonnage or above and every fixed and floating drilling rig and other platforms shall be subject to the surveys. Surveys: - An initial survey before the ship is put into service or before the IAPP Certificate is issued for the first time. - Periodical surveys at intervals specified by the Administration, but not exceeding five years. - A minimum of one intermediate survey during the period of validity of the certificate. - Renewal survey to revalidate the certificates before expiry. In the case of ships of less than 400 gross tons, the Administration may establish appropriate measures in order to ensure that Annex VI is complied with. Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Chief Engineer and Maritime Lecturer & Trainer, Bangladesh. 25
  27. 27. Any Question? Thank you! Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Chief Engineer and Maritime Lecturer & Trainer, Bangladesh. 26

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