4. Planing for Teaching Aides & Multimedia Programmes
Some animals in a forest decided to start a school. The students included a bird, a squirrel, a fish, a dog , a rabbit & a mentally retarded eel. A board was formed and it was decided that flying, tree climbing, swimming, and burrowing would be part of the curriculum in order to give a broad-based education. All animals were required to take all subjects.
The bird was excellent at flying and was getting A's but when it came to burrowing, it kept breaking its beak and wings and started failing. Pretty soon, it started making C's in flying and of course in tree climbing and swimming it was getting F's. The squirrel was great at tree climbing and was getting A's, but was failing in swimming. The fish was the best swimmer but couldn't get out of the water and got F's in everything else. The dog didn't join the school, stopped paying taxes and kept fighting with the administration to include barking as part of the curriculum. The rabbit got A's in burrowing but tree climbing was a real problem. It kept falling and landing on its head, suffered brain damage, and soon couldn't even burrow properly and got C's in that too
The mentally retarded eel, who did everything half as well became the valediction of the class. The board was happy because everybody was getting a broad-based education. What a broad-based education really means is that the student is prepared for life, without losing their areas of specialization or competence.
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF EDUCATION 1) Individual Development (2) Social and National Development (3) Social Transformation (4) Modernaisation (5) Acquisition of values (6) Community participation (7) Universalisation
They are a statement of what the student should know
and be able to do when they complete a program or course
Learning outcomes are related to the needs analysis of the student rather than the needs of the instructor
Four important questions for curricular designers
What educational purposes do we seek to attain?
What educational experiences are likely to attain these purposes?
How can these be organised effectively?
How can we determine whether these purposes are being attained?
WHAT IS CURRICULUM The most common definition derived from the word Latin root, which means “racecourse.”or “to run” “ Curriculum is a race to be run, a series of obstacles or hurdles (subjects) to be passed.”
How Do We Define Curriculum? The secondary education commission says A curriculum does not mean only the academic subjects traditionally taught in the school but it includes the totality of experiences that a public receives through the manifold activities that go on in the school,workshop,play ground,library,laboratory and in the informal contacts between teachers and pupils
“ A curriculum is an attempt to communicate the essential principles and features of an educational proposal in such a form that it is open to critical scrutiny and capable of effective translation into practice.” Stenhouse L (1975)
Judicious mix of centralized and localized elements
Incorporating the latest developments in various field of knowledge
Joyful learning and curriculum load
Continuous , periodical change
Aims and Objectives Every curriculum is aimed at developing in the learners certain competencies or abilities. The curriculum process must therefore clearly identify the aims that the curriculum is intended to achieve.
Curriculum aims range from the very broad to the more specific. In fact, that is why we use the terms aims, goals and objectives to refer to them. Aims are broad statements which cover all of the experiences provided in the curriculum; goals are tied to specific subjects or group of contents within the curriculum; while objectives describe the more specific outcomes that can be attained as a result of lessons or instruction delivered at the classroom.
Knowledge (intellectual) Cognitive Domain Affective domain Attitudes (values) Skills (Manual) Psycho motor Domain Figure 4: Main categories of Human Behaviour