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Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
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Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements

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Fire Protection, Fire Detection & Fire Extinguishing and SOLAS Requirements by Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh.

Fire Protection, Fire Detection & Fire Extinguishing and SOLAS Requirements by Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh.

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  • 1. Fire Protection, Fire Detection and Fire Extinguishing Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 2. FIRE WHAT IS FIRE?  Fire is a chemical process, which involves burning of any substance (combustion).  The combustible material that burns with the help of oxygen result in the production of heat & light, is called FIRE 4/7/2014 2 Fire is not always harmful but only when it goes out of control. Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 3. FIRE HAZARDS / SOURCES • Short Circuits (faulty electrical wires and switchboards) • Naked Lights • Explosive and fire works • Unmindful Smoking • Radiation • Mechanical heat & spark • Spontaneous combustion 4/7/2014 3 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 4. 4/7/2014 4 • Mechanical sparks from grinding, chipping or welding friction or funnel sparks are low- energy sparks which may start a smoldering fire • Electric sparks, sparks from electrostatic discharge and high energy mechanical sparks may ignite flammable vapors • Electric arc welding Sparks • Hotplates • Heating pipes • Exhaust manifolds • Faulty machinery • Electric light bulbs Hot surfaces • Smoking materials • Oil-fired boilers • Incinerators • Hot work such as flame cutting and gas welding. Flames or smoldering sources ExamplesType of Sources Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 5. 4/7/2014 5 • Substances liable to self-heat (usually due to oxidation) • Fibrous material soaked in organic oils such as vegetable oils, the oils used in paints or hydraulic oils. • Rotting vegetable matter • Chemicals or organic materials contaminated with an oxidizing agent such as sewage treatment tablets • Mineral oils and carbonaceous materials are liable to self heating if external heating is applied first • Metal dwarf – especially if contaminated with oil and rags Spontaneous combustion • Overloaded wiring or equipment with a short circuit or a short to earthElectrical overheating Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 6. 4/7/2014 6 TYPES OF FIRES As of new definitions of IMO, May 2007, there are 6 types of fire onboard ships: Class A: Fires that involve flammable solids such as wood, cloth,paper and some plastics. Class B: Fires that involve flammable liquids or liquifiable solids such as petrol, oil, paint and some waxes and plastics (BUT NOT cooking fats or oils). Class C: Fires that involve flammable gases such as methane propane hydrogen Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 7. 4/7/2014 7 Class D: Fires that involve combustible metals such as sodium, magnesium, and potassium. Class E: Fires that involve any of the materials found in Class A and B fires: BUT ALSO with the introduction of an electrical appliances, wiring, or other electrically energized objects in the vicinity of the fire, with a resultant electrical shock risk if a conductivity agent is used to control the fire. Class F: Fires involving cooking fats and oils. The high temperature of the oils when on fire far exceeds that of other flammable liquids making normal extinguishing agents ineffective Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 8. 4/7/2014 8 FIRE TRIANGLE To understand how fire extinguishers work, you need to understand a little about fire. Fire is a very rapid chemical reaction between oxygen and a combustible material, which results in the release of heat, light, flames, and smoke. 8 HEAT/ENERGY Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 9. 4/7/2014 9 FIRE TRIANGLE For fire to exist, the following four elements must be present at the same time:  Enough oxygen to sustain combustion,  Enough heat to raise the material to its ignition temperature,  Some sort of fuel or combustible material, and  The chemical reaction (FIRE) 9 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 10. 10 The components of the fire tetrahedron: fuel, heat, oxygen and chemical chain reaction 4/7/2014 10 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 11. 11 Don’t Make a Fire Triangle! Understanding the three sides of the fire triangle, and being able to recognize them in everyday situation is the key to fire prevention. FUELFUEL Remember: Where there is fuel and air keep heat away  Where there is air and heat keep fuel away  Where there is heat and fuel keep air away NEVER COMPLETE THE FIRE TRIANGLE ! 114/7/2014 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 12. 4/7/2014 12 FIRE SPREAD Fire spreads by • CONDUCTION: transfer of heat through solid body. • CONVECTION: through the motion of heated matter, i.e. through the motion of smoke, air, gases etc. produced by fire. • RADIATION: heat radiation is the transfer of heat from a source without a material substance being involved. 12 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 13. Conduction  Transfer of heat through a solid body such as metals as a very good conductor of heat.  Since most ships are constructed by metal, heat transfer by conduction is a potential hazard.  Fire can easily move from one compartment to another, one deck to another, and one compartment to another because of heat conduction.  Heat is being conducted to the adjoining spaces by the metal deck and bulkhead, then the bulkhead paint is blistering (extremely hot) because vapourization has already begun. 4/7/2014 13 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 14. 14 CONDUCTION An example of conduction: The temperature along the rod rises because of the increased movement of molecules from the heat of the flame. 144/7/2014 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 15. 4/7/2014 15 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 16. Radiation  Heat radiation is the transfer of heat from a source across the space or travels outward from the fire in the same manner as light in straight lines to produce vapour and then igniting the vspour.  When contacts a body, it is absorbed, reflected or transmitted. Absorbed heat increases the temperature of the absorbing body.  Heat radiates in all directions unless it is obstructed 4/7/2014 16 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 17. 17 Radiation: The transmission of energy as an electromagnetic wave without an intervening medium. 4/7/2014 17 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 18. 4/7/2014 18 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 19. Convection  The transfer or carries of heat through a liquid or gaseous body such as movement of smoke, hot air and heated gases produced by fire.  The replacement of hot and cool air to that particular point resulting in reheated and raised the temperature thus create a fire 4/7/2014 19 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 20. 20 CONVECTION Convection: The transfer of the heat energy by the movement of heated liquids or gases. 204/7/2014 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 21. 4/7/2014 21 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 22. Fire hazards in engine room  Combustible liquids – FO, DO, LO  Oil leaks & oil soaked insulation  Hot surfaces – exhaust pipes, engine parts overheating  Defects in lagging  Hot work – welding, cutting, oxy acetylene  Auto ignition – oil dripping on hot surface auto- ignition, e.g. oil dripping on hot surface 4/7/2014 22 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 23. Fire hazards in galley  Combustible liquids – cooking oil, hot fat  Hot surfaces - ovens, frying pans, flues  Defective electrical connections 4/7/2014 23 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 24. Fire hazards in accommodation  Combustible materials - furnishing, personal effects  Matches and cigarette smoking  Defective or overloaded electrical systems 4/7/2014 24 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 25. Fire hazards from cargoes  Self-heating cargo & spontaneous combustion  Oxidizing cargoes and organic peroxides  Compressed flammable gas  Pyrophoric cargoes  flammable liquids and solids  substances liable to react with  Themselves  Water  Other cargoes  Materials of the ship  Explosives 4/7/2014 25 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 26. Four phases of fire development  Ignition (incipient)  Developing (surfaces fire)  Absolute fire (fire in depth in solids)  Burning out To consider;  Temperature of normal fire such as coal, wood or hydrocarbon fires, and the temperature in burning metals  Effect of temperature rise on the rate of the chain reaction - fire intensity 4/7/2014 26 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 27. 4/7/2014 27 FIRE DETECTION Fire detection systems are compulsory in ships which have periodically unattended machinery spaces. A fire detection system consists of the following elements: Human observation Manual fire alarms Automatic Fire detectors-smoke, flame,heat (gas, H2S) Combinations of the above Fire detection system requirements are detailed in SOLAS CHAPTER II-2 Human observation relies on the human senses: Sight Sound Smell Taste Touch Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 28. 4/7/2014 28 METHOD OF FIRE DETECTION: Sight- Infra red flame detectors, sensing flicker patterns, smoke detectors using light sources in “go” or “no go” light transmission and reception. Sound-not really yet! Smell and Taste- combustion products entering an ionized chamber. Touch- Heat detectors, including absolute temperature and rate of rise temperatures. Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 29. AUTOMATIC FIRE DETECTION SYSTEMS Automatic fire detection systems, when combined with other elements of an emergency response and evacuation plan, can significantly reduce property damage, personal injuries, and loss of life from fire in the workplace. Their main function is to quickly identify a developing fire and alert building/Office occupants and emergency response personnel before extensive damage occurs. Automatic fire detection systems do this by using electronic sensors to detect the smoke, heat, or flames from a fire and providing an early warning. 4/7/2014 29 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 30. Manual Fire Detection - Pull Stations 4/7/2014 30 Manual fire detection is the oldest method of detection. In the simplest form, a person yelling can provide fire warning. Onboard a ship, however, a person's voice may not always transmit throughout the structure and machinery sound. For this reason, manual alarm stations are installed. The general design philosophy is to place stations within reach along paths of escape. It is for this reason that they can usually be found near exit doors in corridors and large rooms. The advantage of manual alarm stations is that, upon discovering the fire, they provide occupants with a readily identifiable means to activate the building fire alarm system. The alarm system can then serve in lieu of the shouting person's voice. They are simple devices, and can be highly reliable when the building is occupied. The key disadvantage of manual stations is that they will not work when the building is unoccupied. They may also be used for malicious alarm activations. Nonetheless, they are an important component in any fire alarm system. A manually operated device used to initiate an alarm signal. Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 31. Automatic Detectors – Spot type 4/7/2014 31 Spot Type Detector. A device in which the detecting Element is concentrated at a particular location. Typical examples are Bimetallic detectors, fusible alloy detectors, certain pneumatic rate-of-rise Detectors, certain smoke detectors, and thermoelectric detectors. Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 32. Automatic Detectors – Photoelectric 4/7/2014 32 Light Scattering Smoke Detection. The principle of using a light source and a photosensitive sensor arranged so that the rays from the light source do not normally fall onto the photosensitive sensor. When smoke particles enter the light path, some of the light is scattered by reflection and refraction onto the sensor. The light signal is processed and used to convey an alarm condition when it meets preset criteria. Hochiki SLR-24V detector Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 33. Automatic Detectors – Ionization 4/7/2014 33 Ionization smoke detectors use an ionization chamber and a source of ionizing radiation to detect smoke. This type of smoke detector is more common because it is inexpensive and better at detecting the smaller amounts of smoke produced by flaming fires. Inside the ionization detector is a small amount (perhaps 1/5000th of a gram) of Americium-241. The radioactive element americium has a half-life of 432 years, and is a good source of alpha particles. An ionization chamber is very simple. It consists of two plates with a voltage across them, along with a radioactive source of ionizing radiation. Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 34. Ionization Smoke detector Ionization Smoke Detection. The principle of using a small amount of radioactive material to ionize the air between two differentially charged electrodes to sense the presence of smoke particles. Smoke Particles entering the ionization volume decrease the conductance of the air by reducing ion mobility. The reduced conductance signal is processed and used to convey an alarm condition when it meets preset criteria. 4/7/2014 34 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 35. Automatic Detectors – Ionization 4/7/2014 35 Ionization Smoke detectors The alpha particles generated by the americium have the following property: They ionize the oxygen and nitrogen atoms of the air in the chamber. To "ionize" means to "knock an electron off of." When you knock an electron off of an atom, you end up with a free electron (with a negative charge) and an atom missing one electron (with a positive charge). The negative electron is attracted to the plate with a positive voltage, and the positive atom is attracted to the plate with a negative voltage (opposites attract, just like with magnets). The electronics in the smoke detector sense the small amount of electrical current that these electrons and ions moving toward the plates represent. Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 36. Ionization Smoke detectors When smoke enters the ionization chamber, it disrupts this current -- the smoke particles attach to the ions and neutralize them. The smoke detector senses the drop in current between the plates and sets off the horn. 4/7/2014 36 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 37. Smoke Detectors Ionization Detectors The ionization detector contains a small radioactive source that is used to charge the air inside a small chamber. The charged air allows a small current to cross through the chamber and complete an electrical circuit. When smoke enters the chamber, it shields the radiation, which stops the current and triggers an alarm. These detectors respond quickly to very small smoke particles (even those invisible to the naked eye) from flaming or very hot fires, but may respond very slowly to the dense smoke associated with smoldering or low-temperature fires. 4/7/2014 37 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 38. Smoke Detectors  Photoelectric Detectors In a photoelectric smoke detector, a light source and light sensor are arranged so that the rays from the light source do not hit the light sensor. When smoke particles enter the light path, some of the light is scattered and redirected onto the sensor, causing the detector to activate an alarm. These detectors react quickly to visible smoke particles from smoldering fires, but are less sensitive to the smaller particles associated with flaming or very hot fires. 4/7/2014 38 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 39. 4/7/2014 39 Smoke detectors must not operate below 2% obscuration per metre, but must activate before 12.5% obscuration. Heat detectors must not operate below 540C but must operate before 780C. However, in certain cases the heat detector limits may be increased by 300C Type AREA ( MAX) DISTANCE APART Distance From Bulkhead HEAT 37m2 9m 4.5m SMOKE 74m2 11m 5.5m Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 40. 4/7/2014 40 Smoke and heat detectors must also be sited to avoid stratification: that is the detector must not be blanketed by layers of hot air. Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 41. 4/7/2014 41 In this case, the increasing convection air currents have created a flow of combustion products across the detectors. Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 42. 4/7/2014 42 As shown, detector heads must be positioned to allow easy passage of combustion products in all fire scenarios Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 43. Automatic Detectors – Heat/Thermal 4/7/2014 43 Heat Detector. A fire detector that detects either abnormally high temperature, or rate of temperature rise, or both. Heat detectors are the oldest type of automatic fire detection device. They began development of automatic sprinklers in the 1860s and have continued to the present with proliferation of various types of devices. Heat detectors that only initiate an alarm and have no extinguishing function are still in use. Although they have the lowest false alarm rate of all automatic fire detector devices, they also are the slowest in fire detecting. A heat detector is best situated for fire detection in a small confined space where rapidly building high- output fires are expected, in areas where ambient conditions would not allow the use of other fire detection devices, or when speed of detection is not a prime consideration. Heat detectors are generally located on or near the ceiling and respond to the convected thermal energy of a fire. They respond either when the detecting element reaches a predetermined fixed temperature or to a specified rate of temperature change. In general, heat detectors are designed to operate when heat causes a prescribed change in a physical or electrical property of a material or gas. Heat detectors can be sub-divided by their operating principles:Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 44. Automatic Detectors – Fixed Temp. 4/7/2014 44 Fixed-Temperature Detector. A device that responds when its operating element becomes heated to a predetermined level. Fixed-temperature heat detectors are designed to alarm when the temperature of the operating elements reaches a specific point. The air temperature at the time of alarm is usually considerably higher than the rated temperature because it takes time for the air to raise the temperature of the operating element to its set point. This condition is called thermal lag. Fixed-temperature heat detectors are available to cover a wide range of operating temperatures - from about 135'F (57'C) and higher. Higher temperatures detectors are also necessary so that detection can be provided in areas normally subject to high ambient temperatures, or in areas zoned so that only detectors in the immediate fire area operate. Heat Detector Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 45. 4/7/2014 45 HEAT DETECTION BI METALLIC STRIP Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 46. Heat Detectors Heat detectors are normally used in dirty environments or where dense smoke is produced. Heat detectors may be less sensitive, but are more appropriate than a smoke detector in these environments. The most common heat detectors either react to a broad temperature change or a predetermined fixed temperature. 4/7/2014 46 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 47. Heat Detectors Heat detectors use a set of temperature-sensitive resistors called thermistors that decrease in resistance as the temperature rises. One thermistor is sealed and protected from the surrounding temperature while the other is exposed. A sharp increase in temperature reduces the resistance in the exposed thermistor, which allows a large current to activate the detector's alarm. 4/7/2014 47 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 48. Automatic Detectors – Rate-of-Rise 4/7/2014 48 Rate-of-Rise Detector. A device that responds when the temperature rises at a rate exceeding a predetermined value One effect that flaming fire has on the surrounding area is to rapidly increase air temperature in the space above the fire. Fixed- temperature heat detectors will not initiate an alarm until the air temperature near the ceiling exceeds the design operating point. The rate-of-rise detector, however, will function when the rate of temperature increase exceeds a predetermined value, typically around 12 to 15'F (7 to 8'C) per minute. Rate-of-rise detectors are designed to compensate for the normal changes in ambient temperature that are expected under non-fire conditions. Hochiki DSC-EA Heat Detector Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 49. 4/7/2014 49 HEAT DETECTION RATE OF RISE: TWO BI METALLIC STRIPS Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 50. Automatic Detectors – Combination 4/7/2014 50 Combination Detector. A device that either responds to more than one of the fire phenomena or employs more than one operating principle to sense one of these phenomena. Typical examples are a combination of a heat detector with a smoke detector or a combination of rate-of-rise and fixed temperature heat detector. This device has listings for each sensing method employed. Combination detectors contain more than one element which responds to fire. These detectors may be designed to respond from either element, or from the combined partial or complete response of both elements. An example of the former is a heat detector that operates on both the rate-of-raise and fixed-temperature principles. Its advantage is that the rate-of-rise element will respond quickly to rapidly developing fire, while the fixed- temperature element will respond to a slowly developing fire when the detecting element reaches its set point temperature. The most common combination detector uses a vented air chamber and a flexible diaphragm for the rate-of-rise function, while the fixed-temperature element is usually leaf-spring restrained by a eutectic metal. When the fixed-temperature element reaches its designated operating temperature, the eutectic metal fuses and releases the spring, which closes the contact. Hochiki DCD Series Fixed Temp/Rate of Rise Heat Detector Hochiki Photoelectric/Heat Smoke Detector Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 51. Automatic Detectors – Flame 4/7/2014 51 Flame Detector. A radiant energy-sensing detector that detects the radiant energy emitted by a flame. Radiant Energy-Sensing Fire Detector. A device that detects radiant energy, such as ultraviolet, visible, or infrared, that is emitted as a product of combustion reaction and obeys the laws of optics. A flame detector responds either to radiant energy visible to the human eye (approx. 4000 to 7700 A) or outside the range of human vision. Similar to the human eye, flame detectors have a 'cone of vision', or viewing angle, that defines the effective detection capability of the detector. With this constraint, the sensitivity increases as the angle of incidence decreases. Such a detector is sensitive to glowing embers, coals, or flames which radiate energy of sufficient intensity and spectral quality to actuate the alarm. Each type of fuel, when burning, produces a flame with specific radiation characteristics. A flame detection system must be chosen for the type of fire that is probable. For example an ultraviolet (UV) detector will respond to a hydrogen fire, but an infrared (IR) detector operating in the 4.4 micron sensitivity range will not. It is imperative therefore; that a qualified fire protection engineer is involved in the design of these systems, along with assistance from the manufacturer's design staff. Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 52. Automatic Detectors – Flame 4/7/2014 52 Due to their fast detection capabilities, flame detectors are generally used only in high-hazard areas, such as fuel-loading platforms, industrial process areas, hyperbaric chambers, high-ceiling areas, and atmospheres in which explosions or very rapid fires may occur. Because flame detectors must be able to 'see' the fire, they must not be blocked by objects placed in front of them. The infrared-type detector, however, has some capability for detecting radiation reflected from walls. Hochiki HF-24 Flame Detector Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 53. Flame Detectors Flame detectors are line- of-sight devices that look for specific types of light (infrared, visible, ultraviolet) emitted by flames during combustion. When the detector recognizes this light from a fire, it sends a signal to activate an alarm. 4/7/2014 53 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 54. 4/7/2014 54 INFRA RED DETECTOR Detects radiation in a particular narrow band –”flame flicker” Can be confused by flickering lights, hence built in time delay. Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 55. 4/7/2014 55 This detector senses the ultra violet spectrum of a flame and is less sensitive to false alarms. Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 56. Automatic Detectors – Linear Type 4/7/2014 56 Line-Type Detector. A device in which detection is continuous along a path. Typical examples are rate-of-rise pneumatic tubing detectors, projected beam smoke detectors, and heat sensitive cable. Projected Beam-Type Detector. A type of photoelectric light obscuration smoke detector wherein the beam spans the protected area. Photoelectric Light Obscuration Detection. The principle of using a light source and a photosensitive sensor onto which the principal portion of the source emission is focused. When smoke particles enter the light path, some of the light is scattered and some of the light is absorbed, thereby reducing the light reaching the receiving sensor. The light reduction signal is processed and used to convey an alarm condition when it meets preset criteria. Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 57. Automatic Detectors – Air Sampling 4/7/2014 57 Air Sampling-Type Detector. A detector that consists of a piping or tubing distribution network that runs from the detector to the area(s) to be protected. An aspiration fan in the detector draws air form the protected area back to the detector through air sampling ports, piping, or tubing. At the detector, the air is analyzed for fire products. Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 58. Installation For fire detection devices to give a prompt warning of a fire, they must be appropriate for the location you want to protect .  Detector selection Fire detectors should be selected based on the burning characteristics of the materials present and the nature of location they will be used to protect. 4/7/2014 58 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 59. Detector selection 1 Smoke detectors Ionization or photoelectric smoke detectors are designed to identify a fire during its smoldering or early flame stages and will meet the needs of most areas containing primarily wood, paper, fabric, and plastic materials. During combustion, these materials produce a mixture of smoke types with detectable levels of both large and small smoke particles. Smoke detectors are suitable for:  Indoor areas with low ceilings such as offices, closets, and restrooms.  Areas that are relatively clean with minimal amounts of dust and dirt.  Areas that contain solid fuels like wood, paper, fabric, and plastic materials. 4/7/2014 59 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 60. Detector selection 2 Heat detectors Heat detectors are ideal for areas where flammable gasses and liquids are handled or any area where a fire will quickly cause a large change in the surrounding temperature. Heat detectors are also suitable for:  Dirty, dusty or smoky environments.  Indoor areas without winds or drafts that can prevent heat from reaching the detector.  Manufacturing areas where large quantities of vapors, gases, or fumes may be present.  Areas where particles of combustion are normally present, such as in kitchens, furnace rooms, utility rooms, and garages or where ovens, burners or vehicle exhaust gases are present.4/7/2014 60 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 61. Detector selection 3 Flame detectors Flame detectors are best for protecting:  Areas with high ceilings and open-spaces, such as warehouses and auditoriums.  Outdoor or semi-enclosed areas, where winds or draughts can prevent smoke from reaching a heat or smoke detector.  Areas where rapidly developing flaming fires can occur, such as petrochemical production, fuel storage areas, paint shops, and solvent areas.  Environments that are unsuitable for other types of detectors. 4/7/2014 61 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 62. General guidelines for placing fire detectors  Put at least one detector in each room, storage area, and hallway. You may need more than one detector per room for those that exceed the manufacturer's spacing requirements. For example, if your detector is rated for 30 feet, install detectors so they are evenly spaced with no more then 30 feet between detectors.  Place the detector as close to the center of the ceiling as possible when only one detector is required in a room or space. Put at least one detector in each closet, elevator and other enclosed spaces.  Place a detector at the top of each flight of stairs. 4/7/2014 62 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 63. Placing Fire Detectors  Place the detectors in the path of the air flow toward the return air duct when air supply or return ducts are present in a room or space.  Place all smoke detectors at least three feet from ceiling fans. 4/7/2014 63 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 64. Maintenance and testing Over time, dust, dirt, and other foreign material can build up inside a detector’s sensing elements, resulting in reduced sensitivity, which can limit the amount of warning time given during a fire. Dirty or dusty detectors can also result in unwanted alarms that can desensitize occupants to the alarm system or produce more serious behavior (such as disconnecting the system altogether). To avoid malfunctions and unwanted alarms and to make sure your fire detection system will perform as expected in the event of a fire, you are required to:  Operate and maintain your system in a working condition, making sure it is always turned on, except during repairs or maintenance. 4/7/2014 64 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 65. Maintenance and testing  Test and adjust fire detectors and fire detection systems often to ensure that they operate correctly and maintain reliability. Detectors found to be unreliable and/or with reduced sensitivity must be replaced or cleaned and recalibrated.  Have a qualified person service, maintain and test all fire detection systems, including cleaning and necessary sensitivity adjustments.  Have fire detectors cleaned on a regular basis as necessary to assure their proper operation. 4/7/2014 65 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 66. Maintenance and testing All fire detection equipment must be returned to normal operation as soon as possible after being tested, used, or accidentally activated. `Note: You are also required to have spare detection devices and components readily available in the workplace or from a local supplier to ensure prompt restoration of the system. 4/7/2014 66 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 67. 4/7/2014 67 TESTING A SMOKE DETECTOR Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 68. Notification/ Alarming Appliances 4/7/2014 68 Notification/ Alarming Appliance. A fire alarm system component such as a bell, horn, speaker, light or text display that provides audible, tactile, or visible outputs, or any combination thereof. Audible Alarming Appliance. A notification appliance that alerts by the sense of hearing. Visible Alarming Appliance. A notification appliance that alerts by the sense of sight. Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 69. Fire Alarm Circuit Classes 4/7/2014 69 Class. Initiating device circuits, notification appliance circuits, and signaling line circuits shall be permitted to be designated as either Class A or Class B, depending on their performance during nonsimultaneous single circuit fault conditions as specified by the following: (1) Initiating device circuits and signaling line circuits that transmit an alarm or supervisory signal, or notification appliance circuits that allow all connected devices to operate during a single open or a nonsimultaneous single ground fault on any circuit conductor, shall be designated as Class A. (2) Initiating device circuits and signaling line circuits that do not transmit an alarm or supervisory signal, or notification appliance circuits that do not allow all connected devices to operate beyond the location of a single open on any circuit conductor, shall be designated as Class B. An open or ground fault condition shall result in the annunciation of a trouble signal at the protected premise within 200 seconds as required in 4.4.7 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 70. Class B Initiating Device Circuit 4.7K EOLR 4.7K EOLR Class B Notification Appliance Circuit Class B Circuits 4/7/2014 70 End of line supervision resistors are required to supervise the integrity of the loop.Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 71. Single open circuit condition causes a trouble on the panel and renders all devices beyond the fault inoperative. Class B Initiating Device Circuit 4.7K EOLR 4.7K EOLR Class B Notification Appliance Circuit Class B Circuits 4/7/2014 71 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 72. Class A Initiating Device Circuit Class A Notification Appliance Circuit Class A Circuits 4/7/2014 72 End of line supervision resistors are not necessary as the loop returns to the panel and is driven from both ends.Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 73. Class A Initiating Device Circuit Class A Notification Appliance Circuit Class A Circuits 4/7/2014 73 Single open circuit condition causes a trouble on the panel. All devices on the loop remain operative. Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 74. Analog Addressable Sensor - An initiating device that transmits a signal indicating varying dAddressable Device - A fire alarm system component with discreet identification that can have its status individually identified or that is used to individually control other functions. egrees of condition as contrasted with a conventional or addressable initiating device, which can only indicate an off/on condition. Signaling Line Circuit (SLC) - A circuit or path between any combination of circuit interfaces, control units, or transmitters over which multiple system input signals or out put signals or both are carried. SLC Interface - A system component that connects a signaling line circuit to any combination of initiating devices, initiating device circuits, notification appliances, notification appliance circuits, system control outputs and other signaling line circuits. Protocol - A language for communicating between control panels and their proprietary devices. Additional Fire Alarm Terminology 4/7/2014 74 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 75.  Conventional control panels range in size from 1 zone to over 100 zones.  Zones typically consist of some or all of the initiating devices in an area or floor of a building.  Some control panels zone capacity is expandable while others are not, limiting its usefulness if a facility adds additional buildings or rooms. Comparing System Types To better understand today’s newer technology, a firm understanding of the types of systems available is necessary. The three most popular types of systems installed today are: •Conventional •Addressable •Analog Addressable Conventional Systems 4/7/2014 75 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 76. Conventional Systems 4/7/2014 76 Zone 1 4.7K EOLR Zone 2 FIREFIRE SILENT KNIGHT FIREFIRE SILENT KNIGHT FIREFIRE SILENT KNIGHT FIREFIRE SILENT KNIGHT FIREFIRE SILENT KNIGHT FACP NAC 1 Multiple devices are combined into a single zone. Zones can contain 30 or more devices. 4.7K EOLR Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 77. Conventional Systems 4/7/2014 77 Care must be taken when laying out zones to comply with code requirements. Zone 1 4.7K EOLR Zone 2 FIREFIRE SILENT KNIGHT NAC 1 4.7K EOLR Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 78. Conventional Systems 4/7/2014 78 Wiring must be installed in a supervised manner either Class A, or Class B with an EOLR. Zone #1 4.7K EOLR 4.7K EOLR Zone #2 NAC #1 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 79. Conventional Systems 4/7/2014 79 Alarm conditions are annunciated by zone only. Inspection is required to determine the device. Zone #1 4.7K EOLR 4.7K EOLR Zone #2 NAC #1 FIRE! Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 80. Conventional Systems 4/7/2014 80 Trouble conditions are annunciated by zone only. Inspection is required to determine the cause. 4.7K EOLR Zone #1 4.7K EOLR 4.7K EOLR Zone #2 NAC #1 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 81. 4/7/2014 81 A simplified view of the layout of a fire detection system, featuring normal/emergency power supply, UPS,Loop,Zone Indicators, Alarms, Test switch and Fire Zones. Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 82. 4/7/2014 82 CABLE LAYOUT LOOP and LINE monitoring LOOP MONITORING The continuity of the cable is checked by both circuits a-d and b-c. In the event of either cable failing due to damage the an alarm sounds. Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 83. 4/7/2014 83 CABLE LAYOUT LOOP MONITORING Failure modes-damage causes open or short circuit on cables. Short circuit, no discrimination between faults and FIRE activation. Open circuit, fault alarm on one wire Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 84. 4/7/2014 84 CABLE LAYOUT LOOP MONITORING In each case faults must be examined immediately Whilst the fault condition exists subsequent fire detection is inhibited Easier for accurate fault detection, discriminates between fault and fire but more expensive. Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 85. 4/7/2014 85 Line monitoring: Damage to loop Short circuit shuts down the system and gives Fire alarm. Open circuit raises fault indication Less reliable, harder to pinpoint faults but cheaper. Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 86. C/E HANIF DEWAN 864/7/2014 86 FIRE EXTINGUISHING METHODS Method of Extinguishing Fire: • Starvation: Removing or Limiting fuel •Smothering: Removing or Limiting Oxygen (Air) •Cooling: Limiting or Decreasing Heat/Temperature •Inhibition: Stopping/Breaking chemical reaction which is building up heat and rise in temperature (Exothermic Reaction) Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 87. C/E HANIF DEWAN 874/7/2014 87 Fire Extinguishing Agents • COOLING: WATER •SMOTHERING: FOAM, CARBON DIOXIDE, SAND, FIRE BLANKET •FLAME INHIBATORS: DRY CHEMICAL POWDER (MONO-AMMONIUM PHOSPHATE), HALON Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 88. 4/7/2014 88 FIRE FIGHTING SYSTEMS All fire fighting systems are used to either: Remove Heat Remove Oxygen Remove fuel or CHAINBREAK-stop the chemical reaction Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 89. 4/7/2014 89 FIRE FIGHTING SYSTEMS Water acts by:- Removing heat as it turns to steam. Blanketing (excluding oxygen) when it turns to steam. Water can only be used safely on fires of class ‘A’ and ‘C’ and to boundary cool to stop the spread of fire. Water is electrically conductive therefore cannot be used on class ‘E’ fires. The use of water on board ship may be limited by stability criteria (free surface effect). Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 90. 4/7/2014 90 FIRE MAIN A sea water supply system to fire hydrants is fitted to every ship. Several pumps in the engine room will be arranged to supply the system, their number and capacity being dictated by legislation (MCA for UK registered vessels as well as LLOYDS RULES) An emergency fire pump will also be located remote from the machinery space and with independent means of power. A system of hydrant outlets, each with an isolating valve, located around the ship, and hoses with appropriate snap-in connectors are strategically located together with nozzles. Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 91. 4/7/2014 91 FIRE MAIN (Cont’d) These nozzles are usually of the jet/spray type providing either type of discharge as required. All the working areas of the ship are thus covered, and a constant supply of seawater can be brought to bear at any point to fight a fire. While sea water is best used as a cooling agent in fighting Class A fires it is possible, if all else fails, to use it to fight Class B fires. The jet/spray nozzle would be adjusted to provide a fine water spray which could be played over the fire to cool it without spreading. An international shore connection is always carried on board ship. This is a standard size flange which is fitted with a coupling suitable for the ship's hoses. Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 92. 4/7/2014 92 FIREMAIN LAYOUT Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 93. 4/7/2014 93 INTERNATIONAL SHORE CONNECTION Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 94. 4/7/2014 94 INTERNATIONAL SHORE CONNECTION Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 95. 4/7/2014 95 The fire main has a number of dedicated fire pumps: - Main fire pumps, located in the main machinery spaces. - Emergency fire pumps remotely located and independently powered. - In addition, isolation valves are fitted so that the main fire pumps and emergency fire pumps can independently pressurise the fire main. - Further isolation valves so that the accommodation and main deck can be pressurised independently. Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 96. 4/7/2014 96 Certain areas, such as the paint locker are protected by manually operated spray systems, supplied by the Fire main. Tankers on specific operations, which may involve high sulphur fuel, can be equipped with water drencher systems to cover the accommodation and protect it from hydrocarbon gas or H2S releases Other specalised vessels provide manual water curtains at lifeboat embarkation points. Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 97. 4/7/2014 97 Automatic FRESH water spray The automatic spray or sprinkler system provides a network of sprinkler heads throughout the protected spaces. This system may be used in accommodation areas, and in machinery spaces with certain variations in the equipment used and the method of operation. The accommodation areas are fitted with sprinkler heads which both detect and extinguish fires. Sprinkler head is closed by a quartzoid bulb which contains a liquid that expands considerably on heating. When excessively heated the liquid expands, shatters the bulb and water will issue from the sprinkler head. A deflector plate on the sprinkler head causes the water to spray out over a large area. Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 98. Automatic Fire Sprinklers Fire sprinklers are most effective during the fire's initial flame growth stage. A properly selected sprinkler will detect the fire's heat, initiate alarm and begin suppression within moments after flames appear. In most instances sprinklers will control fire advancement within a few minutes of their activation. This will in turn result in significantly less damage than otherwise would happen without sprinklers. 4/7/2014 98 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 99. Automatic Fire Sprinklers Sprinkler systems offer several benefits to building owners, operators, and occupants. These benefits include:  Immediate identification and control of a developing fire.  Immediate alert.  Reduced heat and smoke damage.  Enhanced life safety.  Design flexibility.  Enhanced Security. 4/7/2014 99 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 100. Automatic Fire Sprinklers  For most fires, water represents the ideal extinguishing agent. Fire sprinklers utilize water by direct application onto flames and heat. This action cools the combustion process and prevents ignition of adjacent combustibles.  Sprinkler systems are essentially a series of water pipes which are supplied by a reliable water supply. At selected intervals along these pipes are independent, heat activated valves known as sprinkler heads. It is the sprinkler which is responsible for water distribution onto the fire. Most sprinkler systems also include an alarm to alert occupants and emergency forces when sprinkler activation (fire) occurs. 4/7/2014 100 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 101. Automatic Fire Sprinklers During the incipient fire stage, heat output is relatively low and unable to cause sprinkler operation. As the fire intensity increases, however, the sprinkler's sensing elements become exposed to elevated temperatures (typically in excess of 135-225°F/57-107°C)and they begin to deform. Assuming temperatures remain high, as they would during an increasing fire, the element will fatigue after an approximate 30 second to 4 minute period. This will release the sprinkler's seals allowing water to discharge onto the fire. In most situations less than 2 sprinklers are needed to suppress the fire. In fast growing fire scenarios such as a flammable liquid spill, up to 12 sprinklers may be required for control. 4/7/2014 101 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 102. 4/7/2014 102 HEAD is pressurised by Fresh water BULB keeps valve closed. Heat causes alcohol inside bulb to expand, shatter bulb and water flows. Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 103. 4/7/2014 103 FRESHWATER SPRINKLER SYSTEM Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 104. 4/7/2014 104 SPRINKLER HEADS The different colours denote different operating temperatures, but the alcohol is the same, only the size of the air bubble changes. Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 105. Standard Sprinkler Head Styles 4/7/2014 105 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 106. Automatic Fire Sprinkler System 4/7/2014 106 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 107. Automatic Fire Sprinkler System 4/7/2014 107 Fire Pump & Jockey Pump Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 108. Automatic Fire Sprinklers 4/7/2014 108 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 109. 4/7/2014 109 Typical low pressure sprinkler system NOT HIGH FOG Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 110. 4/7/2014 110 EXPANSION Supply for up to 200 sprinkler heads Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 111. 4/7/2014 111 HIGH FOG Cool and smother, using the latent heat properties of water to cool, and expansion into steam to temporarily remove oxygen. Devised by Marioff, from an initial requirement by the Belgian air force, Marioff converted a hydraulic system of 200 bar pressure to water in 1974. Development then followed on head technology, and pressures have reduced drastically. The following slide shows a “GL” approved hi fog system currently fitted to new build container ships. A single stage low pressure centrifugal pump, with a screw inducer fitted in the eye takes suction direct from the domestic fresh water tank. Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 112. 4/7/2014 112 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 113. 4/7/2014 113 The detail shown right, features the pump taking suction from the fresh water tank. The system is manually operated locally or remotely. Pump is fed via EMS. All operations are controlled by one panel, opening valves and starting pump. Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 114. 4/7/2014 114 Hi Fog droplets are extremely small, increased surface area causes them to flash into steam, latent heat is absorbed, steam generated displaces oxygen. FOG SPRINKLER- DROPLETS Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 115. 4/7/2014 115 SMOTHERING Removal of Oxygen FOAM Simple foam installation,with seawater mixing with foam compound(usually protein). Not much to go wrong! Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 116. 4/7/2014 116 A simple CO2 driven foam system Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 117. 4/7/2014 117 Exact metering of foam compounds and water. Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 118. 4/7/2014 118 Types of foam available for marine use: 1. Protein base ( PF) 2. Flouro protein foam (FP) 3. Film forming fluoro protein foam (FFFP) 4. Synthetic detergent foam 5. Alcohol resistant foam-chemical fires 6. Aqueous film forming foam ( AFFF) Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 119. 4/7/2014 119 Hi-Ex-limited use due to lightness of foam- convection currents easily blow the foam away.Must be delivered from overhead nozzles However you can breathe in the mixture, and there is a limited cooling and smoke clearing effect. Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 120. 4/7/2014 120 SMOTHER INERT GASES to TEMPORARILY or PERMANENTLY remove OXYGEN from the seat of the fire Temporary-discharge of CO2 from storage Permanent-use of Inert gas generator to blanket a space or cargo tank. Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 121. 4/7/2014 121 0 5 10 15 20 5 10 15 20 % O2 in mixture %hydrocarbongasinthe mixture Inflammable zone 10% 2% Inert Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 122. 4/7/2014 122 The flammable range is relatively narrow, so that any new gas introduced into the space will either displace oxygen or remove hydrocarbon vapours. This particular example is for crude oil, but the principle applies to all hydrocarbon based fuels. 0 5 10 15 20 5 10 15 20 % O2 in mixture %hydrocarbongasinthe mixture Inflammable zone 10% 2% Inert Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 123. 4/7/2014 123 In the case of discharge of CO2, the energy released as the CO2 expands, plus the smothering action of the CO2, plus the smothering action of smoke, temporarily removes the O2 content below 10%. Note that human life may be extinguished at any level below normal oxygen level 0 5 10 15 20 5 10 15 20 % O2 in mixture %hydrocarbongasinthe mixture Inflammable zone 10% 2% Inert Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 124. 4/7/2014 124 In the case of inerting hydrocarbon cargo tanks, inert gas is produced from a combustion unit, so that O2 content is typically 5%. This is used initially to remove the fuel vapour, and then permanently to reduce O2 content during loading/unloading operations. 0 5 10 15 20 5 10 15 20 % O2 in mixture %hydrocarbongasinthe mixture Inflammable zone 10% 2% Inert Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 125. 4/7/2014 125 CO2 Fixed Fire Extinguishing System for Machinery Space Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 126. CO2 System operation in Machinery Spaces A Co2 system of machinery spaces consists of a bank of Co2 bottles that can be operated from a remote place located away from the machinery spaces. The system also consists of pilot Co2 cylinders which control the activation of the bank of Co2 bottles. The Pilot cylinders are contained in a control box and are normally kept disconnected. The system is connected to the pilot cylinders and the control box with the help of steel wires or flexible pipes. All these pipes are fitted with a quick action coupling. When the system is to be activated, the coupling in plugged into the corresponding socket. The valves of the pilot cylinders will be opened with the help of the levers in the main CO2 control system. - The CO2 from the pilot cylinders will open the system's main stop valve. - The main stop valve has a piston which gets depressed due to the Co2 gas pressure and allows the pilot gas to flow to the bank of CO2 cylinders. - This pilot gas operates the cylinders' valves. These valves are known as Klem valves. All these valves have an actuator which gets operated by the pilot pressure. 4/7/2014 126 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 127. - The detection of fire is done by various sensors installed in the machinery spaces.Though the opening of control box operates an alarm, the main decision for CO2 flooding is taken by the Chief engineer, after due consultation with the master of the ship. - Before releasing Co2 into the fire affected space, it should be made sure that everybody is out of the place and total head should be counted. - The place is fully enclosed i.e all skylights & ventilators are closed air-tight and pumpsumps supplying fuel oil should also be stopped in order to prevent re-ignition. - Separate levers for each and every space are present inside the main controlling cabinet. The operating of a particular lever activates the pilot bottles, which helps in releasing the complete bank of bottles designated for that place. - With the opening of the master valve, Co2 is flooded inside the fire affected space, which then smothers the fire with the help of blanket effect. - Boundary cooling should be carried out. 4/7/2014 127 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 128. 4/7/2014 128 The mass of CO2 required is defined under a typical calculation as shown. This calculation is for a container ship, and is for a multi purpose system to cover a number of spaces. The mass carried is sufficient to extinguish a fire in the largest space. Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 129. 4/7/2014 129 THE FOLLOWING THINGS TO BE CONSIDERED: 1. The mass of CO2 required obviously has to take up free space i.e. air space in the area protected. An allowance is made for machinery (and in this case, containers in the cargo hold) taking up space. The mixing ratio allows for this difference in “permeability”. 2. Having calculated the volume required, the mass is now estimated and this is translated into number of 45Kg or 48Kg bottles needed to protect each space. A multi purpose release system is now used to discharge the correct number of bottles for each space. One spare bottle ( for the total system)is required. 3. Obviously the release mechanism has to be robust and reliable. A pilot system is used to initiate the main release of bottles. The amount of CO2 in the pilot system is not counted in the calculation. 4. CO2 release must be used in conjunction with other measures: -Ventilation must be stopped, and - ventilation flaps closed, to prevent CO2 escaping from the space. - Quick closing valves are usually shut, to restrict supply of hydrocarbon fuels, so all Main and power generation engines will be stopped. Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 130. 4/7/2014 130 5. Consequently the vessel is helpless and you must summon help. In addition, CO2 is a “one shot” system and if it does not work quickly IT WILL NOT WORK AT ALL. CO2 must be discharged as one MASS discharge, not individual bottles, and within two minutes of proven evacuation. There are strict rules to be observed about releasing CO2 into a space and about re-entering the space afterwards. Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 131. 4/7/2014 131 The system shown features both pilot and smothering bottles. Amount of pilot a gas DOES NOT feature in the calculation. In this German flag, GL approved system, there is a built in time delay of about 24 seconds between operating the main bottle release and CO2 discharge Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 132. 4/7/2014 132 Release cabinets for the ER system are located outside the engine room door and in the CO2 room. Release cabinets for the hold system are located on the bridge and in the CO2 room Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 133. 4/7/2014 133 When the cargo hold system is discharged, ventilation is stopped and the correct amount of bottles for each hold is AUTOMATICALLY released Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 134. 4/7/2014 134 GERMAN FLAG, GL approved system!! Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 135. 4/7/2014 135 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 136. 4/7/2014 136 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 137. 4/7/2014 137 A method of storage developed in the 1980’s was the use of refrigerated low pressure storage in a single container rather than ambient high pressure storage in large amounts of bottles. A second discharge is available by using the “hot gas” from the refrigeration circuit to boil the remaining CO2 gas out. Capacity is 105% of storage space in a “cold” discharge Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 138. 4/7/2014 138 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 139. 4/7/2014 139 Safe use of CO2 :- Ventilation fans off, space sealed, machinery stopped, tanks isolated.  Total head count. CO2 released on master’s command. Boundary cooling set up. Space remains sealed until steady temperature drop recorded over a period of 2 hours. Safety of Re-entry: B.A. team re-enter machinery space and damp down hot spots. Re-entry should be from the top entrance. Ventilation fans restarted (extraction fan). Atmosphere tested with O2 meter throughout space Boundary cooling should be continued to stop re-ignition Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 140. 4/7/2014 140 Cargo and container ships monitor the holds using a smoke extraction system, that removes the atmospheric contents of the hold, and passes the sample through a detector located in the wheelhouse. Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 141. 4/7/2014 141 In the event of a smoke alarm, the ventilation system is stopped and the three way sampling cocks are turned to discharge CO2 back through the sampling pipes to the hold. CO2 is released as required. Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 142. Co2 System for Cargo Space The release mechanism of CO2 system in cargo spaces is same as that of the machinery spaces. The only difference is that the cargo spaces have a different type of fire detection system. For detection of fire in cargo hold, a sample of air is drawn from all the cargo holds by an extractor fan.This sample of air is passed through a cabinet wherein a set of smoke sensitive sensors analyze the sample. The sensors will detect any presence of smoke in the sample. As soon as the sensor detects smoke in the sample, it activates the CO2 alarm system of the ship. A part of the sample is also discharged to the wheelhouse in order to cross-check the presence of smoke in the sample. This can be done by smelling the smoke. The sample is later vented to the air. In order to check whether the extractor is extracting samples from the holds, a small indicator propeller is fitted, which ensures that the samples are taken. 4/7/2014 142 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 143. Checks on the CO2 system: i. Pipes leading to the spaces should regularly be blown with air to ensure that they are not blocked. Ii. The level in the Co2 bottles should be checked on regular basis. If in a particular check, the difference is 10% of the total volume, the bottle should be replaced as soon as possible. Iii. Sensors should be checked periodically. Iv. Cabinet door alarms should also be checked on regular interval of time. V. All the pipings and connections at the CO2 bottles should be checked regularly. 4/7/2014 143 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 144. 4/7/2014 144 OTHER METHOD OF SMOTHERING OF FIRES: Smothering of a fire can also be achieved by using inert gas produced on board ship. In this case the inert gas is produced as required, and is low pressure NITROGEN, which is the leftover by product of combustion, as long as the Oxygen content is consistently less than 10% maximum. Effectively this rules out diesel engines and incinerators and leaves 1. Exhaust gases from a Marine boiler 2. Exhaust gases from a purpose built combustion unit 3. Exhaust gases from the AFTERBURNER of a gas turbine. Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 145. 4/7/2014 145 MAIN BOILER Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 146. 4/7/2014 146 MAIN BOILER Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 147. 4/7/2014 147 System using exhaust gases from a boiler on load producing steam Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 148. 4/7/2014 148 This unit, sometimes called an autonomous unit, burns diesel oil to generate a very low oxygen content in the exhaust gases It has no other function and is very useful when there is an an instant demand for inert gas- “ topping off”. Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 149. The Oxygen Depleted Condition No Fire can take Place even in the presence of Heat or Fuel because there is not enough oxygen to support it Safe Ship NO FIRE In absence of any one side of the original Fire Triangle, the risk of a fire is non- existent. 4/7/2014 149 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 150. The Flammability diagram 8 % Inerted Condition 4/7/2014 150 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 151. The percentage of oxygen required to sustain combustion: More than 11 % What percentage of oxygen are required to maintain in the cargo tanks ? By law less than 8 %. Some ports require a vessel to maintain less than 5 %. A Cargo tank is considered “Inerted” when the oxygen content in the tank is less than 8 % by volume 4/7/2014 151 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 152. 4/7/2014 152 CHAINBREAKERS HALON Still legal under IMO legislation but not UK legislation ( or other EU countries plus CANADA) NOVEC 1230 is an approved drop in replacement. Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 153. 4/7/2014 153 CHAINBREAKERS Originally only Halon, ( see MGN 258). Alternative environmentally friendly gasses now available include:- Novec 1230. FM200. Halotron 11 B. These gasses act by blanketing (excluding oxygen at the seat of the fire) and cooling but some (NOVEC1230) also disrupt the chemical chain reaction of combustion. Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 154. 4/7/2014 154 1. HALON is a CFC and so has the same OZONE depletion affect as R11 and R12. 2. NOVEC 1230 is a HALON replacement, using roughly the same pipeline layout, and same mass of fluid, with a slight change in head detail, and with an ODP and GWP of 0. 3. FM 200 AND HALOTRON 11 require roughly 1.5-2 times as much mass as HALON, with an ODP of 0 and a GWP of 1 4. PYROGEN has appeared briefly as a HALON substitute but has since disappeared. Dry powder is also a chain-breaker and in addition acts as a smothering agent. Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 155. 4/7/2014 155 Water Foam Dry Powder CO2 Halocarbon HAND HELD FIRE EXTINGUISHERS Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 156. Portable Fire Extinguishers firemain and hose reel system (manual actuation) 4/7/2014 156 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 157. 4/7/2014 157 Types of fire extinguishers Different types of fire extinguishers are designed to fight different types of fire. The most common types of fire extinguishers are:  Water extinguishers  Foam extinguishers  CO2 (carbon dioxide) extinguishers  Dry chemical extinguishers  Fire blanket C/E HANIF DEWAN 157 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 158. 4/7/2014 158 WATER EXTINGUISHER Extinguish fire by cooling the surface of the fuel to remove the "heat" element of the fire triangle. It is designed for Class A (wood, paper, cloth, rubber, and certain plastics) fires only. C/E HANIF DEWAN 158 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 159. 4/7/2014 159 WATER EXTINGUISHER Important: Never use water to extinguish flammable liquid fires. Water is extremely ineffective at extinguishing this type of fire and may make matters worse by the spreading the fire. Never use water to extinguish an electrical fire. Water is a good conductor and may lead to electrocution if used to extinguish an electrical fire. Electrical equipment must be unplugged and/or de-energized before using a water extinguisher on an electrical fire. C/E HANIF DEWAN 159 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 160. 4/7/2014 160 Foam Fire Extinguisher Modern synthetic AFFF offers a very effective means of extinguishing fires that involve both normal combustible materials and flammable liquids. AFFF, which stands for Aqueous Film Forming Foam, extinguishes Class A fires by removing the HEAT and cooling the fire and Class A, B & C fires, by shutting off the OXYGEN and suffocating the fire. C/E HANIF DEWAN 160 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 161. 4/7/2014 161 Foam Fire Extinguisher With flammable liquids (Class B materials) , allow the foam to gently flow over the surface of the liquid moving the nozzle from side to side, until the fire dies down. With most Class A materials, you will often find that although the flames have been extinguished, the materials will continue to smolder for quite some time, so it is important to make sure that any ‘Hot Spots’ are completely extinguished, as the fire may re-ignite. C/E HANIF DEWAN 161 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 162. 4/7/2014 162 Carbon dioxide extinguishers This type of extinguisher is filled with Carbon Dioxide (CO2), a non-flammable gas under extreme pressure. These extinguishers put out fires by displacing oxygen, or taking away the oxygen element of the fire triangle. Because of its high pressure, when you use this extinguisher pieces of dry ice shoot from the horn, which also has a cooling effect on the fire. C/E HANIF DEWAN 162 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 163. 4/7/2014 163 Carbon dioxide extinguishers You can recognize this type of extinguisher by its hard horn and absent pressure gauge. CO2 cylinders are red and range in size from five to 100 pounds or larger. CO2 extinguishers are designed for Class B, C, E and F fires. C/E HANIF DEWAN 163 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 164. 4/7/2014 164 Carbon dioxide extinguishers Important: CO2 is not recommended for Class A fires because they may continue to smolder and re-ignite after the CO2 dissipates. Never use CO2 extinguishers in a confined space while people are present without proper respiratory protection. Locations: Carbon dioxide extinguishers will frequently be found in industrial vehicles, mechanical rooms, offices, computer labs, and flammable liquid storage areas. C/E HANIF DEWAN 164 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 165. 4/7/2014 165 Dry chemical extinguishers Dry chemical extinguishers put out fires by coating the fuel with a thin layer of fire retardant powder, separating the fuel from the oxygen. The powder also works to interrupt the chemical reaction, which makes these extinguishers extremely effective. Dry chemical extinguishers are usually rated for class B and C fires and may be marked multiple purpose for use in A, B & E fires. They contain an extinguishing agent and use a compressed, non- flammable gas as a propellant. C/E HANIF DEWAN 165 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 166. 4/7/2014 166 Dry chemical extinguishers ABC fire extinguishers are red in color, and range in size from five pounds to 20 pounds. Dry Chemical extinguishers will have a label indicating they may be used on class A, B, E & F fires. C/E HANIF DEWAN 166 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 167. 4/7/2014 167 Fire Blanket Fires in small utensils containing cooking fats can be extinguished by smothering with Asbestos blanket or door mat (which has been wetted first!). Normally use to extinguish class K type of fire. C/E HANIF DEWAN 167 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 168. 4/7/2014 168 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 169. 4/7/2014 169 Using a fire extinguisher The following steps should be followed when responding to incipient stage fire:  Sound the fire alarm and call the fire department, if appropriate.  Identify a safe evacuation path before approaching the fire. Do not allow the fire, heat, or smoke to come between you and your evacuation path.  Select the appropriate type of fire extinguisher.  Discharge the extinguisher within its effective range using the P.A.S.S. technique (pull, aim, squeeze, sweep).  Back away from an extinguished fire in case it flames up again.  Evacuate immediately if the extinguisher is empty and the fire is not out.  Evacuate immediately if the fire progresses beyond the incipient stage. C/E HANIF DEWAN 169 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 170. 4/7/2014 170 Using a fire extinguisher Most fire extinguishers operate using the following P.A.S.S. technique: 1.PULL... Pull the pin. This will also break the tamper seal. 2.AIM... Aim low, pointing the extinguisher nozzle (or its horn or hose) at the base of the fire. Note: Do not touch the plastic discharge horn on CO2 extinguishers, it gets very cold and may damage skin. 3.SQUEEZE... Squeeze the handle to release the extinguishing agent. 4.SWEEP... Sweep from side to side at the base of the fire until it appears to be out. Watch the area. If the fire re- ignites, repeat steps 2 - 4. C/E HANIF DEWAN 170 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 171. 4/7/2014 171C/E HANIF DEWAN 171 FOUR METHOD OF FIRE EXTINGUISHMENT Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 172. Provision for fire protection  Ship division - main vertical zones by thermal & structural boundaries  Inert gas protection – tankers  Lockers – combustible materials  Use of flame retardant materials flame screens and other devices for preventing the flame passage  Use of steel  Provisions wrt fire main - diameter, pressure (SOLAS minimum requirement) 4/7/2014 173 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 173. Basic principles  Division into main and vertical zones by thermal and structural boundaries  Separate accommodation spaces from the remainder by thermal and structural boundaries  Restricted use of combustible materials  Fire detection in the origin zone  Containment and extinction of any fire in the origin space  Protection – by means of escape / access for fire fighting purposes  Readily available of fire-extinguishing appliances  Minimise possibility of ignition of flammable cargo vapour 4/7/2014 174 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 174. Bulkheads & decks  Divide vessel into number of separate divisions  Heat / flame must penetrate before can spread to another compartment  Constructed from approved non combustible material – steel with appropriate strength  But heat of intense fire can cause exposed steel to wrap, buckle or fail  SOLAS & regulatory bodies have stringent rules on this construction 4/7/2014 175 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 175. Class divisions  Ability of composite materials which are used as load-bearing "A" or "B" class divisions to withstand the applied loads during and at the end of fire  Adopted by the Organization  Additional tests on small specimens to determine the high temperature strength properties of the material.  Formed by bulkheads, decks, ceiling, lining  Non combustible materials capable preventing smoke and flame passage when subject to standard fire test for a specified duration 4/7/2014 176 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 176. Non-combustible material  Material which neither burns nor gives off flammable vapours in sufficient quantity for self- ignition when heated to approx. 750°C  Determined to the satisfaction of the Administration by an established test procedure  Any other material is a combustible material 4/7/2014 177 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 177. Standard time – temperature curve  At the end of the first 05 min – 556oC  At the end of the first 10 min – 659oC  At the end of the first 15 min – 718oC  At the end of the first 30 min – 821oC  At the end of the first 60 min – 925oC 4/7/2014 178 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 178. A lass di isio ulkhead a d de k  Constructed from steel or other equivalent material  Suitably stiffened  Capable preventing passage of smoke and flammable to the end of the one-hour standard fire test  Insulated with approved non-combustible materials 4/7/2014 179 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 179. A lass di isio ulkhead a d de k  Average temperature of unexposed side will not rise more than:  139°C above the original temperature  180°C at any point including any joint, above the original temperature within the time listed below:  Class A-60 60 min  Class A-30 30 min  Class A-15 15 min  Class A- 0 0 min  The Administration may require a test of a prototype (original sample) bulkhead or deck to ensure it meets the above requirement for integrity and temperature rise4/7/2014 180 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 180. B lass di isio ulkhead, de k, eili g o li i gs)  Constructed to capable preventing flame passage until end of the first half hour of standard fire test  Insulated so that average temperature of the unexposed side will not rise more than:  139°C above the original temperature  225°C at any point including any joint above the normal temperature within the time listed below:  Class B-15 15 min  Class B- 0 0 min 4/7/2014 181 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 181. B lass di isio ulkhead, de k, eili g o li i gs o t/…  Constructed of approved non-combustible materials  All materials entering into construction and erection of B class divisions shall be non- combustible  The Administration may require a test of a prototype (original sample) division to ensure that its meets the above requirements for integrity and temperature rise 4/7/2014 182 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 182. Main vertical zones  Those sections which the hull, super structure and deckhouses are divided by ‘A’ class divisions  mean length on any deck does not exceed 40 meters Accommodation Spaces  Spaces used for public spaces, corridors, lavatories, cabins, offices, hospitals, cinemas, games and hobbies rooms, barber shops, pantries containing no cooking appliances and similar spaces. 4/7/2014 183 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 183. Public Spaces  Public Spaces are those portions of the accommodation which are used for halls, dining rooms, lounges and similar permanently enclosed spaces Cargo Spaces  Cargo Spaces are all spaces used for cargo, cargo oil tanks, tanks for other liquid cargo and trunks to such spaces Closed Ro-Ro Cargo Spaces  Spaces which are neither open ro-ro spaces nor weather decks 4/7/2014 184 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 184. Ro-Ro Cargo Spaces  Spaces not normally subdivided and extending to either a substantial length or entire length of vessel in which motor vehicle with fuel in their tanks for their own propulsion and/or goods (packaged or in bulk, in or on rail or road cars, vehicles (including road or rail tankers), trailers, containers, pallets, demountable tanks or in or on similar stowage units or other receptacles) can be loaded and unloaded normally in a horizontal direction 4/7/2014 185 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 185. Open Ro-Ro cargo spaces  Spaces that either open at both ends, or have an opening at one end, and are provided with adequate natural ventilation effective over their entire length through permanent openings distributed in the side plating or deck-head or from above, having a total area of at least 10% of the total area of the space side 4/7/2014 186 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 186. Machinery Spaces of Category A (1 July 2002)  Spaces and trunks to such spaces which contain either:  Internal combustion machinery used for main propulsion  Internal combustion machinery used for other than main propulsion where such machinery has an aggregate total power output > 375 kW (500 hp)  any oil-fired boiler or oil fuel unit or equipment other than boiler, such as inert gas generator, incinerator, waste disposal units, etc 4/7/2014 187 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 187. WATERTIGHT DOOR 4/7/2014 188 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 188. Watertight doors  Design to prevent the water movement thru the doorway  Must match with bulkhead connected  3 classes of WTD:  Class 1 :manually operated hinged door  Class 2 :manually operated (with hydraulic assist once) sliding doors  Class 3 : manually & power operating sliding door  Capable to close with listing 15° either sides  Capable to operate on both sides, not exceeding 90 seconds  To ensure operate easily, close properly & dogs operate freely 4/7/2014 189 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 189. Fire dampers  Thin steel plate 3.2mm thick & suitable stiffened  Placed in ventilation duct, held in open position by fusible link  Air temperature above 74 or 100°C will melt the fusible link – closing damper 4/7/2014 190 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 190. INERT GAS SYSTEM  Sources:  Ships main or aux boiler uptakes  Generating plant burning diesel/light FO  Replace O2 contents on cargo surface outside of flammable range  Accepted for fire smothering purposes in dry cargo holds  14% CO2, 1% O2, 85% N2, remaining trace elements  No cooling effect, reignition must avoided 4/7/2014 191 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 191. Inert gas system  Time allowed for complete extinction, sufficient cool before dissipate gas and air entrance  Asphyxiating and toxic – NOx elements  Proper enclosed space permit required  Rate of production limited 4/7/2014 192 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 192. Nitrogen  Fire smothering agent  Fire / explosion preventive agent  In case others unacceptable – contaminated cargo  Gas with density slightly less than air  Concentration required higher than CO2  Temperature limited to -147°C (low critical) 4/7/2014 193 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 193. Fire main configurations  Must fulfill the followings:  Max discharge from 2 fire pumps up to 50 psi  Main line diameter from ” to ”  Branch line ½” to ½”  Protected against freezing  Provision for shore connection  Enough pressure from hydrant covering areas until adjacent hydrant 4/7/2014 194 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 194. Other operation required  Maintaining cleanliness on board  Observances of smoking only in approved spaces  Keeping doors closed  Maintenance of fire appliances including fire dampers  Regular fire drills and instructions 4/7/2014 195 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 195. Ship fire fighting organisation  Bridge - central control station  Master – full in charge  Fire officer/officers report to bridge and receive instructions 4/7/2014 197 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 196. Information required by central control station  Time at fire alarm was given  Position and nature of fire  Confirmation that fire parties at their assembly points & firemans outfits ready / available  Confirmation - fire main is pressurized  Report – initial attempts to extinguish fire using portable extinguishers  Report – effect of fire on services e.g. lighting  Report - persons present / trapped – head count 4/7/2014 198 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 197. Information available on bridge  Drawing arrangement in convenient size for ship, engine room & accommodation  Details – access & escapes from different zones  Details - fire-extinguishing equipment (fixed & portable) for entire ship including storage position of refills  Stability information  Details - survival equipment & its location  Stowage plans  Information on dangerous goods 4/7/2014 199 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 198. Methods of communication available  Telephones  Loud hailers  Direct speech - bridge to MCR  Hand-held radio telephones  Messengers 4/7/2014 200 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 199. Damage control and fires containment  Bridge - closing watertight & fire doors  Stopping ventilation fans, closing of dampers on funnel and other places  Closing all windows & portholes in accommodation, galley and other spaces  Turning ship to best position relative to wind direction for fire fighting  Bulkhead – boundary cooling  Using fire blankets as necessary  Maintaining fire-watch after fire extinguished 4/7/2014 201 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 200. Monitoring and controlling ship stability  Calculating changes in GM due to weight of extinguishing water and its free surface effect  Arranging pumping / draining of fire fighting water from affected spaces including cutting holes in ships side  Calculating - affect of cargo shifting (for cargo fires)  Assess – damage effect caused by spaces flooded with sea water  Considering / possibilities - moving vessel to shallow water or allowing for grounding 4/7/2014 202 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 201. Organization of fire parties  Identification of each fire party  Identification of each member of fire party  Safeguards - keeping in contact with each person & their position  Duties of each fire party  Reconnaissance team - equipped with portable extinguishers  Fire hose team  Help, search and first-aid team  Technical team - checking lifts, closing fire dampers, controlling ventilation fans and FO shut off valves, starting emergency generator and fire pump, refilling used extinguishers as required and preparing for gas flooding 4/7/2014 203 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 202. Location & use of portable extinguishers  Water  Foam  Dry powder  Carbon dioxide  Halon 4/7/2014 206 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 203. Location & use of mobile extinguishers  Foam  Dry powder  Carbon dioxide 4/7/2014 207 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 204. Location & use of fixed extinguishing system  Fire hydrants, hoses & nozzles  Water sprinklers  Water sprays  Foam system  Carbon dioxide system  Halon system 4/7/2014 208 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 205. Lo atio & use of fi e a ’s outfit  Learn how to don protective clothing quickly  Knowing where it is stowed / comprise  Checking & use of BA set  Checking & use of fireproof lifeline & familiar with signal codes 4/7/2014 209 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 206. Fire in cargo spaces  Location – in holds, tween deck or containers  Types – involving dangerous goods 4/7/2014 210 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 207. Training for fire party members  Instruction of duties being assigned  Instruction of duties being allocated  Exercises – increase member s proficient including first aid 4/7/2014 211 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 208. Fire Protection, Detection and Extinguishing: • This Chapter was totally reviewed in the Amendments published on December 2000 [Resolution MSC.99 (73)] • Entry into force on the 1st of July 2002 Alterations: • The new version focus the attention more on the processes associated to fire scenarios than on the types of ships, as previously. • New Part E- Operational Requirements that deals exclusively with the human factors, such as education, training and maintenance issues. • New Part F that establishes a methodology for the approval of alternative or innovative designs and arrangements. • Some technical details of the systems have been moved to the International Fire Safety Systems (FSS) Code. 4/7/2014 213 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 209. Fire Protection, Detection and Extinguishing: PART A - GENERAL • Regulation 1. Application • Regulation 2. Fire safety objectives and functional requirements • Regulation 3. Definitions PART B - PREVENTION OF FIRE & EXPLOSION • Regulation 4. Probability of Ignition • Regulation 5. Fire growth potential • Regulation 6. Smoke generation potential and toxicity 4/7/2014 214 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 210. Fire Protection, Detection and Extinguishing: PART C- SUPPRESSION OF FIRE • Regulation 7. Detection and alarm • Regulation 8. Control of smoke spread • Regulation 9. Containment of fire • Regulation 10. Fire fighting • Regulation 11. Structural integrity PART D - ESCAPE • Regulation 12. Notification of crew and passengers • Regulation 13. Means of escape 4/7/2014 215 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 211. Fire Protection, Detection and Extinguishing: PART E - OPERATIONAL REQUIREMENTS • Regulation 14. Operational readiness and maintenance • Regulation 15. Instructions, onboard training and drills • Regulation 16. Operations PART F - ALTERNATIVE DESIGN & ARRANGEMENTS • Regulation 17. Alternative design and arrangements PART G - SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS • Regulation 18. Helicopter facilities • Regulation 19. Carriage of dangerous goods • Regulation 20. Protection of vehicle, special category and ro-ro spaces 4/7/2014 216 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 212. PART A - GENERAL Reg. 1 – Application 1. Application 2. Applicable requirements to existing ships 3. Repairs, alterations, modifications and outfitting 4. Exemptions 5. Applicable requirements depending on ship type 6. Application of requirements for tankers 4/7/2014 217 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 213. Reg. 2 - Fire safety Objectives and Functional Requirements 1. Fire safety objectives 2. Functional requirements 3. Achievement of the fire safety objectives 4/7/2014 218 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 214. Fire Safety Objectives • Prevent the occurrence of fire and explosion; • Reduce the risk to life caused by fire • Reduce the risk of damage caused by fire to the ship, its cargo and the environment • Contain, control and suppress fire and explosion in the compartment of origin • Provide adequate and readily accessible means of escape for passengers and crew 4/7/2014 219 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 215. Functional Requirements • Division of the ship into main vertical and horizontal zones with structural and thermal boundaries • Separation of the accommodations from the remainder of the ship with structural and thermal boundaries • Restricted use of combustible materials • Detection of any fire in the zone of origin • Containment and extinguishing of any fire in the compartment of origin • Protection of the means of escape and access for firefighting • Fire firefighting appliances available and ready • Minimize the possibility of ignition of flammable cargo vapor 4/7/2014 220 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 216. Some Definitions Accommodation Spaces - spaces used for public spaces, corridors, lavatories, cabins, offices, hospitals, cinemas, game and hobby rooms, barber shops, pantries containing no cooking appliances and similar spaces • Category A Machinery Spaces – are the spaces and the trunks for the spaces that contain: – Internal combustion engines used for propulsion – Other internal combustion engines that all together have a total power > 375 kW – Any oil fired boiler or other oil burning equipment (inert gas generators, incinerators, etc.) 4/7/2014 221 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 217. Some Definitions • Non-Combustible Materials - materials that do not burn or release flammable vapors up to 750° C, during the standard fire test. • Standard Fire Tests - tests carried out in a oven, in which parts of the relevant bulkheads or deck are raised to temperatures corresponding to the standard time-temperature curve. The tested parts must: – Have an exposed area not less than 4.65 m2 and height (or length) not less than 2.44 m. – Include a joint (where appropriate) 4/7/2014 222 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 218. Some Definitions  The standard time-temperature curve is a fair curve interpolating the following points measured above the initial temperature of the oven: AfterTemperature:  5 min 556ºC  10 min 659ºC  15 min 708ºC  30 min 823ºC  60 min 925ºC 4/7/2014 223 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 219. Some Definitions Class A Divisions • Built in steel or other equivalent material • Suitably stiffened • Built to be capable of preventing the passage of smoke and flame to the end of the one-hour • Insulated with approved non-combustible materials such that the average temperature of the unexposed side will not rise more than 140°C above the origin al temperature, nor will the temperature, at any one point, including any joint, rise more than 180°C above the original temperature, within the following time intervals: – A60 - 60 min. – A30 - 30 min. – A15 - 15 min – A0 - 0 min. 4/7/2014 224 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 220. Class B Divisions • Constructed of approved non-combustible materials • Built to avoid the passage of flames during at least 30 minutes of the standard test • Insulated such that the average temperature of the unexposed side will not rise more than 140° C, nor will the temperature at any one point, including any joint, rise more than 225°C above the original temperature, after: – B15 - 15 min. – B0 - 0 min. Class C Divisions • Constructed of approved non-combustible materials, without any particular requirements. 4/7/2014 225 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 221. PART B - PREVENTION OF FIRE AND EXPLOSION  Cargo Tank Venting (Oil Tankers) • The venting systems of cargo tanks shall be entirely distinct from the air pipes of the other compartments of the ship • Shall be designed to minimize the possibility of flammable vapours being admitted to enclosed spaces containing a source of ignition • The venting arrangements in each cargo tank may be independent or combined with other cargo tanks and • May be incorporated into the inert gas piping 4/7/2014 226 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 222. Cargo Tank Venting (cont.) • Vent outlets for cargo loading, discharging and ballasting shall: – Permit the free flow of vapour mixtures, or – Permit the throttling of the discharge of the vapour mixtures to achieve a velocity >= 30 m/s; – Be so arranged that the vapour mixture is discharged vertically upwards • Where the method is by free flow the outlets shall be located at: – Height > 6 m above deck – More than 10 m apart from any air intakes for confined spaces containing possible sources of ignition and from deck machinery • Where the method is by high-velocity discharge, the outlets shall be located at – Height > 2 m above deck – More than 10 m from the nearest air intakes and from deck machinery – The outlets shall be provided with high-velocity devices 4/7/2014 227 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 223. Part C. Suppression of Fire  Detection and Alarm 1. Purpose 2. General requirements 3. Initial and periodical tests 4. Protection of machinery spaces 5. Protection of accommodation and service spaces and control stations 6. Protection of cargo spaces in passenger ships 7. Manually operated call points 8. Fire patrols in passenger ships 9. Fire alarm signaling systems in passenger ships 4/7/2014 228 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 224. Control of Smoke Spread 1. Purpose 2. Protection of control stations outside machinery spaces 3. Release of smoke from machinery spaces 4. Draught stops 5. Smoke extraction systems in atriums of passenger ships 4/7/2014 229 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 225. Containment of Fire 1. Purpose 2. Thermal and structural boundaries 3. Penetration in fire resisting divisions and prevention of heat transmission 4. Protection of openings in fire-resisting divisions 5. Protection of openings in machinery spaces boundaries 6. Protection of cargo space boundaries 7. Ventilation systems 4/7/2014 230 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 226. Fire Fighting 1. Purpose 2. Water supply systems 3. Portable fire extinguishers 4. Fixed fire extinguishing systems 5. Fire-extinguishing arrangements in machinery spaces 6. Fire extinguishing arrangements in control stations, accommodation and service spaces 7. Fire extinguishing arrangements in cargo spaces 8. Cargo tank protection 9. Protection of cargo pump-rooms in tankers 10. Fire-fighter’s outfits 4/7/2014 231 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 227. Water Supply Systems Fixed Fire Fighting System • Ships shall be provided with fire pumps, fire mains, hydrants and hoses Capacity of the Fire Pumps: • Passenger Ships – Not less than 2/3 of the flow rate of the bilge pumps. • Cargo Ships – Not less than 4/3 of the flow rate of the bilge pumps of a passenger ship with the same dimensions. – Total does not need to be greater than 180 m3/h. 4/7/2014 232 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 228. Fire Pumps Capacity of the Fire Pumps (cont.) • Each of the required fire pumps (other than any emergency pump required for cargo ships) shall have a capacity >= 80% of the total required capacity divided by the minimum number of required fire pumps • None of the pumps may have a capacity < m3/h. • Each pump must capable in every circumstance, of delivering the two water jets required. 4/7/2014 233 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 229. FIRE MAINS Diameter of the Fire Mains • Shall be sufficient for the effective distribution of the maximum required discharge from 2 fire pumps operating simultaneously, • In cargo ships the diameter need only be sufficient for the discharge of 140 m3/h. Pressure in the Fire Mains Cargo Ships GRT < 60000.25 N/mm2 GRT > 60000.27 N/mm2 • With two pumps in simultaneously delivering water, it must capable of guaranteeing the following pressures in any adjacent hydrants Passenger Ships GRT < 4000 0.30 N/mm2 GRT ≥ 4000 0.40 N/mm2 Cargo Ships GRT < 6000 0.25 N/mm2 GRT > 6000 0.27 N/mm2 4/7/2014 234 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 230. FIRE PUMPS Arrangement of Fire Pumps and Fire Mains • Minimum number of pumps, independently driven:  Only 1 needs to be independently driven 4/7/2014 235 GT >= 4000 3 Passenger Ships GT < 4000 2 GT >= 1000 2 Cargo Ships GT < 1000 2 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 231. Fire Hoses and Nozzles • Fire hoses shall be of non-perishable material approved by the Administration and shall be sufficient in length to project a jet of water to any of the spaces in which they may be required to be used • Each hose shall be provided with a nozzle and the necessary couplings • Fire hoses shall have a length of at least 10 m, but not more than: – 15 m in machinery spaces – 20 m in other spaces and open decks – 25 m for open decks on ships with B > 30 m 4/7/2014 236 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 232. Portable Fire Extinguishers • Ships with GRT > 1,000 shall have at least 5 portable fire extinguishers distributed in the accommodation area, service areas and control stations • One of the portable fire extinguishers intended for use in any space shall be stowed near the entrance to that space. • CO2 extinguishers shall not be used in accommodation spaces • The distribution in the accommodation space shall be as follows: – In passenger ships, inside each vertical zone, no point shall be at more than 15 m from an extinguisher – In cargo ships, 1 in each deck • Fire extinguishers shall be situated ready for use at easily visible places, which can be reached quickly and easily at any time • Portable fire extinguishers shall be provided with devices which indicate whether they have been used 4/7/2014 237 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 233. Fixed Systems for Fire Fighting • Fixed Gas Systems – Carbon Dioxide – Steam – Other • High Expansion Foam Systems • Fixed Pressure Water-Spraying Systems Systems based on Halon were banished by SOLAS since 1994 and by the EU regulation EC 2037/2000 since 2003, due to the damages caused to the ozone layer. 4/7/2014 238 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 234. Fixed Gas Systems Carbon Dioxide Systems • Cargo Spaces - the volume available shall be greater than 30% of the volume of the larger cargo space protected • Machinery Spaces - the volume available shall be greater than the maximum of the following values: – 40% of the volume of the larger machinery space protected, excluding the part of the roof above the level at which the horizontal area of the roof is 40% or less of the horizontal area of the space measured at mid height between the double-bottom and the base of the roof – 35% of the gross volume of the larger machinery space protected, including the roof • The specific volume of the free CO2 shall be computed at 0.56 m3/kg • The piping system shall guarantee that 85% of the gas is delivered in less than 2 minutes 4/7/2014 239 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 235. Fixed Gas Systems • In general vapor is not allowed as fire extinguishing in fixed systems • It shall be only eventually allowed in very restrict zones, as an additional mean, and with the guarantee that the boilers available to feed the system have a minimum flow rate of 1.0 kg/h for each 0.75 m3 of the gross volume of the larger space protected 4/7/2014 240 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 236. Fixed Gas Systems Other Gas Systems • If other gases besides the above mentioned are used as a mean of fire extinguishing, they shall be the result of the combustion of fuels, in which the contents of oxygen, carbon monoxide and corrosive elements have been reduced to a minimum admissible. • When these systems are used, the flow rate shall be ≥ 25% of the gross volume of the larger compartment protected, within a period of 72 hours. 4/7/2014 241 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 237. Fixed Pressure Water-Spraying Systems (Water Mist) System introduced as an alternative to the Halon systems (prohibited in 1994) for fire fighting in machinery spaces of category A and cargo pump rooms This fire extinguishing process is based in 3 mechanisms: • Cooling of the flames • Reduction of the oxygen content by the displacement of the air by the expansion of the water vapor • Diminution of the radiating heat • Mandatory in passenger ships with GT > 500 and cargo ships with GT > 2000, for fire extinguishing in machinery spaces of category A with volume > 500 m3 (IMO MSC/Circ.913). • It shall be activated automatically by 2 different types of detectors: flame and smoke. 4/7/2014 242 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 238. Fixed Pressure Water-Spraying Systems (Water Mist) The requirements for test and approval of these systems are specified in the MSC/Circ.1165: – It shall be capable of being activated manually – It shall be always ready to function and be capable of supplying water during 30 minutes, to avoid the re-ignition of the fire – The systems that operate with a reduced output after and initial discharge, shall be ready again in less than 5 minutes – It shall have redundant pumping means and shall have a permanent sea chest – The means of control shall be outside the protected spaces – It shall be supplied with electric power from the main and emergency generators – The capacity of the system shall be based in the largest of the protected areas 4/7/2014 243 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 239. Fixed Water Mist Systems • The pressurized water in contact with the fire vaporizes and it is converted into steam • This process absorbs much energy lowering the temperature of the fire and the pressurized water expands about 1700 times taking the air away from the fire • These systems require a water consumption 6 to 10 times lower than a traditional sprinkler system 4/7/2014 244 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 240. Fire Fighting Syst. in Machinery Spaces  The machinery spaces are classified in the following types :  1. Spaces with boilers or with fuel oil burning units  2. Spaces with internal combustion engines  3. Closed spaces with steam turbines or steam engines  4. Other machinery spaces 4/7/2014 245 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 241. Fire Fighting Syst. in Machinery Spaces 1. Spaces with Boilers or Oil Burning Units Shall have any one of the following fixed systems: – Fixed gas system – High expansion foam system – Pressurized spraying water system Shall have at least 2 portable foam fire extinguishers  2. Spaces with internal combustion engines  Shall have any one of the following fixed systems: – Fixed gas system – High expansion foam system – Pressurized spraying water system 4/7/2014 246 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 242. 3. Spaces with Steam Turbines or Enclosed Steam Engines When the total power is > 375 kW shall have: – Foam extinguishers, with at least 45 liters capacity each – A sufficient number of portable extinguishers, with at least 2, located in such a way that in no point of the space one is more than 10 m from an extinguisher – Shall have any one of the following fixed systems: • Fixed gas system • High expansion foam system • Pressurized spraying water system 4. Other Machinery Spaces Whenever it is considered to exist the danger of fire in any machinery space other than the previously mentioned, a sufficient number of portable fire extinguisher shall exist. 4/7/2014 247 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 243. Fixed Low Expansion Foam Fire Fighting System for Machinery Spaces : • “hall e a le to dis ha ge th ough fi ed ozzles the a ou t of foam necessary to cover in less than 5 minutes, a height of 150 mm of the largest area were fuel oil may have been spread. High Expansion Foam Systems in Machinery Spaces: • “hall dis ha ge th ough fi ed ozzles the ua tit of foa necessary to fill the largest space protected with a speed not inferior to 1 meter of height/ minute • The ua tit of li uid a aila le to ge e ate foa shall e sufficient to produce a volume of foam equal to 5 times the volume of the largest space protected • The foa e pa sio atio shall ot e eed : 4/7/2014 248 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 244. Fixed Pressurized Water Spraying System in Machinery Spaces: • The u e of sp i kle s shall e so that the ate dist i utio in the protected spaces is 5 liters/m2 minimum • The s ste a e di ided i se tio s a d the espe ti e distribution valves shall be operated from outside the protected spaces •The s ste shall e al a s kept ha ged a d the feedi g pu p will be triggered automatically in case of pressure drop • The pu p shall e apa le of suppl i g ate to all the se tio s simultaneously • The pu p shall e lo ated outside of the p ote ted spa es • The pu p shall e d i e na independent internal combustion engine 4/7/2014 249 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 245. Fire-Extinguishing Arrangements in Control Stations, Accommodations and Service Spaces: • Passe ge ships / N > shall e e uipped ith automatic sprinkler, fire detection and fire alarm system. Fire-extinguishing Arrangements in Cargo Spaces: • Ca go spa es of passe ge ships of GT , shall e protected by a fixed CO2 or inert gas fire-extinguishing system • E ept fo Ro-Ro and vehicle spaces, cargo spaces on a go ships of GT , shall e p ote ted a fi ed CO2 or inert gas fire- extinguishing system 4/7/2014 250 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 246. Drainage of Fire-Fighting Water from Closed Vehicle and Ro-Ro Spaces: • Guideli es fo the d ai age of fi e-fighting water from closed vehicle and Ro-Ro spaces and special category spaces of passenger and cargo ships (MSC.1/Circ.1320) for the requirements of amended SOLAS Reg.II- 2/20.6.1.5 effective from 1 January 2010 by Res.MSC.256(84). • O all ships, fo losed ehi les a d Ro-Ro spaces and special category spaces, where fixed pressure water-spraying systems are fitted, means shall be provided to prevent the blockage of drainage arrangements, taking into account the guidelines MSC.1/Circ.1320 • “hips o st u ted efo e Ja ua shall o pl ith the requirements by the first survey after 1 January 2010. Ships constructed on or after 1 January 2010 shall comply with the requirements by the initial survey. 4/7/2014 251 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 247. Guidelines for the Drainage Closed Vehicle and Ro-Ro Spaces: Protection of drain opening 1. An easily removable grating, screen or other means should be installed over each drain opening in the protected spaces to prevent debris from blocking the drain. The total open area ratio of the grating to the attached drain pipe should be at least 6 to 1. The grating should be raised above the deck or installed at an angle to prevent large objects from blocking the drain. No dimension of the individual openings in the grating should be more than 25 mm. Example of drain opening protected by a removable grating4/7/2014 252 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 248. Protection of drain opening (cont.) 2. No grating or screen is required when a fixed mechanical system is provided to unblock the drainage system, or when other than a gravity drain system is provided with its own filter. 3. A clearly visible sign or marking should be provided not less than 1,500 mm above each drain opening stating, "Drain opening - do not cover or obstruct". The marking should be in letters at least 50 mm in height. 4/7/2014 253 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 249. Fire Safety Measures in Oil Tankers: •Applies to all the new tankers carrying oil or derived oil products in bulk whose flashpoint does not exceed 60°C. Protection of the Cargo Tanks (Oil Tankers): • I ta ke s ith DW > . t the p ote tio of the cargo zone will be assured by: – Fixed Foam System (decks over the cargo tanks) – Inert Gas System (cargo tanks) •The Ad i ist atio a a ept othe o i atio s of fixed installations if they offer equivalent protection 4/7/2014 254 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 250. Fixed Foam System on Deck (Oil Tankers): • The foa suppl ate shall ot e less tha the la ge of the following values: • . l/ i pe of the a ea of a go ta ks, al ulated as the product of the maximum breadth by the length of the cargo area • l/ i pe of the a i u ho izo tal se tio of a individual tank • l/ i pe of the a ea p ote ted the la gest o ito , entirely forward of it, but not less than 1250 l/min. 4/7/2014 255 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 251. Fixed Foam System on Deck (cont.): • The dista e f o the foa o ito to the fa thest poi t of the area protected shall not be superior to 75% of the monitor range • Fo a d of the ste astle o of the supe st u tu e, foa monitors shall be installed, one at each side, facing the cargo area. Location and Separation of Spaces (Oil Tankers): • The a hi e spa es of atego A shall e lo ated aft of the cargo tanks and slop tanks and be isolated from them by a cofferdam, a cargo pump room or a fuel oil tank •The a o odatio spa es, a go o t ol oo s, o t ol statio s and service spaces shall be located aft of all the cargo tank, slop tanks, cargo pump rooms and cofferdams that divide the cargo or slop tanks from the machinery spaces of category A. 4/7/2014 256 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 252. Location and Separation of Spaces (Oil Tankers): Restrictions for Openings in Boundary Bulkheads • A ess doo s, ai i takes a d ope i gs fo a o odatio spa es, se i e spaces, control stations and machinery spaces will not be facing the cargo zone. • “hall e lo ated o the t a s e se ulkhead ot fa i g the a go a ea o o the sides of the superstructure or deckhouse at a distance <d> from the extremity of the superstructure or deckhouse, so that: MIN (0.04 ⋅ L, 3 m d < 5 m Windows and Scuttles • Wi do s a d s uttles facing the cargo area and at the sides of the superstructure and deckhouses inside the specified limits shall be of the fixed type (do not open). • Those i do s a d s uttles, ith the e eptio of the idge i do s, shall be built in accordance to the "A- standard. 4/7/2014 257 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 253. Location and Separation of Spaces (Oil Tankers): Exceptions accepted by the Administration • The Ad i ist atio a allo a ess doo s i ulkheads fa i g the cargo area, if they do not provide direct or indirect access to any other space containing or leading to accommodation, control stations or service areas such as galleys, pantries or workshops, or similar spaces containing sources of ignition of gases. • The ou da of su h spa e shall e i sulated A ulkheads, with the exception of the bulkhead facing the cargo area. • The doo s a d i do s of the idge a e lo ated i side the defined limits if they are designed to guarantee that the bridge may be sealed in a fast and efficient way against gases and vapors. 4/7/2014 258 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 254. Location and Separation of Spaces (Oil Tankers): • All the bulkheads and decks shell have as minimum fire resistance the class indicated in the following tables 4/7/2014 259 Spaces (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) Control Stations( 1) A0 A0 A60 A0 A15 A60 A15 A60 A60 * Corridors (2) C B0 B0 B0 A60 A0 A60 A0 * Accommodation Areas (3) C B0 B0 A60 A0 A60 A0 * Stairs (4) B0 B0 A60 A0 A60 A0 * Low Risk Service Spaces(5) C A60 A0 A60 A0 * Machinery Spaces Category A (6) * A0 A0 A60 * Other Machinery Spaces (7) A0 A0 A0 * Cargo Pump Room (8) * A60 * High Risk Service Spaces (9) A0 * Open decks (10) --- Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 255. Inert Gas System (Oil Tankers) • The system shall be capable of: – Inertize empty cargo tanks, reducing the oxygen content to values at which the combustion can not occur – Maintain the atmosphere in any parte of any cargo tank with oxygen content less than 8% in volume and always with positive pressure, in port or sailing – Eliminate the necessity to introduce air inside the tanks during normal operation – Purge empty cargo tanks from hydrocarbon. General Diagram of the System • The s ste shall ha e a flo ate g eate tha % of the a i u dis ha ge capacity of the ship, expressed in volume • The i e t gas supplied shall ot ha e a o ge o te t supe io to %, i olu e • The i e t gas a e o tai ed f o e haust gases of ai a d au ilia oile , duly treated • At least e tilato s shall e i stalled, that all togethe a e que capable of supplying the flow required to the cargo tanks 4/7/2014 260 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 256. Inert Gas System 4/7/2014 261 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 257. 4/7/2014 262 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 258. • A scrubber shall be installed to cool a specified volume of inert gas and to remove solid and sulphur products from the combustion • On the deck, between the scrubber and the manifold at least 2 non-return devices shall be installed, one of which can be a water seal and the other can be a non- return valve 4/7/2014 263 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 259. Cargo Pump Rooms (Oil Tankers): • Ea h pu p oo shall e e uipped ith o e the follo i g fi e extinguishing systems, operated from the outside: – Carbon Dioxide – High expansion foam – Fixed pressure water-spraying • “hall e p o ided ith a e ha i al e tilatio s ste , dimensioned to guarantee 20 renov/h. • The s ste shall e of i sufflatio s a d the e tilato s of the anti-sparking type 4/7/2014 264 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 260. Fireman Outfit: • In general, the ship shall have at least 2 fireman outfits • Passenger ships shall have 2 more outfits for each 80 m of length of the passenger spaces and service spaces • Passenger ships with N > 36 shall have 2 more outfits for each vertical zone • Tankers shall have 2 additional outfits 4/7/2014 265 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 261. Structural Integrity: 4/7/2014 266 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 262. BULKHEADS/DECKS IN ALUMINUM: Bulkheads/Decks Class A and Class B When the bulkheads are built in aluminum, the ratio between the minimum requirements for plate and stiffener dimensioning can be obtained from the requirements for the steel, through the factors of the table: 4/7/2014 267 Steel Aluminum Plate thickness (t) 1.4 x t Inertia of the stiffeners (I) 2.8 x I Section Modulus of the stiffeners (W) 2.35 x W Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 263. Part D –Escape 4/7/2014 268 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 264. Means of Escape: • The o je ti e is to p o ide ea s of es ape so that pe so s onboard can safely and swiftly escape to the lifeboat and liferaft embarkation deck • At least idel sepa ated a d ead ea s of es ape shall e provided from all spaces or group of spaces • Lifts shall ot e o side ed as fo i g o e of the ea s of escape required 4/7/2014 269 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 265. MEANS OF ESCAPE - GENERAL REQUIREMENTS: • Stairways and ladders shall arranged to provide ready means of escape to the lifeboat and liferaft embarkation deck from passenger and crew accommodation spaces and from spaces in which the crew is normally employed, other than machinery spaces. • A corridor, lobby, or part of a corridor from which there is only one route of escape shall be prohibited. • Dead-end corridors used in service areas which are necessary for the practical utility of the ship, shall be permitted, provided they are separated from crew accommodation areas and are inaccessible from passenger accommodation areas. • A part of a corridor that has a depth not exceeding its width is considered a recess or local extension and is permitted. 4/7/2014 270 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 266. MEANS OF ESCAPE - GENERAL REQUIREMENTS: • All stairways in accommodation and service spaces and control stations shall be of steel frame construction • Doors in escape routes shall, in general, open in way of the direction of escape, except that: – Individual cabin doors may open into the cabins in order to avoid injury to persons in the corridor when the door is opened. – Doors in vertical emergency escape trunks may open out of the trunk in order to permit the trunk to be used both for escape and for access. 4/7/2014 271 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 267. MEANS OF ESCAPE (PASSENGER SHIPS): 4/7/2014 272 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 268. Machinery Spaces • Shall have 2 separate means of escape composed by steel stairs, as far apart from each other as possible • One of the stairs shall provide continuous protection against fire, from the lower part of the space up to a safe place, located outside the space. Corridors • Dead end corridors shall not have a length greater than Ships with more than 36 passengers: 36 m Ships with less than 36 passengers: 7 m 4/7/2014 273 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 269. Protection of Stairs and Lifts in Floodable/Service Spaces (Passenger Ships) • Shall be contained in limited spaces by Class A boundaries, with effective means of closure in all the openings, except in the following cases: – Stairways connecting only 2 decks does not need to have a trunk if the integrity of the deck is maintained by bulkheads or appropriated doors on one of the decks. – Stairways may not have casings if they are entirely contained in a given space. • The stairways shall have direct communication with the corridors. Whenever possible, the stairways shall NOT provide direct access to cabins, lockers or other closed space containing fuels and where a fire can be originated • All stairways and lift trunks shall be built in way to prevent the flow of smoke and flames from one deck to the other 4/7/2014 274 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 270. MEANS OF ESCAPE (CARGO SHIPS) • The layout of the stairways shall provide the access from all the accommodation areas and from areas where the crew is normally, means of escape to the exposed deck and from there to the life boats. – At all levels of accommodation there shall be at least 2 widely separated means of escape, for each restricted space or group of spaces. – Below the lowest open deck, the main escape way will be a stairway and the second escape may be a trunk or a stairway. – Above the lowest open deck the escape ways shall be stairways or doors to an open deck. – No dead-end corridors with length > 7 m will be acceptable. 4/7/2014 275 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 271. MEANS OF ESCAPE (CARGO SHIPS) • In general, the machinery spaces of category A will always have 2 escape ways: – 2 sets of steel stairs as widely apart as possible, leading to doors on the upper zone of the space, from where there is direct access to the exposed deck. In general these stairs shall provide continuous protection against fire – 1 steel stair leading to a door on the upper area of the space and, additionally, a steel door on the lower zone of the space, capable of being operated from both sides, and Giving access to a direct exit to the deck 4/7/2014 276 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 272. Protection of Stair Cases and Lift Trunks Accommodation, Service or Control Station Areas (Cargo Ships) • Stairways which cross a single deck, shall be protected at least by class B0 boundaries with self-closing doors • Lifts that cross a single deck, shall be protected at least by class A0 boundaries with steel doors on both levels • Stairways and lifts that cross more than one deck shall have class A0 boundaries with self-closing doors on every levels 4/7/2014 277 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 273. EMERGENCY ESCAPE BREATHING DEVICES (EEBD) • All ships shall ha e at least i the a o odatio spa e • Passe ge ships shall ha e at least 2 in each main vertical zone • Passe ge ships ith N > shall ha e at least 4 in each main vertical zone. 4/7/2014 278 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 274. EMERGENCY ESCAPE BREATHING DEVICES (EEBD) • A EEBD is a device that supplies air or oxygen, used only to escape from a compartment with a dangerous atmosphere • The EEBDs shall not be used to fight the fires, going into tanks or in void space with reduced oxygen, or used by fire fighters. In these situations proper autonomous breathing devices shall be used • A EEBD shall – Have the minimum service duration of 10 minutes – Have a cover or mask to protect the eyes, nose and mouth during the escape 4/7/2014 279 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 275. MACHINERY SPACES IN PASSENGER SHIPS Escape from spaces below the bulkhead deck • 2 sets of steel ladders, as widely separated as possible, leading to doors in the upper part of the space similarly separated and from which access is provided to the appropriate lifeboat and liferaft embarkation decks. – One of these ladders shall be located within a protected enclosure, from the lower part of the space it serves to a safe position outside the space. – Self-closing fire doors of the same fire integrity standards shall be fitted in the enclosure. – The ladder shall be fixed in such a way that heat is not transferred into the enclosure through non-insulated fixing points. – The protected enclosure shall have minimum internal dimensions of at least 800 mm x 800 mm, and shall have emergency lighting provisions; or • 1 steel ladder leading to a door in the upper part of the space from which access is provided to the embarkation deck and additionally, in the lower part of the space and in a position well separated from the ladder referred to, a steel door capable of being operated from each side and which provides access to a safe escape route from the lower part of the space to the embarkation deck. 4/7/2014 280 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 276. MACHINERY SPACES IN PASSENGER SHIPS Escape from spaces above the bulkhead deck • 2 means of escape shall be as widely separated as possible and the doors leading from such means of escape shall be in a position from which access is provided to the appropriate lifeboat and liferaft embarkation decks. • Where such means of escape require the use of ladders, these shall be of steel. 4/7/2014 281 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 277. Parte G. Special Requirements 4/7/2014 282 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 278. Basic Principles for Passenger Ships • The main vertical zoning required may not be practicable in vehicle spaces of passenger ships • Equivalent protection must be obtained in such spaces on the basis of – an horizontal zone concept – the provision of an efficient fixed fire-extinguishing system. • An horizontal zone for the purpose of this regulation may include special category spaces on more than one deck provided that the total overall clear height for vehicles does not exceed 10 m. 4/7/2014 283 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 279. FIRE EXTINGUISHING • Vehicle spaces and Ro-Ro spaces which are not special category spaces and are capable of being sealed from a location outside of the cargo spaces shall be fitted with a fixed gas fire-extinguishing system, except that: – If a CO2 system is fitted, • the quantity of gas available shall be at least sufficient to give a minimum volume of free gas equal to 45% of the gross volume of the largest cargo space which is capable of being sealed, and • the arrangements shall be such as to ensure that at least 2/3 of the gas required for the relevant space shall be introduced within 10 min – Any other fixed inert gas system or fixed high expansion foam system may be fitted provided the Administration is satisfied that an equivalent protection is achieved – As an alternative, an approved fixed pressure water spraying system may be fitted. 4/7/2014 284 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 280. FREE SURFACE CONCERNS • When fixed pressure water-spraying systems are provided, large quantities of water can accumulate on the deck(s) during the operation of the water- spraying system • Serious loss of stability could arise • Specific arrangements are specified for passenger and cargo ships 4/7/2014 285 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 281. RO/RO SPACES - PASSENGER SHIPS • Above the bulkhead deck, scuppers shall be fitted so as to ensure that such water is rapidly discharged directly overboard • Discharge valves for scuppers, fitted with positive means of closing operable from a position above the bulkhead deck, shall be kept open while the ships are at sea 4/7/2014 286 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 282. RO/RO SPACES - PASSENGER SHIPS • Below the bulkhead deck, the Administration may require additional pumping and drainage facilities to be provided • In such case, the drainage system shall be sized to remove no less than 125% of the combined capacity of both the water spraying system pumps and the required number of fire hose nozzles. • The drainage system valves shall be operable from outside the protected space at a position in the vicinity of the extinguishing system controls. • Bilge wells shall be of sufficient holding capacity and shall be arranged at the side shell of the ship at a distance from each other of not more than 40 m in each watertight compartment 4/7/2014 287 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 283. RO/RO SPACES - CARGO SHIPS • The drainage system shall be sized to remove no less than 125% of the combined capacity of both the water spraying system pumps and the required number of fire hose nozzles • The drainage system valves shall be operable from outside the protected space at a position in the vicinity of the extinguishing system controls. • Bilge wells shall be of sufficient holding capacity and shall be arranged at the side shell of the ship at a distance from each other of not more than 40 m in each watertight compartment. •If this is not possible the adverse effect upon stability of the added weight and free surface of water shall be taken into account to the extent deemed necessary by the Administration 4/7/2014 288 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 284. Fire Protection in Ro/Ro Spaces • Portable extinguishers shall be provided at each deck level in each hold or compartment where vehicles are carried, spaced not more than 20 m apart on both sides of the space. • At least one portable fire-extinguisher shall be located at each access to such a cargo space. • Additionally, vehicle, Ro-Ro and special category spaces intended for the carriage of motor vehicles with fuel in their tanks for their own propulsion shall be provided with: – At least 3 water fog applicators – 1 portable foam applicator unit, provided that at least two such units are available in the ship for use in such ro-ro spaces. Ventilation System • Enclosed garage spaces shall have ventilation system guaranteeing 6 renov./hour, based on the empty volume 4/7/2014 289 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 285. FIRE CONTROL PLANS • On ships with more then 36 passengers, the following information must be available in the Fire Control Plan [A.756 (18)]: – Ship’s keel-laying date and application of the SOLAS Conventions and amendments. Original method (I, II, III or with or without sprinklers, etc.) of fire safety construction, as applicable. – Which additional fire safety measures were applied, if any – Dates and descriptions of any modifications to the ship, which in any way alter its fire safety 4/7/2014 290 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 286. SYMBOLS IN FIRE PLANS •The symbols on the Fire Control Plan must be in accordance to the A.952 (23) – “Graphical Symbols for Shipboard Fire Control Plans”, adopted on 5 December 2003. 4/7/2014 291 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  • 287. Any Question? Thank you! 4/7/2014 292 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh

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