Fire Protection, Fire Detection
and
Fire Extinguishing
Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer,
International Maritime Ac...
FIRE
WHAT IS FIRE?
 Fire is a chemical process, which involves burning of
any substance (combustion).
 The combustible m...
FIRE HAZARDS / SOURCES
• Short Circuits (faulty electrical wires and
switchboards)
• Naked Lights
• Explosive and fire wor...
4/7/2014 4
• Mechanical sparks from grinding, chipping
or welding friction or funnel sparks are low-
energy sparks which m...
4/7/2014 5
• Substances liable to self-heat
(usually due to oxidation)
• Fibrous material soaked in organic oils
such as v...
4/7/2014 6
TYPES OF FIRES
As of new definitions of IMO, May 2007, there are 6
types of fire onboard ships:
Class A: Fires ...
4/7/2014 7
Class D: Fires that involve combustible metals such
as sodium, magnesium, and potassium.
Class E: Fires that in...
4/7/2014 8
FIRE TRIANGLE
To understand how fire
extinguishers work, you
need to understand a
little about fire.
Fire is a ...
4/7/2014 9
FIRE TRIANGLE
For fire to exist, the following
four elements must be
present at the same time:
 Enough oxygen ...
10
The components of the fire tetrahedron: fuel, heat, oxygen and
chemical chain reaction
4/7/2014 10
Mohd. Hanif Dewan, S...
11
Don’t Make a Fire Triangle!
Understanding the three sides of the fire
triangle, and being able to recognize them in
eve...
4/7/2014 12
FIRE SPREAD
Fire spreads by
• CONDUCTION: transfer of heat through solid
body.
• CONVECTION: through the motio...
Conduction
 Transfer of heat through a solid body such as
metals as a very good conductor of heat.
 Since most ships are...
14
CONDUCTION
An example of conduction: The temperature along the rod rises because
of the increased movement of molecules...
4/7/2014 15
Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer,
International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
Radiation
 Heat radiation is the transfer of heat from a source
across the space or travels outward from the fire in
the ...
17
Radiation: The transmission of energy as an electromagnetic wave
without an intervening medium.
4/7/2014
17
Mohd. Hanif...
4/7/2014 18
Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer,
International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
Convection
 The transfer or carries of heat through a liquid or
gaseous body such as movement of smoke, hot air and
heate...
20
CONVECTION
Convection: The transfer of the heat energy by the movement of heated
liquids or gases.
204/7/2014
Mohd. Han...
4/7/2014 21
Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer,
International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
Fire hazards in engine room
 Combustible liquids – FO, DO, LO
 Oil leaks & oil soaked insulation
 Hot surfaces – exhaus...
Fire hazards in galley
 Combustible liquids – cooking oil, hot fat
 Hot surfaces - ovens, frying pans, flues
 Defective...
Fire hazards in accommodation
 Combustible materials - furnishing, personal effects
 Matches and cigarette smoking
 Def...
Fire hazards from cargoes
 Self-heating cargo & spontaneous combustion
 Oxidizing cargoes and organic peroxides
 Compre...
Four phases of fire development
 Ignition (incipient)
 Developing (surfaces fire)
 Absolute fire (fire in depth in soli...
4/7/2014 27
FIRE DETECTION
Fire detection systems are compulsory in ships which have periodically
unattended machinery spa...
4/7/2014 28
METHOD OF FIRE DETECTION:
Sight- Infra red flame detectors, sensing flicker patterns,
smoke detectors using l...
AUTOMATIC FIRE DETECTION SYSTEMS
Automatic fire detection systems, when combined with
other elements of an emergency respo...
Manual Fire Detection - Pull Stations
4/7/2014 30
Manual fire detection is the oldest method of detection. In the
simplest...
Automatic Detectors – Spot type
4/7/2014 31
Spot Type Detector. A device in which the detecting Element is concentrated at...
Automatic Detectors – Photoelectric
4/7/2014 32
Light Scattering Smoke Detection. The principle of using a
light source an...
Automatic Detectors – Ionization
4/7/2014 33
Ionization smoke detectors use an ionization chamber and a
source of ionizing...
Ionization Smoke detector
Ionization Smoke Detection. The principle of using a
small amount of radioactive material to ion...
Automatic Detectors – Ionization
4/7/2014 35
Ionization Smoke detectors
The alpha particles generated by the americium hav...
Ionization Smoke detectors
When smoke enters the ionization chamber, it disrupts this
current -- the smoke particles attac...
Smoke Detectors
Ionization Detectors
The ionization detector contains a small
radioactive source that is used to charge
th...
Smoke Detectors
 Photoelectric Detectors
In a photoelectric smoke detector, a
light source and light sensor are
arranged ...
4/7/2014 39
Smoke detectors must not operate below 2% obscuration
per metre, but must activate before 12.5% obscuration.
H...
4/7/2014 40
Smoke and heat
detectors must
also be sited to
avoid stratification:
that is the detector
must not be
blankete...
4/7/2014 41
In this case, the
increasing
convection air
currents have
created a flow of
combustion
products across
the det...
4/7/2014 42
As shown,
detector heads
must be
positioned to
allow easy
passage of
combustion
products in all
fire scenarios...
Automatic Detectors – Heat/Thermal
4/7/2014 43
Heat Detector. A fire detector that detects either abnormally high
temperat...
Automatic Detectors – Fixed Temp.
4/7/2014 44
Fixed-Temperature Detector. A device that responds when its operating
elemen...
4/7/2014 45
HEAT DETECTION
BI METALLIC STRIP
Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer,
International Maritime Academy, Ban...
Heat Detectors
Heat detectors are normally used in
dirty environments or where dense
smoke is produced. Heat detectors
may...
Heat Detectors
Heat detectors use a set of
temperature-sensitive resistors called
thermistors that decrease in resistance
...
Automatic Detectors – Rate-of-Rise
4/7/2014 48
Rate-of-Rise Detector. A device that responds when the temperature rises at...
4/7/2014 49
HEAT DETECTION
RATE OF RISE:
TWO BI METALLIC STRIPS
Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer,
International Ma...
Automatic Detectors – Combination
4/7/2014 50
Combination Detector. A device that either responds to more than one of the ...
Automatic Detectors – Flame
4/7/2014 51
Flame Detector. A radiant energy-sensing detector that detects the radiant energy
...
Automatic Detectors – Flame
4/7/2014 52
Due to their fast detection capabilities, flame detectors are generally
used only ...
Flame Detectors
Flame detectors are line-
of-sight devices that look
for specific types of light
(infrared, visible,
ultra...
4/7/2014 54
INFRA RED
DETECTOR
Detects radiation in
a particular narrow
band –”flame
flicker”
Can be confused by
flickerin...
4/7/2014 55
This detector senses
the ultra violet
spectrum of a flame
and is less sensitive
to false alarms.
Mohd. Hanif D...
Automatic Detectors – Linear Type
4/7/2014 56
Line-Type Detector. A device in which detection is continuous along a path.
...
Automatic Detectors – Air Sampling
4/7/2014 57
Air Sampling-Type Detector. A detector that consists of a piping or tubing
...
Installation
For fire detection devices to give a prompt warning
of a fire, they must be appropriate for the location
you ...
Detector selection 1
Smoke detectors
Ionization or photoelectric smoke detectors are designed
to identify a fire during it...
Detector selection 2
Heat detectors
Heat detectors are ideal for areas where flammable
gasses and liquids are handled or a...
Detector selection 3
Flame detectors
Flame detectors are best for protecting:
 Areas with high ceilings and open-spaces, ...
General guidelines for placing fire
detectors
 Put at least one detector in each room, storage area, and
hallway. You may...
Placing Fire Detectors
 Place the detectors in the
path of the air flow toward
the return air duct when
air supply or ret...
Maintenance and testing
Over time, dust, dirt, and other foreign material can build up
inside a detector’s sensing element...
Maintenance and testing
 Test and adjust fire detectors and fire detection systems
often to ensure that they operate corr...
Maintenance and testing
All fire detection equipment must be returned to
normal operation as soon as possible after being
...
4/7/2014 67
TESTING A SMOKE
DETECTOR
Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer,
International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
Notification/ Alarming Appliances
4/7/2014 68
Notification/ Alarming Appliance. A fire alarm system component
such as a be...
Fire Alarm Circuit Classes
4/7/2014 69
Class. Initiating device circuits, notification appliance circuits, and
signaling l...
Class B Initiating Device Circuit
4.7K
EOLR
4.7K
EOLR
Class B Notification Appliance Circuit
Class B Circuits
4/7/2014 70
...
Single open circuit condition causes a
trouble on the panel and renders all
devices beyond the fault inoperative.
Class B ...
Class A Initiating Device Circuit
Class A Notification Appliance Circuit
Class A Circuits
4/7/2014 72
End of line supervis...
Class A Initiating Device Circuit
Class A Notification Appliance Circuit
Class A Circuits
4/7/2014 73
Single open circuit ...
Analog Addressable Sensor - An initiating device that transmits a signal
indicating varying dAddressable Device - A fire a...
 Conventional control panels range in size from 1 zone
to over 100 zones.
 Zones typically consist of some or all of the...
Conventional Systems
4/7/2014 76
Zone 1
4.7K
EOLR
Zone 2
FIREFIRE
SILENT KNIGHT
FIREFIRE
SILENT KNIGHT
FIREFIRE
SILENT KNI...
Conventional Systems
4/7/2014 77
Care must be taken when laying
out zones to comply with code
requirements.
Zone 1
4.7K
EO...
Conventional Systems
4/7/2014 78
Wiring must be installed in a
supervised manner either Class A,
or Class B with an EOLR.
...
Conventional Systems
4/7/2014 79
Alarm conditions are annunciated
by zone only. Inspection is
required to determine the de...
Conventional Systems
4/7/2014 80
Trouble conditions are annunciated
by zone only. Inspection is required
to determine the ...
4/7/2014 81
A simplified view of
the layout of a fire
detection system,
featuring
normal/emergency
power supply,
UPS,Loop,...
4/7/2014 82
CABLE LAYOUT
LOOP and LINE monitoring
LOOP MONITORING
The continuity of the cable is
checked by both circuits ...
4/7/2014 83
CABLE LAYOUT
LOOP MONITORING
Failure modes-damage
causes open or short circuit
on cables.
Short circuit, no
di...
4/7/2014 84
CABLE LAYOUT
LOOP MONITORING
In each case faults must be
examined immediately
Whilst the fault condition exist...
4/7/2014 85
Line monitoring: Damage to loop
Short circuit shuts down the system and gives Fire alarm.
Open circuit raises ...
C/E HANIF DEWAN 864/7/2014 86
FIRE EXTINGUISHING METHODS
Method of Extinguishing Fire:
• Starvation: Removing or Limiting ...
C/E HANIF DEWAN 874/7/2014 87
Fire Extinguishing Agents
• COOLING: WATER
•SMOTHERING: FOAM, CARBON
DIOXIDE, SAND, FIRE BLA...
4/7/2014 88
FIRE FIGHTING SYSTEMS
All fire fighting systems are used to either:
Remove Heat
Remove Oxygen
Remove fuel
or
C...
4/7/2014 89
FIRE FIGHTING SYSTEMS
Water acts by:-
Removing heat as it turns to steam.
Blanketing (excluding oxygen) when...
4/7/2014 90
FIRE MAIN
A sea water supply system to fire hydrants is fitted to every
ship. Several pumps in the engine room...
4/7/2014 91
FIRE MAIN (Cont’d)
These nozzles are usually of the jet/spray type providing either
type of discharge as requi...
4/7/2014 92
FIREMAIN LAYOUT
Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer,
International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
4/7/2014 93
INTERNATIONAL
SHORE
CONNECTION
Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer,
International Maritime Academy, Bangl...
4/7/2014 94
INTERNATIONAL
SHORE
CONNECTION
Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer,
International Maritime Academy, Bangl...
4/7/2014 95
The fire main has a number of dedicated fire pumps:
- Main fire pumps, located in the main machinery spaces.
-...
4/7/2014 96
Certain areas, such as the paint locker are protected
by manually operated spray systems, supplied by the
Fire...
4/7/2014 97
Automatic FRESH water spray
The automatic spray or sprinkler system provides a network of
sprinkler heads thro...
Automatic Fire Sprinklers
Fire sprinklers are most effective during the fire's
initial flame growth stage. A properly sele...
Automatic Fire Sprinklers
Sprinkler systems offer several benefits to building
owners, operators, and occupants. These ben...
Automatic Fire Sprinklers
 For most fires, water represents the ideal extinguishing
agent. Fire sprinklers utilize water ...
Automatic Fire Sprinklers
During the incipient fire stage, heat output is relatively
low and unable to cause sprinkler ope...
4/7/2014 102
HEAD is pressurised by
Fresh water
BULB keeps
valve closed.
Heat causes alcohol inside bulb to
expand, shatte...
4/7/2014 103
FRESHWATER SPRINKLER
SYSTEM
Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer,
International Maritime Academy, Banglad...
4/7/2014 104
SPRINKLER HEADS
The different colours denote different operating temperatures,
but the alcohol is the same, o...
Standard Sprinkler Head Styles
4/7/2014 105
Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer,
International Maritime Academy, Bang...
Automatic Fire Sprinkler System
4/7/2014 106
Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer,
International Maritime Academy, Ban...
Automatic Fire Sprinkler System
4/7/2014 107
Fire Pump & Jockey Pump
Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer,
Internation...
Automatic Fire Sprinklers
4/7/2014 108
Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer,
International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
4/7/2014 109
Typical low pressure
sprinkler system
NOT HIGH FOG
Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer,
International Ma...
4/7/2014 110
EXPANSION
Supply for up to 200 sprinkler
heads
Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer,
International Mariti...
4/7/2014 111
HIGH FOG
Cool and smother, using the latent heat properties of water to
cool, and expansion into steam to tem...
4/7/2014 112
Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer,
International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
4/7/2014 113
The detail shown right, features
the pump taking suction from
the fresh water tank.
The system is manually
op...
4/7/2014 114
Hi Fog droplets are extremely small, increased surface
area causes them to flash into steam, latent heat is
a...
4/7/2014 115
SMOTHERING
Removal of Oxygen
FOAM
Simple foam
installation,with
seawater mixing with
foam compound(usually
pr...
4/7/2014 116
A simple CO2 driven foam system
Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer,
International Maritime Academy, Ban...
4/7/2014 117
Exact metering of
foam compounds
and water.
Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer,
International Maritime ...
4/7/2014 118
Types of foam available for marine use:
1. Protein base ( PF)
2. Flouro protein foam (FP)
3. Film forming flu...
4/7/2014 119
Hi-Ex-limited use due to
lightness of foam-
convection currents easily
blow the foam away.Must
be delivered f...
4/7/2014 120
SMOTHER
INERT GASES to TEMPORARILY or PERMANENTLY remove OXYGEN
from the seat of the fire
Temporary-discharge...
4/7/2014 121
0
5 10 15 20
5
10
15
20
% O2 in mixture
%hydrocarbongasinthe
mixture
Inflammable zone
10%
2%
Inert
Mohd. Hani...
4/7/2014 122
The flammable range is
relatively narrow, so that
any new gas introduced
into the space will either
displace ...
4/7/2014 123
In the case of discharge of
CO2, the energy released as
the CO2 expands, plus the
smothering action of the
CO...
4/7/2014 124
In the case of inerting
hydrocarbon cargo tanks, inert
gas is produced from a
combustion unit, so that O2
con...
4/7/2014 125
CO2 Fixed Fire Extinguishing System for Machinery Space
Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer,
Internation...
CO2 System operation in Machinery Spaces
A Co2 system of machinery spaces consists of a bank of Co2 bottles that
can be op...
- The detection of fire is done by various sensors installed in the machinery
spaces.Though the opening of control box ope...
4/7/2014 128
The mass of CO2
required is defined
under a typical
calculation as shown.
This calculation is for a
container...
4/7/2014 129
THE FOLLOWING THINGS TO BE CONSIDERED:
1. The mass of CO2 required obviously has to take up free space i.e. a...
4/7/2014 130
5. Consequently the vessel is helpless and you must summon help.
In addition, CO2 is a “one shot” system and ...
4/7/2014 131
The system shown
features both pilot
and smothering
bottles.
Amount of pilot a gas
DOES NOT feature in
the ca...
4/7/2014 132
Release cabinets for the ER system are located outside the engine room door
and in the CO2 room.
Release cabi...
4/7/2014 133
When the cargo hold system is discharged, ventilation is stopped
and the correct amount of bottles for each h...
4/7/2014 134
GERMAN FLAG, GL approved system!!
Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer,
International Maritime Academy, B...
4/7/2014 135
Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer,
International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
4/7/2014 136
Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer,
International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
4/7/2014 137
A method of
storage developed
in the 1980’s was
the use of
refrigerated low
pressure storage
in a single
con...
4/7/2014 138
Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer,
International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
4/7/2014 139
Safe use of CO2 :-
Ventilation fans off, space sealed, machinery stopped, tanks
isolated.
 Total head count...
4/7/2014 140
Cargo and container ships
monitor the holds using a
smoke extraction system,
that removes the
atmospheric con...
4/7/2014 141
In the event of a smoke alarm, the
ventilation system is stopped and the
three way sampling cocks are turned ...
Co2 System for Cargo Space
The release mechanism of CO2 system in cargo spaces is same as that
of the machinery spaces. Th...
Checks on the CO2 system:
i. Pipes leading to the spaces should regularly be blown
with air to ensure that they are not bl...
4/7/2014 144
OTHER METHOD OF SMOTHERING OF FIRES:
Smothering of a fire can also be achieved by using inert gas
produced on...
4/7/2014 145
MAIN BOILER
Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer,
International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
4/7/2014 146
MAIN BOILER
Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer,
International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
4/7/2014 147
System using exhaust gases
from a boiler on load
producing steam
Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer,
In...
4/7/2014 148
This unit, sometimes called an
autonomous unit, burns diesel
oil to generate a very low
oxygen content in the...
The Oxygen Depleted Condition
No Fire can take Place even in the presence of Heat or Fuel
because there is not enough oxyg...
The Flammability diagram
8 %
Inerted Condition
4/7/2014 150
Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer,
International Mariti...
The percentage of oxygen required to sustain combustion:
More than 11 %
What percentage of oxygen are required to maintain...
4/7/2014 152
CHAINBREAKERS
HALON
Still legal under IMO legislation
but not UK legislation ( or other
EU countries plus CAN...
4/7/2014 153
CHAINBREAKERS
Originally only Halon, ( see MGN 258). Alternative environmentally friendly
gasses now availabl...
4/7/2014 154
1. HALON is a CFC and so has the same OZONE depletion
affect as R11 and R12.
2. NOVEC 1230 is a HALON replace...
4/7/2014 155
Water Foam Dry Powder CO2 Halocarbon
HAND HELD FIRE EXTINGUISHERS
Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer,
I...
Portable Fire Extinguishers
firemain and hose reel system
(manual actuation)
4/7/2014 156
Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. ...
4/7/2014 157
Types of fire extinguishers
Different types of fire extinguishers are designed to
fight different types of fi...
4/7/2014 158
WATER EXTINGUISHER
Extinguish fire by cooling
the surface of the fuel to
remove the "heat"
element of the fir...
4/7/2014 159
WATER EXTINGUISHER
Important:
Never use water to extinguish flammable liquid
fires. Water is extremely ineffe...
4/7/2014 160
Foam Fire Extinguisher
Modern synthetic AFFF offers a
very effective means of
extinguishing fires that involv...
4/7/2014 161
Foam Fire Extinguisher
With flammable liquids (Class B materials) , allow
the foam to gently flow over the su...
4/7/2014 162
Carbon dioxide extinguishers
This type of extinguisher is filled
with Carbon Dioxide (CO2), a
non-flammable g...
4/7/2014 163
Carbon dioxide extinguishers
You can recognize this type
of extinguisher by its hard
horn and absent pressure...
4/7/2014 164
Carbon dioxide extinguishers
Important:
CO2 is not recommended for Class A fires because they
may continue to...
4/7/2014 165
Dry chemical extinguishers
Dry chemical extinguishers put out
fires by coating the fuel with a thin
layer of ...
4/7/2014 166
Dry chemical extinguishers
ABC fire extinguishers
are red in color, and
range in size from five
pounds to 20 ...
4/7/2014 167
Fire Blanket
Fires in small utensils containing cooking fats can be
extinguished by smothering with Asbestos ...
4/7/2014 168
Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer,
International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
4/7/2014 169
Using a fire extinguisher
The following steps should be followed when responding to
incipient stage fire:
 S...
4/7/2014 170
Using a fire extinguisher
Most fire extinguishers operate using
the following P.A.S.S. technique:
1.PULL... P...
4/7/2014 171C/E HANIF DEWAN 171
FOUR METHOD OF FIRE EXTINGUISHMENT
Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer,
International...
Provision for fire protection
 Ship division - main vertical zones by thermal &
structural boundaries
 Inert gas protect...
Basic principles
 Division into main and vertical zones by thermal and
structural boundaries
 Separate accommodation spa...
Bulkheads & decks
 Divide vessel into number of separate divisions
 Heat / flame must penetrate before can spread to
ano...
Class divisions
 Ability of composite materials which are used as
load-bearing "A" or "B" class divisions to withstand
th...
Non-combustible material
 Material which neither burns nor gives off
flammable vapours in sufficient quantity for self-
i...
Standard time – temperature curve
 At the end of the first 05 min – 556oC
 At the end of the first 10 min – 659oC
 At t...
A lass di isio ulkhead a d de k
 Constructed from steel or other equivalent material
 Suitably stiffened
 Capable preve...
A lass di isio ulkhead a d de k
 Average temperature of unexposed side will not rise
more than:
 139°C above the origina...
B lass di isio ulkhead, de k, eili g o li i gs)
 Constructed to capable preventing flame passage
until end of the first h...
B lass di isio ulkhead, de k, eili g o
li i gs o t/…
 Constructed of approved non-combustible
materials
 All materials e...
Main vertical zones
 Those sections which the hull, super structure and
deckhouses are divided by ‘A’ class divisions
 m...
Public Spaces
 Public Spaces are those portions of the
accommodation which are used for halls, dining
rooms, lounges and ...
Ro-Ro Cargo Spaces
 Spaces not normally subdivided and extending
to either a substantial length or entire length of
vesse...
Open Ro-Ro cargo spaces
 Spaces that either open at both ends, or have an
opening at one end, and are provided with adequ...
Machinery Spaces of Category A
(1 July 2002)
 Spaces and trunks to such spaces which contain
either:
 Internal combustio...
WATERTIGHT
DOOR
4/7/2014 188
Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer,
International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
Watertight doors
 Design to prevent the water movement thru the doorway
 Must match with bulkhead connected
 3 classes ...
Fire dampers
 Thin steel plate 3.2mm thick & suitable stiffened
 Placed in ventilation duct, held in open position by
fu...
INERT GAS SYSTEM
 Sources:
 Ships main or aux boiler uptakes
 Generating plant burning diesel/light FO
 Replace O2 con...
Inert gas system
 Time allowed for complete extinction, sufficient cool
before dissipate gas and air entrance
 Asphyxiat...
Nitrogen
 Fire smothering agent
 Fire / explosion preventive agent
 In case others unacceptable – contaminated cargo
 ...
Fire main configurations
 Must fulfill the followings:
 Max discharge from 2 fire pumps up to 50 psi
 Main line diamete...
Other operation required
 Maintaining cleanliness on board
 Observances of smoking only in approved spaces
 Keeping doo...
Ship fire fighting organisation
 Bridge - central control station
 Master – full in charge
 Fire officer/officers repor...
Information required by central control station
 Time at fire alarm was given
 Position and nature of fire
 Confirmatio...
Information available on bridge
 Drawing arrangement in convenient size for
ship, engine room & accommodation
 Details –...
Methods of communication
available
 Telephones
 Loud hailers
 Direct speech - bridge to MCR
 Hand-held radio telephone...
Damage control and fires containment
 Bridge - closing watertight & fire doors
 Stopping ventilation fans, closing of da...
Monitoring and controlling ship stability
 Calculating changes in GM due to weight of
extinguishing water and its free su...
Organization of fire parties
 Identification of each fire party
 Identification of each member of fire party
 Safeguard...
Location & use of portable
extinguishers
 Water
 Foam
 Dry powder
 Carbon dioxide
 Halon
4/7/2014 206
Mohd. Hanif Dew...
Location & use of mobile extinguishers
 Foam
 Dry powder
 Carbon dioxide
4/7/2014 207
Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. L...
Location & use of fixed extinguishing
system
 Fire hydrants, hoses & nozzles
 Water sprinklers
 Water sprays
 Foam sys...
Lo atio & use of fi e a ’s outfit
 Learn how to don protective clothing quickly
 Knowing where it is stowed / comprise
...
Fire in cargo spaces
 Location – in holds, tween deck or containers
 Types – involving dangerous goods
4/7/2014 210
Mohd...
Training for fire party members
 Instruction of duties being assigned
 Instruction of duties being allocated
 Exercises...
Fire Protection, Detection and Extinguishing:
• This Chapter was totally reviewed in the Amendments
published on
December ...
Fire Protection, Detection and Extinguishing:
PART A - GENERAL
• Regulation 1. Application
• Regulation 2. Fire safety obj...
Fire Protection, Detection and Extinguishing:
PART C- SUPPRESSION OF FIRE
• Regulation 7. Detection and alarm
• Regulation...
Fire Protection, Detection and Extinguishing:
PART E - OPERATIONAL REQUIREMENTS
• Regulation 14. Operational readiness and...
PART A - GENERAL
Reg. 1 – Application
1. Application
2. Applicable requirements to existing ships
3. Repairs, alterations...
Reg. 2 - Fire safety Objectives and
Functional Requirements
1. Fire safety objectives
2. Functional requirements
3. Achiev...
Fire Safety Objectives
• Prevent the occurrence of fire and explosion;
• Reduce the risk to life caused by fire
• Reduce t...
Functional Requirements
• Division of the ship into main vertical and horizontal
zones with structural and thermal boundar...
Some Definitions
Accommodation Spaces - spaces used for public spaces,
corridors, lavatories, cabins, offices, hospitals, ...
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements

6,031

Published on

Fire Protection, Fire Detection & Fire Extinguishing and SOLAS Requirements by Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh.

Published in: Education, Technology, Business
2 Comments
33 Likes
Statistics
Notes
No Downloads
Views
Total Views
6,031
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
8
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
409
Comments
2
Likes
33
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Fire Fighting and SOLAS Requirements

  1. 1. Fire Protection, Fire Detection and Fire Extinguishing Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  2. 2. FIRE WHAT IS FIRE?  Fire is a chemical process, which involves burning of any substance (combustion).  The combustible material that burns with the help of oxygen result in the production of heat & light, is called FIRE 4/7/2014 2 Fire is not always harmful but only when it goes out of control. Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  3. 3. FIRE HAZARDS / SOURCES • Short Circuits (faulty electrical wires and switchboards) • Naked Lights • Explosive and fire works • Unmindful Smoking • Radiation • Mechanical heat & spark • Spontaneous combustion 4/7/2014 3 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  4. 4. 4/7/2014 4 • Mechanical sparks from grinding, chipping or welding friction or funnel sparks are low- energy sparks which may start a smoldering fire • Electric sparks, sparks from electrostatic discharge and high energy mechanical sparks may ignite flammable vapors • Electric arc welding Sparks • Hotplates • Heating pipes • Exhaust manifolds • Faulty machinery • Electric light bulbs Hot surfaces • Smoking materials • Oil-fired boilers • Incinerators • Hot work such as flame cutting and gas welding. Flames or smoldering sources ExamplesType of Sources Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  5. 5. 4/7/2014 5 • Substances liable to self-heat (usually due to oxidation) • Fibrous material soaked in organic oils such as vegetable oils, the oils used in paints or hydraulic oils. • Rotting vegetable matter • Chemicals or organic materials contaminated with an oxidizing agent such as sewage treatment tablets • Mineral oils and carbonaceous materials are liable to self heating if external heating is applied first • Metal dwarf – especially if contaminated with oil and rags Spontaneous combustion • Overloaded wiring or equipment with a short circuit or a short to earthElectrical overheating Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  6. 6. 4/7/2014 6 TYPES OF FIRES As of new definitions of IMO, May 2007, there are 6 types of fire onboard ships: Class A: Fires that involve flammable solids such as wood, cloth,paper and some plastics. Class B: Fires that involve flammable liquids or liquifiable solids such as petrol, oil, paint and some waxes and plastics (BUT NOT cooking fats or oils). Class C: Fires that involve flammable gases such as methane propane hydrogen Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  7. 7. 4/7/2014 7 Class D: Fires that involve combustible metals such as sodium, magnesium, and potassium. Class E: Fires that involve any of the materials found in Class A and B fires: BUT ALSO with the introduction of an electrical appliances, wiring, or other electrically energized objects in the vicinity of the fire, with a resultant electrical shock risk if a conductivity agent is used to control the fire. Class F: Fires involving cooking fats and oils. The high temperature of the oils when on fire far exceeds that of other flammable liquids making normal extinguishing agents ineffective Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  8. 8. 4/7/2014 8 FIRE TRIANGLE To understand how fire extinguishers work, you need to understand a little about fire. Fire is a very rapid chemical reaction between oxygen and a combustible material, which results in the release of heat, light, flames, and smoke. 8 HEAT/ENERGY Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  9. 9. 4/7/2014 9 FIRE TRIANGLE For fire to exist, the following four elements must be present at the same time:  Enough oxygen to sustain combustion,  Enough heat to raise the material to its ignition temperature,  Some sort of fuel or combustible material, and  The chemical reaction (FIRE) 9 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  10. 10. 10 The components of the fire tetrahedron: fuel, heat, oxygen and chemical chain reaction 4/7/2014 10 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  11. 11. 11 Don’t Make a Fire Triangle! Understanding the three sides of the fire triangle, and being able to recognize them in everyday situation is the key to fire prevention. FUELFUEL Remember: Where there is fuel and air keep heat away  Where there is air and heat keep fuel away  Where there is heat and fuel keep air away NEVER COMPLETE THE FIRE TRIANGLE ! 114/7/2014 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  12. 12. 4/7/2014 12 FIRE SPREAD Fire spreads by • CONDUCTION: transfer of heat through solid body. • CONVECTION: through the motion of heated matter, i.e. through the motion of smoke, air, gases etc. produced by fire. • RADIATION: heat radiation is the transfer of heat from a source without a material substance being involved. 12 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  13. 13. Conduction  Transfer of heat through a solid body such as metals as a very good conductor of heat.  Since most ships are constructed by metal, heat transfer by conduction is a potential hazard.  Fire can easily move from one compartment to another, one deck to another, and one compartment to another because of heat conduction.  Heat is being conducted to the adjoining spaces by the metal deck and bulkhead, then the bulkhead paint is blistering (extremely hot) because vapourization has already begun. 4/7/2014 13 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  14. 14. 14 CONDUCTION An example of conduction: The temperature along the rod rises because of the increased movement of molecules from the heat of the flame. 144/7/2014 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  15. 15. 4/7/2014 15 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  16. 16. Radiation  Heat radiation is the transfer of heat from a source across the space or travels outward from the fire in the same manner as light in straight lines to produce vapour and then igniting the vspour.  When contacts a body, it is absorbed, reflected or transmitted. Absorbed heat increases the temperature of the absorbing body.  Heat radiates in all directions unless it is obstructed 4/7/2014 16 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  17. 17. 17 Radiation: The transmission of energy as an electromagnetic wave without an intervening medium. 4/7/2014 17 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  18. 18. 4/7/2014 18 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  19. 19. Convection  The transfer or carries of heat through a liquid or gaseous body such as movement of smoke, hot air and heated gases produced by fire.  The replacement of hot and cool air to that particular point resulting in reheated and raised the temperature thus create a fire 4/7/2014 19 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  20. 20. 20 CONVECTION Convection: The transfer of the heat energy by the movement of heated liquids or gases. 204/7/2014 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  21. 21. 4/7/2014 21 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  22. 22. Fire hazards in engine room  Combustible liquids – FO, DO, LO  Oil leaks & oil soaked insulation  Hot surfaces – exhaust pipes, engine parts overheating  Defects in lagging  Hot work – welding, cutting, oxy acetylene  Auto ignition – oil dripping on hot surface auto- ignition, e.g. oil dripping on hot surface 4/7/2014 22 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  23. 23. Fire hazards in galley  Combustible liquids – cooking oil, hot fat  Hot surfaces - ovens, frying pans, flues  Defective electrical connections 4/7/2014 23 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  24. 24. Fire hazards in accommodation  Combustible materials - furnishing, personal effects  Matches and cigarette smoking  Defective or overloaded electrical systems 4/7/2014 24 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  25. 25. Fire hazards from cargoes  Self-heating cargo & spontaneous combustion  Oxidizing cargoes and organic peroxides  Compressed flammable gas  Pyrophoric cargoes  flammable liquids and solids  substances liable to react with  Themselves  Water  Other cargoes  Materials of the ship  Explosives 4/7/2014 25 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  26. 26. Four phases of fire development  Ignition (incipient)  Developing (surfaces fire)  Absolute fire (fire in depth in solids)  Burning out To consider;  Temperature of normal fire such as coal, wood or hydrocarbon fires, and the temperature in burning metals  Effect of temperature rise on the rate of the chain reaction - fire intensity 4/7/2014 26 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  27. 27. 4/7/2014 27 FIRE DETECTION Fire detection systems are compulsory in ships which have periodically unattended machinery spaces. A fire detection system consists of the following elements: Human observation Manual fire alarms Automatic Fire detectors-smoke, flame,heat (gas, H2S) Combinations of the above Fire detection system requirements are detailed in SOLAS CHAPTER II-2 Human observation relies on the human senses: Sight Sound Smell Taste Touch Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  28. 28. 4/7/2014 28 METHOD OF FIRE DETECTION: Sight- Infra red flame detectors, sensing flicker patterns, smoke detectors using light sources in “go” or “no go” light transmission and reception. Sound-not really yet! Smell and Taste- combustion products entering an ionized chamber. Touch- Heat detectors, including absolute temperature and rate of rise temperatures. Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  29. 29. AUTOMATIC FIRE DETECTION SYSTEMS Automatic fire detection systems, when combined with other elements of an emergency response and evacuation plan, can significantly reduce property damage, personal injuries, and loss of life from fire in the workplace. Their main function is to quickly identify a developing fire and alert building/Office occupants and emergency response personnel before extensive damage occurs. Automatic fire detection systems do this by using electronic sensors to detect the smoke, heat, or flames from a fire and providing an early warning. 4/7/2014 29 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  30. 30. Manual Fire Detection - Pull Stations 4/7/2014 30 Manual fire detection is the oldest method of detection. In the simplest form, a person yelling can provide fire warning. Onboard a ship, however, a person's voice may not always transmit throughout the structure and machinery sound. For this reason, manual alarm stations are installed. The general design philosophy is to place stations within reach along paths of escape. It is for this reason that they can usually be found near exit doors in corridors and large rooms. The advantage of manual alarm stations is that, upon discovering the fire, they provide occupants with a readily identifiable means to activate the building fire alarm system. The alarm system can then serve in lieu of the shouting person's voice. They are simple devices, and can be highly reliable when the building is occupied. The key disadvantage of manual stations is that they will not work when the building is unoccupied. They may also be used for malicious alarm activations. Nonetheless, they are an important component in any fire alarm system. A manually operated device used to initiate an alarm signal. Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  31. 31. Automatic Detectors – Spot type 4/7/2014 31 Spot Type Detector. A device in which the detecting Element is concentrated at a particular location. Typical examples are Bimetallic detectors, fusible alloy detectors, certain pneumatic rate-of-rise Detectors, certain smoke detectors, and thermoelectric detectors. Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  32. 32. Automatic Detectors – Photoelectric 4/7/2014 32 Light Scattering Smoke Detection. The principle of using a light source and a photosensitive sensor arranged so that the rays from the light source do not normally fall onto the photosensitive sensor. When smoke particles enter the light path, some of the light is scattered by reflection and refraction onto the sensor. The light signal is processed and used to convey an alarm condition when it meets preset criteria. Hochiki SLR-24V detector Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  33. 33. Automatic Detectors – Ionization 4/7/2014 33 Ionization smoke detectors use an ionization chamber and a source of ionizing radiation to detect smoke. This type of smoke detector is more common because it is inexpensive and better at detecting the smaller amounts of smoke produced by flaming fires. Inside the ionization detector is a small amount (perhaps 1/5000th of a gram) of Americium-241. The radioactive element americium has a half-life of 432 years, and is a good source of alpha particles. An ionization chamber is very simple. It consists of two plates with a voltage across them, along with a radioactive source of ionizing radiation. Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  34. 34. Ionization Smoke detector Ionization Smoke Detection. The principle of using a small amount of radioactive material to ionize the air between two differentially charged electrodes to sense the presence of smoke particles. Smoke Particles entering the ionization volume decrease the conductance of the air by reducing ion mobility. The reduced conductance signal is processed and used to convey an alarm condition when it meets preset criteria. 4/7/2014 34 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  35. 35. Automatic Detectors – Ionization 4/7/2014 35 Ionization Smoke detectors The alpha particles generated by the americium have the following property: They ionize the oxygen and nitrogen atoms of the air in the chamber. To "ionize" means to "knock an electron off of." When you knock an electron off of an atom, you end up with a free electron (with a negative charge) and an atom missing one electron (with a positive charge). The negative electron is attracted to the plate with a positive voltage, and the positive atom is attracted to the plate with a negative voltage (opposites attract, just like with magnets). The electronics in the smoke detector sense the small amount of electrical current that these electrons and ions moving toward the plates represent. Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  36. 36. Ionization Smoke detectors When smoke enters the ionization chamber, it disrupts this current -- the smoke particles attach to the ions and neutralize them. The smoke detector senses the drop in current between the plates and sets off the horn. 4/7/2014 36 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  37. 37. Smoke Detectors Ionization Detectors The ionization detector contains a small radioactive source that is used to charge the air inside a small chamber. The charged air allows a small current to cross through the chamber and complete an electrical circuit. When smoke enters the chamber, it shields the radiation, which stops the current and triggers an alarm. These detectors respond quickly to very small smoke particles (even those invisible to the naked eye) from flaming or very hot fires, but may respond very slowly to the dense smoke associated with smoldering or low-temperature fires. 4/7/2014 37 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  38. 38. Smoke Detectors  Photoelectric Detectors In a photoelectric smoke detector, a light source and light sensor are arranged so that the rays from the light source do not hit the light sensor. When smoke particles enter the light path, some of the light is scattered and redirected onto the sensor, causing the detector to activate an alarm. These detectors react quickly to visible smoke particles from smoldering fires, but are less sensitive to the smaller particles associated with flaming or very hot fires. 4/7/2014 38 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  39. 39. 4/7/2014 39 Smoke detectors must not operate below 2% obscuration per metre, but must activate before 12.5% obscuration. Heat detectors must not operate below 540C but must operate before 780C. However, in certain cases the heat detector limits may be increased by 300C Type AREA ( MAX) DISTANCE APART Distance From Bulkhead HEAT 37m2 9m 4.5m SMOKE 74m2 11m 5.5m Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  40. 40. 4/7/2014 40 Smoke and heat detectors must also be sited to avoid stratification: that is the detector must not be blanketed by layers of hot air. Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  41. 41. 4/7/2014 41 In this case, the increasing convection air currents have created a flow of combustion products across the detectors. Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  42. 42. 4/7/2014 42 As shown, detector heads must be positioned to allow easy passage of combustion products in all fire scenarios Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  43. 43. Automatic Detectors – Heat/Thermal 4/7/2014 43 Heat Detector. A fire detector that detects either abnormally high temperature, or rate of temperature rise, or both. Heat detectors are the oldest type of automatic fire detection device. They began development of automatic sprinklers in the 1860s and have continued to the present with proliferation of various types of devices. Heat detectors that only initiate an alarm and have no extinguishing function are still in use. Although they have the lowest false alarm rate of all automatic fire detector devices, they also are the slowest in fire detecting. A heat detector is best situated for fire detection in a small confined space where rapidly building high- output fires are expected, in areas where ambient conditions would not allow the use of other fire detection devices, or when speed of detection is not a prime consideration. Heat detectors are generally located on or near the ceiling and respond to the convected thermal energy of a fire. They respond either when the detecting element reaches a predetermined fixed temperature or to a specified rate of temperature change. In general, heat detectors are designed to operate when heat causes a prescribed change in a physical or electrical property of a material or gas. Heat detectors can be sub-divided by their operating principles:Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  44. 44. Automatic Detectors – Fixed Temp. 4/7/2014 44 Fixed-Temperature Detector. A device that responds when its operating element becomes heated to a predetermined level. Fixed-temperature heat detectors are designed to alarm when the temperature of the operating elements reaches a specific point. The air temperature at the time of alarm is usually considerably higher than the rated temperature because it takes time for the air to raise the temperature of the operating element to its set point. This condition is called thermal lag. Fixed-temperature heat detectors are available to cover a wide range of operating temperatures - from about 135'F (57'C) and higher. Higher temperatures detectors are also necessary so that detection can be provided in areas normally subject to high ambient temperatures, or in areas zoned so that only detectors in the immediate fire area operate. Heat Detector Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  45. 45. 4/7/2014 45 HEAT DETECTION BI METALLIC STRIP Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  46. 46. Heat Detectors Heat detectors are normally used in dirty environments or where dense smoke is produced. Heat detectors may be less sensitive, but are more appropriate than a smoke detector in these environments. The most common heat detectors either react to a broad temperature change or a predetermined fixed temperature. 4/7/2014 46 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  47. 47. Heat Detectors Heat detectors use a set of temperature-sensitive resistors called thermistors that decrease in resistance as the temperature rises. One thermistor is sealed and protected from the surrounding temperature while the other is exposed. A sharp increase in temperature reduces the resistance in the exposed thermistor, which allows a large current to activate the detector's alarm. 4/7/2014 47 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  48. 48. Automatic Detectors – Rate-of-Rise 4/7/2014 48 Rate-of-Rise Detector. A device that responds when the temperature rises at a rate exceeding a predetermined value One effect that flaming fire has on the surrounding area is to rapidly increase air temperature in the space above the fire. Fixed- temperature heat detectors will not initiate an alarm until the air temperature near the ceiling exceeds the design operating point. The rate-of-rise detector, however, will function when the rate of temperature increase exceeds a predetermined value, typically around 12 to 15'F (7 to 8'C) per minute. Rate-of-rise detectors are designed to compensate for the normal changes in ambient temperature that are expected under non-fire conditions. Hochiki DSC-EA Heat Detector Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  49. 49. 4/7/2014 49 HEAT DETECTION RATE OF RISE: TWO BI METALLIC STRIPS Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  50. 50. Automatic Detectors – Combination 4/7/2014 50 Combination Detector. A device that either responds to more than one of the fire phenomena or employs more than one operating principle to sense one of these phenomena. Typical examples are a combination of a heat detector with a smoke detector or a combination of rate-of-rise and fixed temperature heat detector. This device has listings for each sensing method employed. Combination detectors contain more than one element which responds to fire. These detectors may be designed to respond from either element, or from the combined partial or complete response of both elements. An example of the former is a heat detector that operates on both the rate-of-raise and fixed-temperature principles. Its advantage is that the rate-of-rise element will respond quickly to rapidly developing fire, while the fixed- temperature element will respond to a slowly developing fire when the detecting element reaches its set point temperature. The most common combination detector uses a vented air chamber and a flexible diaphragm for the rate-of-rise function, while the fixed-temperature element is usually leaf-spring restrained by a eutectic metal. When the fixed-temperature element reaches its designated operating temperature, the eutectic metal fuses and releases the spring, which closes the contact. Hochiki DCD Series Fixed Temp/Rate of Rise Heat Detector Hochiki Photoelectric/Heat Smoke Detector Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  51. 51. Automatic Detectors – Flame 4/7/2014 51 Flame Detector. A radiant energy-sensing detector that detects the radiant energy emitted by a flame. Radiant Energy-Sensing Fire Detector. A device that detects radiant energy, such as ultraviolet, visible, or infrared, that is emitted as a product of combustion reaction and obeys the laws of optics. A flame detector responds either to radiant energy visible to the human eye (approx. 4000 to 7700 A) or outside the range of human vision. Similar to the human eye, flame detectors have a 'cone of vision', or viewing angle, that defines the effective detection capability of the detector. With this constraint, the sensitivity increases as the angle of incidence decreases. Such a detector is sensitive to glowing embers, coals, or flames which radiate energy of sufficient intensity and spectral quality to actuate the alarm. Each type of fuel, when burning, produces a flame with specific radiation characteristics. A flame detection system must be chosen for the type of fire that is probable. For example an ultraviolet (UV) detector will respond to a hydrogen fire, but an infrared (IR) detector operating in the 4.4 micron sensitivity range will not. It is imperative therefore; that a qualified fire protection engineer is involved in the design of these systems, along with assistance from the manufacturer's design staff. Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  52. 52. Automatic Detectors – Flame 4/7/2014 52 Due to their fast detection capabilities, flame detectors are generally used only in high-hazard areas, such as fuel-loading platforms, industrial process areas, hyperbaric chambers, high-ceiling areas, and atmospheres in which explosions or very rapid fires may occur. Because flame detectors must be able to 'see' the fire, they must not be blocked by objects placed in front of them. The infrared-type detector, however, has some capability for detecting radiation reflected from walls. Hochiki HF-24 Flame Detector Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  53. 53. Flame Detectors Flame detectors are line- of-sight devices that look for specific types of light (infrared, visible, ultraviolet) emitted by flames during combustion. When the detector recognizes this light from a fire, it sends a signal to activate an alarm. 4/7/2014 53 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  54. 54. 4/7/2014 54 INFRA RED DETECTOR Detects radiation in a particular narrow band –”flame flicker” Can be confused by flickering lights, hence built in time delay. Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  55. 55. 4/7/2014 55 This detector senses the ultra violet spectrum of a flame and is less sensitive to false alarms. Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  56. 56. Automatic Detectors – Linear Type 4/7/2014 56 Line-Type Detector. A device in which detection is continuous along a path. Typical examples are rate-of-rise pneumatic tubing detectors, projected beam smoke detectors, and heat sensitive cable. Projected Beam-Type Detector. A type of photoelectric light obscuration smoke detector wherein the beam spans the protected area. Photoelectric Light Obscuration Detection. The principle of using a light source and a photosensitive sensor onto which the principal portion of the source emission is focused. When smoke particles enter the light path, some of the light is scattered and some of the light is absorbed, thereby reducing the light reaching the receiving sensor. The light reduction signal is processed and used to convey an alarm condition when it meets preset criteria. Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  57. 57. Automatic Detectors – Air Sampling 4/7/2014 57 Air Sampling-Type Detector. A detector that consists of a piping or tubing distribution network that runs from the detector to the area(s) to be protected. An aspiration fan in the detector draws air form the protected area back to the detector through air sampling ports, piping, or tubing. At the detector, the air is analyzed for fire products. Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  58. 58. Installation For fire detection devices to give a prompt warning of a fire, they must be appropriate for the location you want to protect .  Detector selection Fire detectors should be selected based on the burning characteristics of the materials present and the nature of location they will be used to protect. 4/7/2014 58 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  59. 59. Detector selection 1 Smoke detectors Ionization or photoelectric smoke detectors are designed to identify a fire during its smoldering or early flame stages and will meet the needs of most areas containing primarily wood, paper, fabric, and plastic materials. During combustion, these materials produce a mixture of smoke types with detectable levels of both large and small smoke particles. Smoke detectors are suitable for:  Indoor areas with low ceilings such as offices, closets, and restrooms.  Areas that are relatively clean with minimal amounts of dust and dirt.  Areas that contain solid fuels like wood, paper, fabric, and plastic materials. 4/7/2014 59 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  60. 60. Detector selection 2 Heat detectors Heat detectors are ideal for areas where flammable gasses and liquids are handled or any area where a fire will quickly cause a large change in the surrounding temperature. Heat detectors are also suitable for:  Dirty, dusty or smoky environments.  Indoor areas without winds or drafts that can prevent heat from reaching the detector.  Manufacturing areas where large quantities of vapors, gases, or fumes may be present.  Areas where particles of combustion are normally present, such as in kitchens, furnace rooms, utility rooms, and garages or where ovens, burners or vehicle exhaust gases are present.4/7/2014 60 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  61. 61. Detector selection 3 Flame detectors Flame detectors are best for protecting:  Areas with high ceilings and open-spaces, such as warehouses and auditoriums.  Outdoor or semi-enclosed areas, where winds or draughts can prevent smoke from reaching a heat or smoke detector.  Areas where rapidly developing flaming fires can occur, such as petrochemical production, fuel storage areas, paint shops, and solvent areas.  Environments that are unsuitable for other types of detectors. 4/7/2014 61 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  62. 62. General guidelines for placing fire detectors  Put at least one detector in each room, storage area, and hallway. You may need more than one detector per room for those that exceed the manufacturer's spacing requirements. For example, if your detector is rated for 30 feet, install detectors so they are evenly spaced with no more then 30 feet between detectors.  Place the detector as close to the center of the ceiling as possible when only one detector is required in a room or space. Put at least one detector in each closet, elevator and other enclosed spaces.  Place a detector at the top of each flight of stairs. 4/7/2014 62 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  63. 63. Placing Fire Detectors  Place the detectors in the path of the air flow toward the return air duct when air supply or return ducts are present in a room or space.  Place all smoke detectors at least three feet from ceiling fans. 4/7/2014 63 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  64. 64. Maintenance and testing Over time, dust, dirt, and other foreign material can build up inside a detector’s sensing elements, resulting in reduced sensitivity, which can limit the amount of warning time given during a fire. Dirty or dusty detectors can also result in unwanted alarms that can desensitize occupants to the alarm system or produce more serious behavior (such as disconnecting the system altogether). To avoid malfunctions and unwanted alarms and to make sure your fire detection system will perform as expected in the event of a fire, you are required to:  Operate and maintain your system in a working condition, making sure it is always turned on, except during repairs or maintenance. 4/7/2014 64 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  65. 65. Maintenance and testing  Test and adjust fire detectors and fire detection systems often to ensure that they operate correctly and maintain reliability. Detectors found to be unreliable and/or with reduced sensitivity must be replaced or cleaned and recalibrated.  Have a qualified person service, maintain and test all fire detection systems, including cleaning and necessary sensitivity adjustments.  Have fire detectors cleaned on a regular basis as necessary to assure their proper operation. 4/7/2014 65 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  66. 66. Maintenance and testing All fire detection equipment must be returned to normal operation as soon as possible after being tested, used, or accidentally activated. `Note: You are also required to have spare detection devices and components readily available in the workplace or from a local supplier to ensure prompt restoration of the system. 4/7/2014 66 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  67. 67. 4/7/2014 67 TESTING A SMOKE DETECTOR Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  68. 68. Notification/ Alarming Appliances 4/7/2014 68 Notification/ Alarming Appliance. A fire alarm system component such as a bell, horn, speaker, light or text display that provides audible, tactile, or visible outputs, or any combination thereof. Audible Alarming Appliance. A notification appliance that alerts by the sense of hearing. Visible Alarming Appliance. A notification appliance that alerts by the sense of sight. Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  69. 69. Fire Alarm Circuit Classes 4/7/2014 69 Class. Initiating device circuits, notification appliance circuits, and signaling line circuits shall be permitted to be designated as either Class A or Class B, depending on their performance during nonsimultaneous single circuit fault conditions as specified by the following: (1) Initiating device circuits and signaling line circuits that transmit an alarm or supervisory signal, or notification appliance circuits that allow all connected devices to operate during a single open or a nonsimultaneous single ground fault on any circuit conductor, shall be designated as Class A. (2) Initiating device circuits and signaling line circuits that do not transmit an alarm or supervisory signal, or notification appliance circuits that do not allow all connected devices to operate beyond the location of a single open on any circuit conductor, shall be designated as Class B. An open or ground fault condition shall result in the annunciation of a trouble signal at the protected premise within 200 seconds as required in 4.4.7 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  70. 70. Class B Initiating Device Circuit 4.7K EOLR 4.7K EOLR Class B Notification Appliance Circuit Class B Circuits 4/7/2014 70 End of line supervision resistors are required to supervise the integrity of the loop.Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  71. 71. Single open circuit condition causes a trouble on the panel and renders all devices beyond the fault inoperative. Class B Initiating Device Circuit 4.7K EOLR 4.7K EOLR Class B Notification Appliance Circuit Class B Circuits 4/7/2014 71 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  72. 72. Class A Initiating Device Circuit Class A Notification Appliance Circuit Class A Circuits 4/7/2014 72 End of line supervision resistors are not necessary as the loop returns to the panel and is driven from both ends.Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  73. 73. Class A Initiating Device Circuit Class A Notification Appliance Circuit Class A Circuits 4/7/2014 73 Single open circuit condition causes a trouble on the panel. All devices on the loop remain operative. Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  74. 74. Analog Addressable Sensor - An initiating device that transmits a signal indicating varying dAddressable Device - A fire alarm system component with discreet identification that can have its status individually identified or that is used to individually control other functions. egrees of condition as contrasted with a conventional or addressable initiating device, which can only indicate an off/on condition. Signaling Line Circuit (SLC) - A circuit or path between any combination of circuit interfaces, control units, or transmitters over which multiple system input signals or out put signals or both are carried. SLC Interface - A system component that connects a signaling line circuit to any combination of initiating devices, initiating device circuits, notification appliances, notification appliance circuits, system control outputs and other signaling line circuits. Protocol - A language for communicating between control panels and their proprietary devices. Additional Fire Alarm Terminology 4/7/2014 74 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  75. 75.  Conventional control panels range in size from 1 zone to over 100 zones.  Zones typically consist of some or all of the initiating devices in an area or floor of a building.  Some control panels zone capacity is expandable while others are not, limiting its usefulness if a facility adds additional buildings or rooms. Comparing System Types To better understand today’s newer technology, a firm understanding of the types of systems available is necessary. The three most popular types of systems installed today are: •Conventional •Addressable •Analog Addressable Conventional Systems 4/7/2014 75 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  76. 76. Conventional Systems 4/7/2014 76 Zone 1 4.7K EOLR Zone 2 FIREFIRE SILENT KNIGHT FIREFIRE SILENT KNIGHT FIREFIRE SILENT KNIGHT FIREFIRE SILENT KNIGHT FIREFIRE SILENT KNIGHT FACP NAC 1 Multiple devices are combined into a single zone. Zones can contain 30 or more devices. 4.7K EOLR Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  77. 77. Conventional Systems 4/7/2014 77 Care must be taken when laying out zones to comply with code requirements. Zone 1 4.7K EOLR Zone 2 FIREFIRE SILENT KNIGHT NAC 1 4.7K EOLR Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  78. 78. Conventional Systems 4/7/2014 78 Wiring must be installed in a supervised manner either Class A, or Class B with an EOLR. Zone #1 4.7K EOLR 4.7K EOLR Zone #2 NAC #1 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  79. 79. Conventional Systems 4/7/2014 79 Alarm conditions are annunciated by zone only. Inspection is required to determine the device. Zone #1 4.7K EOLR 4.7K EOLR Zone #2 NAC #1 FIRE! Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  80. 80. Conventional Systems 4/7/2014 80 Trouble conditions are annunciated by zone only. Inspection is required to determine the cause. 4.7K EOLR Zone #1 4.7K EOLR 4.7K EOLR Zone #2 NAC #1 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  81. 81. 4/7/2014 81 A simplified view of the layout of a fire detection system, featuring normal/emergency power supply, UPS,Loop,Zone Indicators, Alarms, Test switch and Fire Zones. Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  82. 82. 4/7/2014 82 CABLE LAYOUT LOOP and LINE monitoring LOOP MONITORING The continuity of the cable is checked by both circuits a-d and b-c. In the event of either cable failing due to damage the an alarm sounds. Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  83. 83. 4/7/2014 83 CABLE LAYOUT LOOP MONITORING Failure modes-damage causes open or short circuit on cables. Short circuit, no discrimination between faults and FIRE activation. Open circuit, fault alarm on one wire Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  84. 84. 4/7/2014 84 CABLE LAYOUT LOOP MONITORING In each case faults must be examined immediately Whilst the fault condition exists subsequent fire detection is inhibited Easier for accurate fault detection, discriminates between fault and fire but more expensive. Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  85. 85. 4/7/2014 85 Line monitoring: Damage to loop Short circuit shuts down the system and gives Fire alarm. Open circuit raises fault indication Less reliable, harder to pinpoint faults but cheaper. Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  86. 86. C/E HANIF DEWAN 864/7/2014 86 FIRE EXTINGUISHING METHODS Method of Extinguishing Fire: • Starvation: Removing or Limiting fuel •Smothering: Removing or Limiting Oxygen (Air) •Cooling: Limiting or Decreasing Heat/Temperature •Inhibition: Stopping/Breaking chemical reaction which is building up heat and rise in temperature (Exothermic Reaction) Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  87. 87. C/E HANIF DEWAN 874/7/2014 87 Fire Extinguishing Agents • COOLING: WATER •SMOTHERING: FOAM, CARBON DIOXIDE, SAND, FIRE BLANKET •FLAME INHIBATORS: DRY CHEMICAL POWDER (MONO-AMMONIUM PHOSPHATE), HALON Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  88. 88. 4/7/2014 88 FIRE FIGHTING SYSTEMS All fire fighting systems are used to either: Remove Heat Remove Oxygen Remove fuel or CHAINBREAK-stop the chemical reaction Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  89. 89. 4/7/2014 89 FIRE FIGHTING SYSTEMS Water acts by:- Removing heat as it turns to steam. Blanketing (excluding oxygen) when it turns to steam. Water can only be used safely on fires of class ‘A’ and ‘C’ and to boundary cool to stop the spread of fire. Water is electrically conductive therefore cannot be used on class ‘E’ fires. The use of water on board ship may be limited by stability criteria (free surface effect). Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  90. 90. 4/7/2014 90 FIRE MAIN A sea water supply system to fire hydrants is fitted to every ship. Several pumps in the engine room will be arranged to supply the system, their number and capacity being dictated by legislation (MCA for UK registered vessels as well as LLOYDS RULES) An emergency fire pump will also be located remote from the machinery space and with independent means of power. A system of hydrant outlets, each with an isolating valve, located around the ship, and hoses with appropriate snap-in connectors are strategically located together with nozzles. Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  91. 91. 4/7/2014 91 FIRE MAIN (Cont’d) These nozzles are usually of the jet/spray type providing either type of discharge as required. All the working areas of the ship are thus covered, and a constant supply of seawater can be brought to bear at any point to fight a fire. While sea water is best used as a cooling agent in fighting Class A fires it is possible, if all else fails, to use it to fight Class B fires. The jet/spray nozzle would be adjusted to provide a fine water spray which could be played over the fire to cool it without spreading. An international shore connection is always carried on board ship. This is a standard size flange which is fitted with a coupling suitable for the ship's hoses. Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  92. 92. 4/7/2014 92 FIREMAIN LAYOUT Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  93. 93. 4/7/2014 93 INTERNATIONAL SHORE CONNECTION Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  94. 94. 4/7/2014 94 INTERNATIONAL SHORE CONNECTION Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  95. 95. 4/7/2014 95 The fire main has a number of dedicated fire pumps: - Main fire pumps, located in the main machinery spaces. - Emergency fire pumps remotely located and independently powered. - In addition, isolation valves are fitted so that the main fire pumps and emergency fire pumps can independently pressurise the fire main. - Further isolation valves so that the accommodation and main deck can be pressurised independently. Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  96. 96. 4/7/2014 96 Certain areas, such as the paint locker are protected by manually operated spray systems, supplied by the Fire main. Tankers on specific operations, which may involve high sulphur fuel, can be equipped with water drencher systems to cover the accommodation and protect it from hydrocarbon gas or H2S releases Other specalised vessels provide manual water curtains at lifeboat embarkation points. Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  97. 97. 4/7/2014 97 Automatic FRESH water spray The automatic spray or sprinkler system provides a network of sprinkler heads throughout the protected spaces. This system may be used in accommodation areas, and in machinery spaces with certain variations in the equipment used and the method of operation. The accommodation areas are fitted with sprinkler heads which both detect and extinguish fires. Sprinkler head is closed by a quartzoid bulb which contains a liquid that expands considerably on heating. When excessively heated the liquid expands, shatters the bulb and water will issue from the sprinkler head. A deflector plate on the sprinkler head causes the water to spray out over a large area. Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  98. 98. Automatic Fire Sprinklers Fire sprinklers are most effective during the fire's initial flame growth stage. A properly selected sprinkler will detect the fire's heat, initiate alarm and begin suppression within moments after flames appear. In most instances sprinklers will control fire advancement within a few minutes of their activation. This will in turn result in significantly less damage than otherwise would happen without sprinklers. 4/7/2014 98 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  99. 99. Automatic Fire Sprinklers Sprinkler systems offer several benefits to building owners, operators, and occupants. These benefits include:  Immediate identification and control of a developing fire.  Immediate alert.  Reduced heat and smoke damage.  Enhanced life safety.  Design flexibility.  Enhanced Security. 4/7/2014 99 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  100. 100. Automatic Fire Sprinklers  For most fires, water represents the ideal extinguishing agent. Fire sprinklers utilize water by direct application onto flames and heat. This action cools the combustion process and prevents ignition of adjacent combustibles.  Sprinkler systems are essentially a series of water pipes which are supplied by a reliable water supply. At selected intervals along these pipes are independent, heat activated valves known as sprinkler heads. It is the sprinkler which is responsible for water distribution onto the fire. Most sprinkler systems also include an alarm to alert occupants and emergency forces when sprinkler activation (fire) occurs. 4/7/2014 100 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  101. 101. Automatic Fire Sprinklers During the incipient fire stage, heat output is relatively low and unable to cause sprinkler operation. As the fire intensity increases, however, the sprinkler's sensing elements become exposed to elevated temperatures (typically in excess of 135-225°F/57-107°C)and they begin to deform. Assuming temperatures remain high, as they would during an increasing fire, the element will fatigue after an approximate 30 second to 4 minute period. This will release the sprinkler's seals allowing water to discharge onto the fire. In most situations less than 2 sprinklers are needed to suppress the fire. In fast growing fire scenarios such as a flammable liquid spill, up to 12 sprinklers may be required for control. 4/7/2014 101 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  102. 102. 4/7/2014 102 HEAD is pressurised by Fresh water BULB keeps valve closed. Heat causes alcohol inside bulb to expand, shatter bulb and water flows. Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  103. 103. 4/7/2014 103 FRESHWATER SPRINKLER SYSTEM Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  104. 104. 4/7/2014 104 SPRINKLER HEADS The different colours denote different operating temperatures, but the alcohol is the same, only the size of the air bubble changes. Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  105. 105. Standard Sprinkler Head Styles 4/7/2014 105 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  106. 106. Automatic Fire Sprinkler System 4/7/2014 106 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  107. 107. Automatic Fire Sprinkler System 4/7/2014 107 Fire Pump & Jockey Pump Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  108. 108. Automatic Fire Sprinklers 4/7/2014 108 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  109. 109. 4/7/2014 109 Typical low pressure sprinkler system NOT HIGH FOG Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  110. 110. 4/7/2014 110 EXPANSION Supply for up to 200 sprinkler heads Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  111. 111. 4/7/2014 111 HIGH FOG Cool and smother, using the latent heat properties of water to cool, and expansion into steam to temporarily remove oxygen. Devised by Marioff, from an initial requirement by the Belgian air force, Marioff converted a hydraulic system of 200 bar pressure to water in 1974. Development then followed on head technology, and pressures have reduced drastically. The following slide shows a “GL” approved hi fog system currently fitted to new build container ships. A single stage low pressure centrifugal pump, with a screw inducer fitted in the eye takes suction direct from the domestic fresh water tank. Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  112. 112. 4/7/2014 112 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  113. 113. 4/7/2014 113 The detail shown right, features the pump taking suction from the fresh water tank. The system is manually operated locally or remotely. Pump is fed via EMS. All operations are controlled by one panel, opening valves and starting pump. Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  114. 114. 4/7/2014 114 Hi Fog droplets are extremely small, increased surface area causes them to flash into steam, latent heat is absorbed, steam generated displaces oxygen. FOG SPRINKLER- DROPLETS Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  115. 115. 4/7/2014 115 SMOTHERING Removal of Oxygen FOAM Simple foam installation,with seawater mixing with foam compound(usually protein). Not much to go wrong! Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  116. 116. 4/7/2014 116 A simple CO2 driven foam system Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  117. 117. 4/7/2014 117 Exact metering of foam compounds and water. Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  118. 118. 4/7/2014 118 Types of foam available for marine use: 1. Protein base ( PF) 2. Flouro protein foam (FP) 3. Film forming fluoro protein foam (FFFP) 4. Synthetic detergent foam 5. Alcohol resistant foam-chemical fires 6. Aqueous film forming foam ( AFFF) Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  119. 119. 4/7/2014 119 Hi-Ex-limited use due to lightness of foam- convection currents easily blow the foam away.Must be delivered from overhead nozzles However you can breathe in the mixture, and there is a limited cooling and smoke clearing effect. Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  120. 120. 4/7/2014 120 SMOTHER INERT GASES to TEMPORARILY or PERMANENTLY remove OXYGEN from the seat of the fire Temporary-discharge of CO2 from storage Permanent-use of Inert gas generator to blanket a space or cargo tank. Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  121. 121. 4/7/2014 121 0 5 10 15 20 5 10 15 20 % O2 in mixture %hydrocarbongasinthe mixture Inflammable zone 10% 2% Inert Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  122. 122. 4/7/2014 122 The flammable range is relatively narrow, so that any new gas introduced into the space will either displace oxygen or remove hydrocarbon vapours. This particular example is for crude oil, but the principle applies to all hydrocarbon based fuels. 0 5 10 15 20 5 10 15 20 % O2 in mixture %hydrocarbongasinthe mixture Inflammable zone 10% 2% Inert Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  123. 123. 4/7/2014 123 In the case of discharge of CO2, the energy released as the CO2 expands, plus the smothering action of the CO2, plus the smothering action of smoke, temporarily removes the O2 content below 10%. Note that human life may be extinguished at any level below normal oxygen level 0 5 10 15 20 5 10 15 20 % O2 in mixture %hydrocarbongasinthe mixture Inflammable zone 10% 2% Inert Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  124. 124. 4/7/2014 124 In the case of inerting hydrocarbon cargo tanks, inert gas is produced from a combustion unit, so that O2 content is typically 5%. This is used initially to remove the fuel vapour, and then permanently to reduce O2 content during loading/unloading operations. 0 5 10 15 20 5 10 15 20 % O2 in mixture %hydrocarbongasinthe mixture Inflammable zone 10% 2% Inert Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  125. 125. 4/7/2014 125 CO2 Fixed Fire Extinguishing System for Machinery Space Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  126. 126. CO2 System operation in Machinery Spaces A Co2 system of machinery spaces consists of a bank of Co2 bottles that can be operated from a remote place located away from the machinery spaces. The system also consists of pilot Co2 cylinders which control the activation of the bank of Co2 bottles. The Pilot cylinders are contained in a control box and are normally kept disconnected. The system is connected to the pilot cylinders and the control box with the help of steel wires or flexible pipes. All these pipes are fitted with a quick action coupling. When the system is to be activated, the coupling in plugged into the corresponding socket. The valves of the pilot cylinders will be opened with the help of the levers in the main CO2 control system. - The CO2 from the pilot cylinders will open the system's main stop valve. - The main stop valve has a piston which gets depressed due to the Co2 gas pressure and allows the pilot gas to flow to the bank of CO2 cylinders. - This pilot gas operates the cylinders' valves. These valves are known as Klem valves. All these valves have an actuator which gets operated by the pilot pressure. 4/7/2014 126 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  127. 127. - The detection of fire is done by various sensors installed in the machinery spaces.Though the opening of control box operates an alarm, the main decision for CO2 flooding is taken by the Chief engineer, after due consultation with the master of the ship. - Before releasing Co2 into the fire affected space, it should be made sure that everybody is out of the place and total head should be counted. - The place is fully enclosed i.e all skylights & ventilators are closed air-tight and pumpsumps supplying fuel oil should also be stopped in order to prevent re-ignition. - Separate levers for each and every space are present inside the main controlling cabinet. The operating of a particular lever activates the pilot bottles, which helps in releasing the complete bank of bottles designated for that place. - With the opening of the master valve, Co2 is flooded inside the fire affected space, which then smothers the fire with the help of blanket effect. - Boundary cooling should be carried out. 4/7/2014 127 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  128. 128. 4/7/2014 128 The mass of CO2 required is defined under a typical calculation as shown. This calculation is for a container ship, and is for a multi purpose system to cover a number of spaces. The mass carried is sufficient to extinguish a fire in the largest space. Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  129. 129. 4/7/2014 129 THE FOLLOWING THINGS TO BE CONSIDERED: 1. The mass of CO2 required obviously has to take up free space i.e. air space in the area protected. An allowance is made for machinery (and in this case, containers in the cargo hold) taking up space. The mixing ratio allows for this difference in “permeability”. 2. Having calculated the volume required, the mass is now estimated and this is translated into number of 45Kg or 48Kg bottles needed to protect each space. A multi purpose release system is now used to discharge the correct number of bottles for each space. One spare bottle ( for the total system)is required. 3. Obviously the release mechanism has to be robust and reliable. A pilot system is used to initiate the main release of bottles. The amount of CO2 in the pilot system is not counted in the calculation. 4. CO2 release must be used in conjunction with other measures: -Ventilation must be stopped, and - ventilation flaps closed, to prevent CO2 escaping from the space. - Quick closing valves are usually shut, to restrict supply of hydrocarbon fuels, so all Main and power generation engines will be stopped. Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  130. 130. 4/7/2014 130 5. Consequently the vessel is helpless and you must summon help. In addition, CO2 is a “one shot” system and if it does not work quickly IT WILL NOT WORK AT ALL. CO2 must be discharged as one MASS discharge, not individual bottles, and within two minutes of proven evacuation. There are strict rules to be observed about releasing CO2 into a space and about re-entering the space afterwards. Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  131. 131. 4/7/2014 131 The system shown features both pilot and smothering bottles. Amount of pilot a gas DOES NOT feature in the calculation. In this German flag, GL approved system, there is a built in time delay of about 24 seconds between operating the main bottle release and CO2 discharge Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  132. 132. 4/7/2014 132 Release cabinets for the ER system are located outside the engine room door and in the CO2 room. Release cabinets for the hold system are located on the bridge and in the CO2 room Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  133. 133. 4/7/2014 133 When the cargo hold system is discharged, ventilation is stopped and the correct amount of bottles for each hold is AUTOMATICALLY released Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  134. 134. 4/7/2014 134 GERMAN FLAG, GL approved system!! Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  135. 135. 4/7/2014 135 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  136. 136. 4/7/2014 136 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  137. 137. 4/7/2014 137 A method of storage developed in the 1980’s was the use of refrigerated low pressure storage in a single container rather than ambient high pressure storage in large amounts of bottles. A second discharge is available by using the “hot gas” from the refrigeration circuit to boil the remaining CO2 gas out. Capacity is 105% of storage space in a “cold” discharge Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  138. 138. 4/7/2014 138 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  139. 139. 4/7/2014 139 Safe use of CO2 :- Ventilation fans off, space sealed, machinery stopped, tanks isolated.  Total head count. CO2 released on master’s command. Boundary cooling set up. Space remains sealed until steady temperature drop recorded over a period of 2 hours. Safety of Re-entry: B.A. team re-enter machinery space and damp down hot spots. Re-entry should be from the top entrance. Ventilation fans restarted (extraction fan). Atmosphere tested with O2 meter throughout space Boundary cooling should be continued to stop re-ignition Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  140. 140. 4/7/2014 140 Cargo and container ships monitor the holds using a smoke extraction system, that removes the atmospheric contents of the hold, and passes the sample through a detector located in the wheelhouse. Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  141. 141. 4/7/2014 141 In the event of a smoke alarm, the ventilation system is stopped and the three way sampling cocks are turned to discharge CO2 back through the sampling pipes to the hold. CO2 is released as required. Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  142. 142. Co2 System for Cargo Space The release mechanism of CO2 system in cargo spaces is same as that of the machinery spaces. The only difference is that the cargo spaces have a different type of fire detection system. For detection of fire in cargo hold, a sample of air is drawn from all the cargo holds by an extractor fan.This sample of air is passed through a cabinet wherein a set of smoke sensitive sensors analyze the sample. The sensors will detect any presence of smoke in the sample. As soon as the sensor detects smoke in the sample, it activates the CO2 alarm system of the ship. A part of the sample is also discharged to the wheelhouse in order to cross-check the presence of smoke in the sample. This can be done by smelling the smoke. The sample is later vented to the air. In order to check whether the extractor is extracting samples from the holds, a small indicator propeller is fitted, which ensures that the samples are taken. 4/7/2014 142 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  143. 143. Checks on the CO2 system: i. Pipes leading to the spaces should regularly be blown with air to ensure that they are not blocked. Ii. The level in the Co2 bottles should be checked on regular basis. If in a particular check, the difference is 10% of the total volume, the bottle should be replaced as soon as possible. Iii. Sensors should be checked periodically. Iv. Cabinet door alarms should also be checked on regular interval of time. V. All the pipings and connections at the CO2 bottles should be checked regularly. 4/7/2014 143 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  144. 144. 4/7/2014 144 OTHER METHOD OF SMOTHERING OF FIRES: Smothering of a fire can also be achieved by using inert gas produced on board ship. In this case the inert gas is produced as required, and is low pressure NITROGEN, which is the leftover by product of combustion, as long as the Oxygen content is consistently less than 10% maximum. Effectively this rules out diesel engines and incinerators and leaves 1. Exhaust gases from a Marine boiler 2. Exhaust gases from a purpose built combustion unit 3. Exhaust gases from the AFTERBURNER of a gas turbine. Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  145. 145. 4/7/2014 145 MAIN BOILER Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  146. 146. 4/7/2014 146 MAIN BOILER Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  147. 147. 4/7/2014 147 System using exhaust gases from a boiler on load producing steam Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  148. 148. 4/7/2014 148 This unit, sometimes called an autonomous unit, burns diesel oil to generate a very low oxygen content in the exhaust gases It has no other function and is very useful when there is an an instant demand for inert gas- “ topping off”. Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  149. 149. The Oxygen Depleted Condition No Fire can take Place even in the presence of Heat or Fuel because there is not enough oxygen to support it Safe Ship NO FIRE In absence of any one side of the original Fire Triangle, the risk of a fire is non- existent. 4/7/2014 149 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  150. 150. The Flammability diagram 8 % Inerted Condition 4/7/2014 150 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  151. 151. The percentage of oxygen required to sustain combustion: More than 11 % What percentage of oxygen are required to maintain in the cargo tanks ? By law less than 8 %. Some ports require a vessel to maintain less than 5 %. A Cargo tank is considered “Inerted” when the oxygen content in the tank is less than 8 % by volume 4/7/2014 151 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  152. 152. 4/7/2014 152 CHAINBREAKERS HALON Still legal under IMO legislation but not UK legislation ( or other EU countries plus CANADA) NOVEC 1230 is an approved drop in replacement. Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  153. 153. 4/7/2014 153 CHAINBREAKERS Originally only Halon, ( see MGN 258). Alternative environmentally friendly gasses now available include:- Novec 1230. FM200. Halotron 11 B. These gasses act by blanketing (excluding oxygen at the seat of the fire) and cooling but some (NOVEC1230) also disrupt the chemical chain reaction of combustion. Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  154. 154. 4/7/2014 154 1. HALON is a CFC and so has the same OZONE depletion affect as R11 and R12. 2. NOVEC 1230 is a HALON replacement, using roughly the same pipeline layout, and same mass of fluid, with a slight change in head detail, and with an ODP and GWP of 0. 3. FM 200 AND HALOTRON 11 require roughly 1.5-2 times as much mass as HALON, with an ODP of 0 and a GWP of 1 4. PYROGEN has appeared briefly as a HALON substitute but has since disappeared. Dry powder is also a chain-breaker and in addition acts as a smothering agent. Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  155. 155. 4/7/2014 155 Water Foam Dry Powder CO2 Halocarbon HAND HELD FIRE EXTINGUISHERS Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  156. 156. Portable Fire Extinguishers firemain and hose reel system (manual actuation) 4/7/2014 156 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  157. 157. 4/7/2014 157 Types of fire extinguishers Different types of fire extinguishers are designed to fight different types of fire. The most common types of fire extinguishers are:  Water extinguishers  Foam extinguishers  CO2 (carbon dioxide) extinguishers  Dry chemical extinguishers  Fire blanket C/E HANIF DEWAN 157 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  158. 158. 4/7/2014 158 WATER EXTINGUISHER Extinguish fire by cooling the surface of the fuel to remove the "heat" element of the fire triangle. It is designed for Class A (wood, paper, cloth, rubber, and certain plastics) fires only. C/E HANIF DEWAN 158 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  159. 159. 4/7/2014 159 WATER EXTINGUISHER Important: Never use water to extinguish flammable liquid fires. Water is extremely ineffective at extinguishing this type of fire and may make matters worse by the spreading the fire. Never use water to extinguish an electrical fire. Water is a good conductor and may lead to electrocution if used to extinguish an electrical fire. Electrical equipment must be unplugged and/or de-energized before using a water extinguisher on an electrical fire. C/E HANIF DEWAN 159 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  160. 160. 4/7/2014 160 Foam Fire Extinguisher Modern synthetic AFFF offers a very effective means of extinguishing fires that involve both normal combustible materials and flammable liquids. AFFF, which stands for Aqueous Film Forming Foam, extinguishes Class A fires by removing the HEAT and cooling the fire and Class A, B & C fires, by shutting off the OXYGEN and suffocating the fire. C/E HANIF DEWAN 160 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  161. 161. 4/7/2014 161 Foam Fire Extinguisher With flammable liquids (Class B materials) , allow the foam to gently flow over the surface of the liquid moving the nozzle from side to side, until the fire dies down. With most Class A materials, you will often find that although the flames have been extinguished, the materials will continue to smolder for quite some time, so it is important to make sure that any ‘Hot Spots’ are completely extinguished, as the fire may re-ignite. C/E HANIF DEWAN 161 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  162. 162. 4/7/2014 162 Carbon dioxide extinguishers This type of extinguisher is filled with Carbon Dioxide (CO2), a non-flammable gas under extreme pressure. These extinguishers put out fires by displacing oxygen, or taking away the oxygen element of the fire triangle. Because of its high pressure, when you use this extinguisher pieces of dry ice shoot from the horn, which also has a cooling effect on the fire. C/E HANIF DEWAN 162 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  163. 163. 4/7/2014 163 Carbon dioxide extinguishers You can recognize this type of extinguisher by its hard horn and absent pressure gauge. CO2 cylinders are red and range in size from five to 100 pounds or larger. CO2 extinguishers are designed for Class B, C, E and F fires. C/E HANIF DEWAN 163 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  164. 164. 4/7/2014 164 Carbon dioxide extinguishers Important: CO2 is not recommended for Class A fires because they may continue to smolder and re-ignite after the CO2 dissipates. Never use CO2 extinguishers in a confined space while people are present without proper respiratory protection. Locations: Carbon dioxide extinguishers will frequently be found in industrial vehicles, mechanical rooms, offices, computer labs, and flammable liquid storage areas. C/E HANIF DEWAN 164 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  165. 165. 4/7/2014 165 Dry chemical extinguishers Dry chemical extinguishers put out fires by coating the fuel with a thin layer of fire retardant powder, separating the fuel from the oxygen. The powder also works to interrupt the chemical reaction, which makes these extinguishers extremely effective. Dry chemical extinguishers are usually rated for class B and C fires and may be marked multiple purpose for use in A, B & E fires. They contain an extinguishing agent and use a compressed, non- flammable gas as a propellant. C/E HANIF DEWAN 165 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  166. 166. 4/7/2014 166 Dry chemical extinguishers ABC fire extinguishers are red in color, and range in size from five pounds to 20 pounds. Dry Chemical extinguishers will have a label indicating they may be used on class A, B, E & F fires. C/E HANIF DEWAN 166 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  167. 167. 4/7/2014 167 Fire Blanket Fires in small utensils containing cooking fats can be extinguished by smothering with Asbestos blanket or door mat (which has been wetted first!). Normally use to extinguish class K type of fire. C/E HANIF DEWAN 167 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  168. 168. 4/7/2014 168 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  169. 169. 4/7/2014 169 Using a fire extinguisher The following steps should be followed when responding to incipient stage fire:  Sound the fire alarm and call the fire department, if appropriate.  Identify a safe evacuation path before approaching the fire. Do not allow the fire, heat, or smoke to come between you and your evacuation path.  Select the appropriate type of fire extinguisher.  Discharge the extinguisher within its effective range using the P.A.S.S. technique (pull, aim, squeeze, sweep).  Back away from an extinguished fire in case it flames up again.  Evacuate immediately if the extinguisher is empty and the fire is not out.  Evacuate immediately if the fire progresses beyond the incipient stage. C/E HANIF DEWAN 169 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  170. 170. 4/7/2014 170 Using a fire extinguisher Most fire extinguishers operate using the following P.A.S.S. technique: 1.PULL... Pull the pin. This will also break the tamper seal. 2.AIM... Aim low, pointing the extinguisher nozzle (or its horn or hose) at the base of the fire. Note: Do not touch the plastic discharge horn on CO2 extinguishers, it gets very cold and may damage skin. 3.SQUEEZE... Squeeze the handle to release the extinguishing agent. 4.SWEEP... Sweep from side to side at the base of the fire until it appears to be out. Watch the area. If the fire re- ignites, repeat steps 2 - 4. C/E HANIF DEWAN 170 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  171. 171. 4/7/2014 171C/E HANIF DEWAN 171 FOUR METHOD OF FIRE EXTINGUISHMENT Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  172. 172. Provision for fire protection  Ship division - main vertical zones by thermal & structural boundaries  Inert gas protection – tankers  Lockers – combustible materials  Use of flame retardant materials flame screens and other devices for preventing the flame passage  Use of steel  Provisions wrt fire main - diameter, pressure (SOLAS minimum requirement) 4/7/2014 173 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  173. 173. Basic principles  Division into main and vertical zones by thermal and structural boundaries  Separate accommodation spaces from the remainder by thermal and structural boundaries  Restricted use of combustible materials  Fire detection in the origin zone  Containment and extinction of any fire in the origin space  Protection – by means of escape / access for fire fighting purposes  Readily available of fire-extinguishing appliances  Minimise possibility of ignition of flammable cargo vapour 4/7/2014 174 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  174. 174. Bulkheads & decks  Divide vessel into number of separate divisions  Heat / flame must penetrate before can spread to another compartment  Constructed from approved non combustible material – steel with appropriate strength  But heat of intense fire can cause exposed steel to wrap, buckle or fail  SOLAS & regulatory bodies have stringent rules on this construction 4/7/2014 175 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  175. 175. Class divisions  Ability of composite materials which are used as load-bearing "A" or "B" class divisions to withstand the applied loads during and at the end of fire  Adopted by the Organization  Additional tests on small specimens to determine the high temperature strength properties of the material.  Formed by bulkheads, decks, ceiling, lining  Non combustible materials capable preventing smoke and flame passage when subject to standard fire test for a specified duration 4/7/2014 176 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  176. 176. Non-combustible material  Material which neither burns nor gives off flammable vapours in sufficient quantity for self- ignition when heated to approx. 750°C  Determined to the satisfaction of the Administration by an established test procedure  Any other material is a combustible material 4/7/2014 177 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  177. 177. Standard time – temperature curve  At the end of the first 05 min – 556oC  At the end of the first 10 min – 659oC  At the end of the first 15 min – 718oC  At the end of the first 30 min – 821oC  At the end of the first 60 min – 925oC 4/7/2014 178 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  178. 178. A lass di isio ulkhead a d de k  Constructed from steel or other equivalent material  Suitably stiffened  Capable preventing passage of smoke and flammable to the end of the one-hour standard fire test  Insulated with approved non-combustible materials 4/7/2014 179 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  179. 179. A lass di isio ulkhead a d de k  Average temperature of unexposed side will not rise more than:  139°C above the original temperature  180°C at any point including any joint, above the original temperature within the time listed below:  Class A-60 60 min  Class A-30 30 min  Class A-15 15 min  Class A- 0 0 min  The Administration may require a test of a prototype (original sample) bulkhead or deck to ensure it meets the above requirement for integrity and temperature rise4/7/2014 180 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  180. 180. B lass di isio ulkhead, de k, eili g o li i gs)  Constructed to capable preventing flame passage until end of the first half hour of standard fire test  Insulated so that average temperature of the unexposed side will not rise more than:  139°C above the original temperature  225°C at any point including any joint above the normal temperature within the time listed below:  Class B-15 15 min  Class B- 0 0 min 4/7/2014 181 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  181. 181. B lass di isio ulkhead, de k, eili g o li i gs o t/…  Constructed of approved non-combustible materials  All materials entering into construction and erection of B class divisions shall be non- combustible  The Administration may require a test of a prototype (original sample) division to ensure that its meets the above requirements for integrity and temperature rise 4/7/2014 182 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  182. 182. Main vertical zones  Those sections which the hull, super structure and deckhouses are divided by ‘A’ class divisions  mean length on any deck does not exceed 40 meters Accommodation Spaces  Spaces used for public spaces, corridors, lavatories, cabins, offices, hospitals, cinemas, games and hobbies rooms, barber shops, pantries containing no cooking appliances and similar spaces. 4/7/2014 183 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  183. 183. Public Spaces  Public Spaces are those portions of the accommodation which are used for halls, dining rooms, lounges and similar permanently enclosed spaces Cargo Spaces  Cargo Spaces are all spaces used for cargo, cargo oil tanks, tanks for other liquid cargo and trunks to such spaces Closed Ro-Ro Cargo Spaces  Spaces which are neither open ro-ro spaces nor weather decks 4/7/2014 184 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  184. 184. Ro-Ro Cargo Spaces  Spaces not normally subdivided and extending to either a substantial length or entire length of vessel in which motor vehicle with fuel in their tanks for their own propulsion and/or goods (packaged or in bulk, in or on rail or road cars, vehicles (including road or rail tankers), trailers, containers, pallets, demountable tanks or in or on similar stowage units or other receptacles) can be loaded and unloaded normally in a horizontal direction 4/7/2014 185 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  185. 185. Open Ro-Ro cargo spaces  Spaces that either open at both ends, or have an opening at one end, and are provided with adequate natural ventilation effective over their entire length through permanent openings distributed in the side plating or deck-head or from above, having a total area of at least 10% of the total area of the space side 4/7/2014 186 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  186. 186. Machinery Spaces of Category A (1 July 2002)  Spaces and trunks to such spaces which contain either:  Internal combustion machinery used for main propulsion  Internal combustion machinery used for other than main propulsion where such machinery has an aggregate total power output > 375 kW (500 hp)  any oil-fired boiler or oil fuel unit or equipment other than boiler, such as inert gas generator, incinerator, waste disposal units, etc 4/7/2014 187 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  187. 187. WATERTIGHT DOOR 4/7/2014 188 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  188. 188. Watertight doors  Design to prevent the water movement thru the doorway  Must match with bulkhead connected  3 classes of WTD:  Class 1 :manually operated hinged door  Class 2 :manually operated (with hydraulic assist once) sliding doors  Class 3 : manually & power operating sliding door  Capable to close with listing 15° either sides  Capable to operate on both sides, not exceeding 90 seconds  To ensure operate easily, close properly & dogs operate freely 4/7/2014 189 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  189. 189. Fire dampers  Thin steel plate 3.2mm thick & suitable stiffened  Placed in ventilation duct, held in open position by fusible link  Air temperature above 74 or 100°C will melt the fusible link – closing damper 4/7/2014 190 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  190. 190. INERT GAS SYSTEM  Sources:  Ships main or aux boiler uptakes  Generating plant burning diesel/light FO  Replace O2 contents on cargo surface outside of flammable range  Accepted for fire smothering purposes in dry cargo holds  14% CO2, 1% O2, 85% N2, remaining trace elements  No cooling effect, reignition must avoided 4/7/2014 191 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  191. 191. Inert gas system  Time allowed for complete extinction, sufficient cool before dissipate gas and air entrance  Asphyxiating and toxic – NOx elements  Proper enclosed space permit required  Rate of production limited 4/7/2014 192 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  192. 192. Nitrogen  Fire smothering agent  Fire / explosion preventive agent  In case others unacceptable – contaminated cargo  Gas with density slightly less than air  Concentration required higher than CO2  Temperature limited to -147°C (low critical) 4/7/2014 193 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  193. 193. Fire main configurations  Must fulfill the followings:  Max discharge from 2 fire pumps up to 50 psi  Main line diameter from ” to ”  Branch line ½” to ½”  Protected against freezing  Provision for shore connection  Enough pressure from hydrant covering areas until adjacent hydrant 4/7/2014 194 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  194. 194. Other operation required  Maintaining cleanliness on board  Observances of smoking only in approved spaces  Keeping doors closed  Maintenance of fire appliances including fire dampers  Regular fire drills and instructions 4/7/2014 195 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  195. 195. Ship fire fighting organisation  Bridge - central control station  Master – full in charge  Fire officer/officers report to bridge and receive instructions 4/7/2014 197 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  196. 196. Information required by central control station  Time at fire alarm was given  Position and nature of fire  Confirmation that fire parties at their assembly points & firemans outfits ready / available  Confirmation - fire main is pressurized  Report – initial attempts to extinguish fire using portable extinguishers  Report – effect of fire on services e.g. lighting  Report - persons present / trapped – head count 4/7/2014 198 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  197. 197. Information available on bridge  Drawing arrangement in convenient size for ship, engine room & accommodation  Details – access & escapes from different zones  Details - fire-extinguishing equipment (fixed & portable) for entire ship including storage position of refills  Stability information  Details - survival equipment & its location  Stowage plans  Information on dangerous goods 4/7/2014 199 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  198. 198. Methods of communication available  Telephones  Loud hailers  Direct speech - bridge to MCR  Hand-held radio telephones  Messengers 4/7/2014 200 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  199. 199. Damage control and fires containment  Bridge - closing watertight & fire doors  Stopping ventilation fans, closing of dampers on funnel and other places  Closing all windows & portholes in accommodation, galley and other spaces  Turning ship to best position relative to wind direction for fire fighting  Bulkhead – boundary cooling  Using fire blankets as necessary  Maintaining fire-watch after fire extinguished 4/7/2014 201 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  200. 200. Monitoring and controlling ship stability  Calculating changes in GM due to weight of extinguishing water and its free surface effect  Arranging pumping / draining of fire fighting water from affected spaces including cutting holes in ships side  Calculating - affect of cargo shifting (for cargo fires)  Assess – damage effect caused by spaces flooded with sea water  Considering / possibilities - moving vessel to shallow water or allowing for grounding 4/7/2014 202 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  201. 201. Organization of fire parties  Identification of each fire party  Identification of each member of fire party  Safeguards - keeping in contact with each person & their position  Duties of each fire party  Reconnaissance team - equipped with portable extinguishers  Fire hose team  Help, search and first-aid team  Technical team - checking lifts, closing fire dampers, controlling ventilation fans and FO shut off valves, starting emergency generator and fire pump, refilling used extinguishers as required and preparing for gas flooding 4/7/2014 203 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  202. 202. Location & use of portable extinguishers  Water  Foam  Dry powder  Carbon dioxide  Halon 4/7/2014 206 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  203. 203. Location & use of mobile extinguishers  Foam  Dry powder  Carbon dioxide 4/7/2014 207 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  204. 204. Location & use of fixed extinguishing system  Fire hydrants, hoses & nozzles  Water sprinklers  Water sprays  Foam system  Carbon dioxide system  Halon system 4/7/2014 208 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  205. 205. Lo atio & use of fi e a ’s outfit  Learn how to don protective clothing quickly  Knowing where it is stowed / comprise  Checking & use of BA set  Checking & use of fireproof lifeline & familiar with signal codes 4/7/2014 209 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  206. 206. Fire in cargo spaces  Location – in holds, tween deck or containers  Types – involving dangerous goods 4/7/2014 210 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  207. 207. Training for fire party members  Instruction of duties being assigned  Instruction of duties being allocated  Exercises – increase member s proficient including first aid 4/7/2014 211 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  208. 208. Fire Protection, Detection and Extinguishing: • This Chapter was totally reviewed in the Amendments published on December 2000 [Resolution MSC.99 (73)] • Entry into force on the 1st of July 2002 Alterations: • The new version focus the attention more on the processes associated to fire scenarios than on the types of ships, as previously. • New Part E- Operational Requirements that deals exclusively with the human factors, such as education, training and maintenance issues. • New Part F that establishes a methodology for the approval of alternative or innovative designs and arrangements. • Some technical details of the systems have been moved to the International Fire Safety Systems (FSS) Code. 4/7/2014 213 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  209. 209. Fire Protection, Detection and Extinguishing: PART A - GENERAL • Regulation 1. Application • Regulation 2. Fire safety objectives and functional requirements • Regulation 3. Definitions PART B - PREVENTION OF FIRE & EXPLOSION • Regulation 4. Probability of Ignition • Regulation 5. Fire growth potential • Regulation 6. Smoke generation potential and toxicity 4/7/2014 214 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  210. 210. Fire Protection, Detection and Extinguishing: PART C- SUPPRESSION OF FIRE • Regulation 7. Detection and alarm • Regulation 8. Control of smoke spread • Regulation 9. Containment of fire • Regulation 10. Fire fighting • Regulation 11. Structural integrity PART D - ESCAPE • Regulation 12. Notification of crew and passengers • Regulation 13. Means of escape 4/7/2014 215 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  211. 211. Fire Protection, Detection and Extinguishing: PART E - OPERATIONAL REQUIREMENTS • Regulation 14. Operational readiness and maintenance • Regulation 15. Instructions, onboard training and drills • Regulation 16. Operations PART F - ALTERNATIVE DESIGN & ARRANGEMENTS • Regulation 17. Alternative design and arrangements PART G - SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS • Regulation 18. Helicopter facilities • Regulation 19. Carriage of dangerous goods • Regulation 20. Protection of vehicle, special category and ro-ro spaces 4/7/2014 216 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  212. 212. PART A - GENERAL Reg. 1 – Application 1. Application 2. Applicable requirements to existing ships 3. Repairs, alterations, modifications and outfitting 4. Exemptions 5. Applicable requirements depending on ship type 6. Application of requirements for tankers 4/7/2014 217 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  213. 213. Reg. 2 - Fire safety Objectives and Functional Requirements 1. Fire safety objectives 2. Functional requirements 3. Achievement of the fire safety objectives 4/7/2014 218 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  214. 214. Fire Safety Objectives • Prevent the occurrence of fire and explosion; • Reduce the risk to life caused by fire • Reduce the risk of damage caused by fire to the ship, its cargo and the environment • Contain, control and suppress fire and explosion in the compartment of origin • Provide adequate and readily accessible means of escape for passengers and crew 4/7/2014 219 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  215. 215. Functional Requirements • Division of the ship into main vertical and horizontal zones with structural and thermal boundaries • Separation of the accommodations from the remainder of the ship with structural and thermal boundaries • Restricted use of combustible materials • Detection of any fire in the zone of origin • Containment and extinguishing of any fire in the compartment of origin • Protection of the means of escape and access for firefighting • Fire firefighting appliances available and ready • Minimize the possibility of ignition of flammable cargo vapor 4/7/2014 220 Mohd. Hanif Dewan, Senior Engg. Lecturer, International Maritime Academy, Bangladesh
  216. 216. Some Definitions Accommodation Spaces - spaces used for public spaces, corridors, lavatories, cabins, offices, hospitals, cinemas, game and hobby rooms, barber shops, pantries containing no cooking appliances and similar spaces • Category A Machinery Spaces  

×