Fiqh of fasting june 2013
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Fiqh of fasting june 2013

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Fiqh of Ramadān and how rulings affect your worship. Also learn the secrets to a successful month of fasting as well as practical tips.

Fiqh of Ramadān and how rulings affect your worship. Also learn the secrets to a successful month of fasting as well as practical tips.

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  • The strongest opinion is that it changes every year. One thing we know for sure is that it is in the odd nights of the last ten nights. The prophet would search for Laylatul Qadr in the middle ten nights and make i’tikaf on those nights before it was revealed to him that Laylatul Qadr is in the last 10 nights, of the odd nights. After this he searched for it in the last 10 nights and make i’tikaf at that time. [Sahih Muslim, Book 6 (Kitaab Al-Sawm), Chapter 37, Hadith 270] So it is one of the five odd nights. Some put more emphasis on the last nights but some riwayaat give importance to the first nights as well. In general the last ten nights are the most blessed nights of year, and of them more blessed are the odd nights, and of them the most blessed night is laylatul qadr. It is not always the 27th night. The wisdom behind not knowing what night it is is so people can be eager to worship Allah and find it through all these 10 nights. Allah tests us, within our capacity, to be vigilant. If you worship throughout the last ten nights you are guaranteed to get Laylatul Qadr. What does it mean to stand on this night? It means stand in prayer in the night for the majority of the night. So we are recommended to do what we can. Do something extra. You increase your standard during the regular nights of Ramadan, and on these nights take it to the limit, do something more than the increased standard of Ramadan. What to say if you find yourself on Laylatul Qadr Aisha (radiAllahu anha) narrates she asked the Rasulullah (saw) : Oh messenger of Allah, if I find myself on the night of Laylatul Qadr, what should I say? Prophet: Say Oh Allah you are forgiving and love to forgive so forgive me (Allahumma innaka ‘afuyyun tuhibbul ‘afwa fa’fu’anna) [Jami' Al-Tirmidhi] Signs of Laitul Qadr There are some signs that reveal which night is Laitatul Qadr. The night will be peaceful, neither hot nor cold, with a clear moon shinning but with no rays. There will be no shooting stars in the night At sunrise the sun will rise as just a disc without and radiant beams of light. One companion of the Prophet reported that on Laitatul Qadr he tasted sea water and it was sweet.
  • The Sunnahs that the Muslim should observe on the day of Eid are as follows: 1 – Doing ghusl before going out to the prayer. It was narrated in a saheeh hadeeth in al-Muwatta’ and elsewhere that ‘Abd-Allaah ibn ‘Umar used to do ghusl on the day of al-Fitr before going out to the prayer-place in the morning. Al-Muwatta’ 428. Al- Nawawi (may Allaah have mercy on him) said that the Muslims were unanimously agreed that it is mustahabb to do ghusl for Eid prayer. The reason why it is mustahabb is the same reason as that for doing ghusl before Jumu’ah and other public gatherings. Rather on Eid the reason is even stronger. 2 – Eating before going out to pray on Eid al-Fitr and after the prayer on Eid al-Adha: Part of the etiquette is not to go out to pray on Eid al-Fitr until one has eaten some dates, because of the hadeeth narrated by al-Bukhaari from Anas ibn Maalik, who said that the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) used not to go out on the morning of Eid al-Fitr until he had eaten some dates… of which he would eat an odd number. Al-Bukhaari, 953. It is mustahabb to eat before going out to emphasize the fact that it is forbidden to fast on that day and to demonstrate that the fast has ended. Ibn Hajar (may Allaah have mercy on him) suggested that the reason for that was so as to ward off the possibility of adding to the fast, and to hasten to obey the command of Allaah. Al-Fath, 2/446 Whoever does not have any dates may break his fast with anything that is permissible. But on Eid al-Adha it is mustahabb not to eat anything until one comes back from the prayer, so he should eat from the udhiyah if he has offered a sacrifice. If he is not going to offer a sacrifice there is nothing wrong with eating before the prayer. 3 – Takbeer on the day of Eid This is one of the greatest Sunnahs on the day of Eid because Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning): “ (He wants that you) must complete the same number (of days), and that you must magnify Allaah [i.e. to say Takbeer (Allaahu Akbar: Allaah is the Most Great)] for having guided you so that you may be grateful to Him” [al-Baqarah 2:185] It was narrated that al-Waleed ibn Muslim said: I asked al-Awzaa’i and Maalik ibn Anas about saying Takbeer out loud on the two Eids. They said, Yes, ‘Abd-Allaah ibn ‘Umar used to say it out loud on the day of al-Fitr until the imam came out (to lead the prayers). It was narrated in a saheeh report that ‘Abd al-Rahmaan al-Sulami said, “They emphasized it more on the day of al-Fitr than the day of al-Adha.”. Wakee’ said, this refers to the takbeer. See Irwa’ al-Ghaleel, 3/122/ Al-Daaraqutni and others narrated that on the morning of Eid al-Fitr and Eid al-Adha, Ibn ‘Umar would strive hard in reciting takbeer until he came to the prayer place, then he would recite takbeer until the imam came out. Ibn Abi Shaybah narrated with a saheeh isnaad that al-Zuhri said: The people used to recite Takbeer on Eid when they came out of their houses until they came to the prayer place, and until the imam came out. When the imam came out they fell silent, and when he said takbeer they said takbeer. See Irwa’ al-Ghaleel, 1/121 Saying takbeer when coming out of one's house to the prayer place and until the imam came out was something that was well known among the salaf (early generations). This has been narrated by a number of scholars such as Ibn Abi Shaybah, ‘Abd a l-Razzaaq and al-Firyaabi in Ahkaam al-Eidayn from a group of the salaf. For example, Naafi’ ibn Jubayr used to recite takbeer and was astonished that the people did not do so, and he said, “Why do you not recite takbeer?” Ibn Shihaab al-Zuhri (may Allaah have mercy on him) used to say, “The people used to recite takbeer from the time they came out of their houses until the imam came in.” The time for takbeer on Eid al-Fitr starts from the night before Eid until the imam enters to lead the Eid prayer. In the case of Eid al-Adha, the takbeer begins on the first day of Dhu’l-Hijjah and lasts until sunset on the last of the days of tashreeq. Description of the takbeer: It was narrated in the Musannaf of Ibn Abi Shaybah with a saheeh isnaad from Ibn Mas’ood (may Allaah be pleased with him) that he used to recite takbeer during the days of tashreeq: Allaahu akbar, Allaahu akbar, laa ilaaha ill-Allaah, wa Allaahu akbar, Allaah akbar, wa Lillaah il-hamd (Allaah is Most Great, Allaah is most Great, there is no god but Allaah, Allaah is Most great, Allaah is most great, and to Allaah be praise). It was also narrated elsewhere by Ibn Abi Shaybah with the same isnaad, but with the phrase “Allaahu akbar” repeated three times. Al-Mahaamili narrated with a saheeh isnaad also from Ibn Mas’ood: “Allaahu akbaru kabeera, Allaahu akbaru kabeera, Allaahu akbar wa ajallu, Allaahu akbar wa Lillaah il-hamd (Allaah is Most Great indeed, Allaah is Most Great indeed, Allaah is most Great and Glorified, Allaah is Most Great and to Allaah be praise).” See al-Irwa’, 3/126. 4 – Offering congratulations The etiquette of Eid also includes the congratulations and good wishes exchanged by people, no matter what the wording, such as saying to one another Taqabbala Allaah minna wa minkum (May Allaah accept (good deeds) from us and from you” or “Eid mubaarak” and other permissible expressions of congratulations. It was narrated that Jubayr ibn Nufayr said: When the companions of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) met one another on the day of Eid, they would say to one another, “May Allaah accept (good deeds) from us and from you.” Ibn Hajar said, its isnaad is hasan. Al-Fath, 2/446. Offering congratulations was something that was well known among the Sahaabah, and scholars such as Imam Ahmad and others allowed it. There is evidence which suggests that it is prescribed to offer congratulations and good wishes on special occasions, and that the Sahaabah congratulated one another when good things happened, such as when Allaah accepted the repentance of a man, they went and congratulated him for that, and so on. Undoubtedly these congratulations are among the noble characteristics among the Muslims. The least that may be said concerning the subject of congratulations is that you should return the greetings of those who congratulate you on Eid, and keep quiet if others keep quiet, as Imam Ahmad (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: If anyone congratulates you, then respond, otherwise do not initiate it. 5 – Adorning oneself on the occasion of Eid. It was narrated that ‘Abd-Allaah ibn ‘Umar (may Allaah be pleased with him) said that ‘Umar took a brocade cloak that was for sale in the market and brought it to the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), and said, “O Messenger of Allaah, buy this and adorn yourself with it for Eid and for receiving the delegations.” The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said to him, “Rather this is the dress of one who has no share (of piety or of reward in the Hereafter)…” Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 948. The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) agreed with ‘Umar on the idea of adorning oneself for Eid, but he denounced him for choosing this cloak because it was made of silk. It was narrated that Jaabir (may Allaah be pleased with him) said: The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) had a cloak which he would wear on the two Eids and on Fridays. Saheeh Ibn Khuzaymah, 1756, Al-Bayhaqi narrated with a saheeh isnaad that Ibn ‘Umar used to wear his best clothes on Eid. So a man should wear the best clothes that he has when going out for Eid. With regard to women, they should avoid adorning themselves when they go out for Eid, because they are forbidden to show off their adornments to non-mahram men. It is also haraam for a woman who wants to go out to put on perfume or to expose men to temptation, because they are only going out for the purpose of worship. 6 – Going to the prayer by one route and returning by another. It was narrated that Jaabir ibn ‘Abd-Allaah (may Allaah be pleased with him) said: On the day of Eid, the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) used to vary his route. Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 986. It was said that the reason for that was so that the two routes would testify for him on the Day of Resurrection, for the earth will speak on the Day of Resurrection and say what was done on it, both good and bad. And it was said that it was in order to manifest the symbols of Islam on both routes, or to manifest the remembrance of Allaah (dhikr), or to annoy the hypocrites and Jews, and to scare them with the large number of people who were with him. And it was said that it was in order to attend to the people’s needs, to answer their questions, teach them, set an example and give charity to the needy, or to visit his relatives and uphold the ties of kinship.
  • The Sunnahs that the Muslim should observe on the day of Eid are as follows: 1 – Doing ghusl before going out to the prayer. It was narrated in a saheeh hadeeth in al-Muwatta’ and elsewhere that ‘Abd-Allaah ibn ‘Umar used to do ghusl on the day of al-Fitr before going out to the prayer-place in the morning. Al-Muwatta’ 428. Al- Nawawi (may Allaah have mercy on him) said that the Muslims were unanimously agreed that it is mustahabb to do ghusl for Eid prayer. The reason why it is mustahabb is the same reason as that for doing ghusl before Jumu’ah and other public gatherings. Rather on Eid the reason is even stronger. 2 – Eating before going out to pray on Eid al-Fitr and after the prayer on Eid al-Adha: Part of the etiquette is not to go out to pray on Eid al-Fitr until one has eaten some dates, because of the hadeeth narrated by al-Bukhaari from Anas ibn Maalik, who said that the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) used not to go out on the morning of Eid al-Fitr until he had eaten some dates… of which he would eat an odd number. Al-Bukhaari, 953. It is mustahabb to eat before going out to emphasize the fact that it is forbidden to fast on that day and to demonstrate that the fast has ended. Ibn Hajar (may Allaah have mercy on him) suggested that the reason for that was so as to ward off the possibility of adding to the fast, and to hasten to obey the command of Allaah. Al-Fath, 2/446 Whoever does not have any dates may break his fast with anything that is permissible. But on Eid al-Adha it is mustahabb not to eat anything until one comes back from the prayer, so he should eat from the udhiyah if he has offered a sacrifice. If he is not going to offer a sacrifice there is nothing wrong with eating before the prayer. 3 – Takbeer on the day of Eid This is one of the greatest Sunnahs on the day of Eid because Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning): “ (He wants that you) must complete the same number (of days), and that you must magnify Allaah [i.e. to say Takbeer (Allaahu Akbar: Allaah is the Most Great)] for having guided you so that you may be grateful to Him” [al-Baqarah 2:185] It was narrated that al-Waleed ibn Muslim said: I asked al-Awzaa’i and Maalik ibn Anas about saying Takbeer out loud on the two Eids. They said, Yes, ‘Abd-Allaah ibn ‘Umar used to say it out loud on the day of al-Fitr until the imam came out (to lead the prayers). It was narrated in a saheeh report that ‘Abd al-Rahmaan al-Sulami said, “They emphasized it more on the day of al-Fitr than the day of al-Adha.”. Wakee’ said, this refers to the takbeer. See Irwa’ al-Ghaleel, 3/122/ Al-Daaraqutni and others narrated that on the morning of Eid al-Fitr and Eid al-Adha, Ibn ‘Umar would strive hard in reciting takbeer until he came to the prayer place, then he would recite takbeer until the imam came out. Ibn Abi Shaybah narrated with a saheeh isnaad that al-Zuhri said: The people used to recite Takbeer on Eid when they came out of their houses until they came to the prayer place, and until the imam came out. When the imam came out they fell silent, and when he said takbeer they said takbeer. See Irwa’ al-Ghaleel, 1/121 Saying takbeer when coming out of one's house to the prayer place and until the imam came out was something that was well known among the salaf (early generations). This has been narrated by a number of scholars such as Ibn Abi Shaybah, ‘Abd a l-Razzaaq and al-Firyaabi in Ahkaam al-Eidayn from a group of the salaf. For example, Naafi’ ibn Jubayr used to recite takbeer and was astonished that the people did not do so, and he said, “Why do you not recite takbeer?” Ibn Shihaab al-Zuhri (may Allaah have mercy on him) used to say, “The people used to recite takbeer from the time they came out of their houses until the imam came in.” The time for takbeer on Eid al-Fitr starts from the night before Eid until the imam enters to lead the Eid prayer. In the case of Eid al-Adha, the takbeer begins on the first day of Dhu’l-Hijjah and lasts until sunset on the last of the days of tashreeq. Description of the takbeer: It was narrated in the Musannaf of Ibn Abi Shaybah with a saheeh isnaad from Ibn Mas’ood (may Allaah be pleased with him) that he used to recite takbeer during the days of tashreeq: Allaahu akbar, Allaahu akbar, laa ilaaha ill-Allaah, wa Allaahu akbar, Allaah akbar, wa Lillaah il-hamd (Allaah is Most Great, Allaah is most Great, there is no god but Allaah, Allaah is Most great, Allaah is most great, and to Allaah be praise). It was also narrated elsewhere by Ibn Abi Shaybah with the same isnaad, but with the phrase “Allaahu akbar” repeated three times. Al-Mahaamili narrated with a saheeh isnaad also from Ibn Mas’ood: “Allaahu akbaru kabeera, Allaahu akbaru kabeera, Allaahu akbar wa ajallu, Allaahu akbar wa Lillaah il-hamd (Allaah is Most Great indeed, Allaah is Most Great indeed, Allaah is most Great and Glorified, Allaah is Most Great and to Allaah be praise).” See al-Irwa’, 3/126. 4 – Offering congratulations The etiquette of Eid also includes the congratulations and good wishes exchanged by people, no matter what the wording, such as saying to one another Taqabbala Allaah minna wa minkum (May Allaah accept (good deeds) from us and from you” or “Eid mubaarak” and other permissible expressions of congratulations. It was narrated that Jubayr ibn Nufayr said: When the companions of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) met one another on the day of Eid, they would say to one another, “May Allaah accept (good deeds) from us and from you.” Ibn Hajar said, its isnaad is hasan. Al-Fath, 2/446. Offering congratulations was something that was well known among the Sahaabah, and scholars such as Imam Ahmad and others allowed it. There is evidence which suggests that it is prescribed to offer congratulations and good wishes on special occasions, and that the Sahaabah congratulated one another when good things happened, such as when Allaah accepted the repentance of a man, they went and congratulated him for that, and so on. Undoubtedly these congratulations are among the noble characteristics among the Muslims. The least that may be said concerning the subject of congratulations is that you should return the greetings of those who congratulate you on Eid, and keep quiet if others keep quiet, as Imam Ahmad (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: If anyone congratulates you, then respond, otherwise do not initiate it. 5 – Adorning oneself on the occasion of Eid. It was narrated that ‘Abd-Allaah ibn ‘Umar (may Allaah be pleased with him) said that ‘Umar took a brocade cloak that was for sale in the market and brought it to the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), and said, “O Messenger of Allaah, buy this and adorn yourself with it for Eid and for receiving the delegations.” The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said to him, “Rather this is the dress of one who has no share (of piety or of reward in the Hereafter)…” Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 948. The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) agreed with ‘Umar on the idea of adorning oneself for Eid, but he denounced him for choosing this cloak because it was made of silk. It was narrated that Jaabir (may Allaah be pleased with him) said: The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) had a cloak which he would wear on the two Eids and on Fridays. Saheeh Ibn Khuzaymah, 1756, Al-Bayhaqi narrated with a saheeh isnaad that Ibn ‘Umar used to wear his best clothes on Eid. So a man should wear the best clothes that he has when going out for Eid. With regard to women, they should avoid adorning themselves when they go out for Eid, because they are forbidden to show off their adornments to non-mahram men. It is also haraam for a woman who wants to go out to put on perfume or to expose men to temptation, because they are only going out for the purpose of worship. 6 – Going to the prayer by one route and returning by another. It was narrated that Jaabir ibn ‘Abd-Allaah (may Allaah be pleased with him) said: On the day of Eid, the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) used to vary his route. Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 986. It was said that the reason for that was so that the two routes would testify for him on the Day of Resurrection, for the earth will speak on the Day of Resurrection and say what was done on it, both good and bad. And it was said that it was in order to manifest the symbols of Islam on both routes, or to manifest the remembrance of Allaah (dhikr), or to annoy the hypocrites and Jews, and to scare them with the large number of people who were with him. And it was said that it was in order to attend to the people’s needs, to answer their questions, teach them, set an example and give charity to the needy, or to visit his relatives and uphold the ties of kinship.

Fiqh of fasting june 2013 Fiqh of fasting june 2013 Presentation Transcript

  • Month of the Mercy
  • Definition of Fasting• Linguistically: It mean Abstinence(refrain from)• Legally: Withholding from something specified, During aspecified time which is from the true fajr until sunset, with aspecific intention• According to the Sharee‘ah it means “abstaining from food,drink, sexual intercourse, and other acts mentioned in the divinelaw during the day in the prescribed way. It is followed byabstinence from foolish talk, obscenity, and other forms ofprohibited and disliked speech, due to the narration of hadithsforbidding them during fasting more so than at other times.
  • Proofs for the obligation to fastQuran:•O you who have believed, decreed upon you is fasting as it wasdecreed upon those before you that you may becomerighteous[Surah Baqarah:183]From Sunnah:•From the Hadith of Jibril: He Said: Oh Muhammad, tell meabout Islam. The Messenger of Allah(saw) said, Islam is that youwitness that there is no god but Allah and that Muhammad isthe Messenger of Allah, and you establish the prayer, and yougive the Zakat, and you fast Ramadan, and you perform the hajjof the House if you are able to take a way to it.{Reported byBukhari}
  • Nothing else like Fasting• Abu Umama (radiAllahu anhu) said: Oh Messenger of Allah,tell me of an action by which I may enter paradise.Prophet(saw): Take to fasting, there is nothing like it. [An-Nasai, Ibn Hibban, Al-Hakim]
  • Every deeds is for yourself except Fasting• Abu Huraira narrates that the Prophet (saw) said Allah says: Every deed of the child of Adamis for himself, except for fasting. It is for Me and I shall reward it. Fasting is a shield, so if it isa day of fasting for any one of you, then he should engage in no obscenity or shouting. Ifanyone belittles him or fights with him, he should just say ‘I am a person who is fasting’. Iswear by Him in whose hand is Muhammad’s soul, the smell of the fasting person’s breath issweeter to Allah on the Day of Judgment than that of musk. The fasting person has twooccasions for joy, one when he breaks his fast because of his breaking it and the other whenhe meets his Lord because of the reward for his fast.[Sahih Muslim, Book 6, Chapter 28,Hadith 2566. Also reported in Sahih Al-Bukhari]• In another narration Abu Huraira narrates Rasulullah (saw) said Allah says: Every (good) deedof the son of Adam would be multiplied, a good deed receiving a tenfold to sevenhundredfold reward. Allah, the Exalted and Majestic, has said: With the exception of fasting,for it is done for Me and I will give a reward for it. [Sahih Muslim, Book 6, Chapter 28, Hadith2567. Also reported in Sahih Al-Bukhari]• Of course Allah will reward each of his slaves, but this hadith means there is no limit or valueplaced on this reward. Meaning it is up to Allah how much he will reward, he is saying don’tworry, I will give you from My bounty. So we leave the reward to the generosity of Allah, andhe is the most generous.
  • The Virtues of Fasting• Sahl ibn Sa‘d said the Prophet (saw) said: “There is a gate in Paradise called Ar-Rayyaan, andthose who observe fasting will enter from it on the Day of Judgment and none except themwill enter from it. It will be said, Where are those who used to observe fasting? They will getup, and none except them will enter from it. After their entry, this gate will be closed andnobody will enter from it (after that).” [Al-Bukhaari/Muslim]• It was narrated from Abu Salamah that Abu Hurayrah said: "The Messenger of Allah (saw)said: "Whoever fasts Ramazan out of faith and seeking reward, his previous sins will beforgiven." (Narrated by al-Bukhari, al-Eemaan, 37).
  • Medical and Spiritual Benefits• Spiritual/Moral Benefits: Above all it is an act of obedience to Allah.Trains believers in TAQWA (Being Mindful of Allah & Fearing Him by doingall that He ordered & avoiding all that He has forbade).Teaches Patience &sincerity. Restricts the movement of the Shaitan.• Physical Benefits: Empathy and sympathy with the poor who do not havefood or drink and of those who cannot get married or cannot be with theirspouses. Develops endurance & Self-restraint• Social Benefits: Strengthens unity & equality between Muslims. Teachessympathy towards the poor & needy.• Medical Benefits: Rests the Digestive organs & gets rid of accumulatedwaste. Uses up stored cholesterol (Fats) in the Blood System, which is oneof the causes of Heart Disease. Teaches self control from over-eating,smoking etc. [Ref: Video]
  • Preparing for Ramadan• There are number of ways by which to prepare for Ramadan:• Repent to Allah• Make Dua to Allah• Try to complete any obligatory fasts that you have tomake up• Try to get of the things that distract you before Ramadan• Learn the rulings about fasting so you can worship• Fast some of the month of Sha’ban• Read lots of Quran• Try to set yourself a timetable and resolution forRamadan
  • Fasting Obligation upon• Who is a Muslim(Islam)• Who is of age; must be baligh(Puberty)• Who is sane(Sanity)• Who is capable of fasting(Ability)• Who is free of excuse• Who is not traveling(Residency)
  • Fasting Obligation Upon:• “The month of Ramadan in which was revealed the Qur’aan, a guidancefor mankind and clear proofs for the guidance and the criterion (betweenright and wrong). So whoever of you sights (the crescent on the first nightof) the month (of Ramadan i.e. is present at his home), he must observeSawm (fasts) that month, and whoever is ill or on a journey, the samenumber [of days which one did not observe Sawm (fasts) must be madeup] from other days. Allaah intends for you ease, and He does not want tomake things difficult for you. (He wants that you) must complete the samenumber (of days), and that you must magnify Allaah [i.e. to say Takbeer(Allaahu Akbar: Allaah is the Most Great)] for having guided you so thatyou may be grateful to Him” [al-Baqarah 2:185]
  • Concerning the people who break theirfast illegally• Anyone who does not belong to any of these categories and purposelystill doesn’t fast, then he is committing a major sin because he is leavingone of the pillars of Islam. If anyone intentionally breaks his fast inRamadan then upon him is a great sin and he must make up that day forwhich he broke or he did not fast. There is no expiation upon him.• It’s a major sin to break ones fast intentionally. But if one eats or drinkswithout realization that its Ramadan, then its ok and the fast is notnullified.• “A man came to the Prophet(saw) and said, O Messenger of Allah(saw), Ihave destroyed myself.’ So the Prophet(saw) said, ‘What have you done?’‘He said I fell upon my wife when I was fasting’ So the Prophet(saw) askedhim, ‘Can you free a slave?’ He said, ‘No.’ Then he(saw) said, ‘Can you fasttwo months?’ He said, ‘No.’ So then the Prophet(saw) said, ‘Can you feedsixty poor people?’ He said, ‘Wallahi last night we went to sleep wecouldn’t even eat our food.’ Then Prophet(saw) was quiet and somesadaqah was brought to him. So then the Prophet(saw) gave that man thesadaqah and go and said feed sixty poor people.”
  • Concerning the people who break theirfast illegally• A saheeh report which warns against not fasting was narrated by IbnKhuzaymah (1986) and Ibn Hibbaan (7491) from Abu Umaamah al-Baahiliwho said: I heard the Messenger of Allaah (saw) say: “Whilst I wassleeping two men came to me and took my by the arm and brought me toa cragged mountain. They said, ‘Climb up.’ I said, ‘I cannot.’ They said, ‘Wewill make it easy for you.’ So I climbed up until I was at the top of themountain. Then I heard loud voices. I said, ‘What are these voices?’ Theysaid, ‘This is the howling of the people of Hell.” Then I was taken until Isaw people hanging by their hamstrings, with the sides of their mouthstorn and blood pouring from their mouths.’ I said, ‘Who are these?’ Hesaid, ‘These are people who broke their fast before it was time.’” Classedas saheeh by al-Albaani in Saheeh Mawaarid al-Zam’aan, no. 1509.• Al-Albaani (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: This is the punishment ofthose who fasted then broke the fast deliberately before the time forbreaking the fast came, so who about those who do not fast at all? We askAllaah to keep us safe and sound in this world and in the Hereafter.
  • Excuses for Not Fasting in RamadanSo whoever among you is ill or on a journey [during them] – then anequal number of days [are to be made up]. And upon those who areable [to fast, but with hardship] – a ransom [as substitute] of feedinga poor person [each day].[Surah Baqarah: 184]•Those who have temporary excuse from fasting in Ramadan• Temporarily Sick Person• Traveler• Menstruating Women and Women in Post-Child birth bleeding• The pregnant and breast feeding woman• Miscellaneous categories of temporary excuse(i.e fighting, deeply inneed(doctor performing critical ops))•Those who have Permanent excuse from fasting in Ramadan• The old• The fragile• The Terminally ill sick person
  • When does Ramadan Start ?• There are three ways from which we can know when does themonth of Ramadan start:• That we know that we’ve completed the thirty days of themonth of Sha’ban.• When we sight the moon on the 29th of Sha’ban.• When the night of 29th Sha’ban is cloudy, we assume thatSha’ban will last for thirty days. It is mentioned in thehadith: “Fast when you see the moon and break your fastwhen you see the moon. But if it is cloudy then complete itout (the thirty days of Sha’ban).”
  • Degrees of Fasting• 1. Ordinary Fasting i.e only fard or few times only• 2. Special Fasting i.e Sunnah…Taraweeh…Quran recitationetc..• 3. Extra-Special Fasting• a. Lower your gaze• b. Guard your tongue• c. Guard your ears• d. Keep your limbs pure• e. Once again: Easy on the Biryani!
  • Purpose of Fasting• The Prophet Muhammad (saw) said: Whoever does not give up lying and obscenetalk then Allah has no need of his giving up his food and water. [Al-Tabarani in AlMujam Al Sagheer, Classed as Saheeh by Al-Albaani]• Abu Huraira narrates the Prophet Muhammad (saw) said: Many a fasting personwill get nothing from his fast save hunger or thirst, and many a one who stand topray at night will get nothing from his standing except sleeplessness. [Sunan IbnMajah, Hadith 1690 and Al-Tirmidhi, Hadith 1989, Classed as Sahih]• We fast to achieve god consciousness, taqwa, if while you’re fasting you don’tachieve this then you might as well not fast. If the prophet (sallallahu ‘alayhi wasallam) said lying and cheating makes a fast useless, what about the sin of leavingsalah? This is one of the greatest sins of Islam. Salah is the second pillar of Islamand fasting is the fourth pillar. Does it make any sense to skip the 2nd and jump to4th pillar? A building cannot have a 4th floor before a 2nd. Some ulema have saidleaving salah invalidates your fast. You might as well not fast. It’s a joke. It’sridiculous to not pray and fast at the same time. Make sure you are praying your 5prayers in Ramadan and this will help you continue to pray them after Ramadan.
  • The Intention to Fast• Intention is obligatory for every ibadah. Intention is confinedto the heart – not tounge• The timing of the intention during fasting depends on thetype of fasting:• In obligatory fast: The safest opinion is that the intentionneeds to be present from the night before fajr: There is nofast for the one who did not make his fast from thenight[Abu Dawud 2454]• In Supererogatory fasts: The intention can be made atanytime before the end of the fasting period as long as nofood had been enter from the morning. This is based onthe hadith from muslim that prophet(saw) intended to fastin the middle of the day when there was no food to eat.(Hanafi Opinion that intention can be made only up to midday as a maximum
  • Fast Nullifiers• Changing intentions breaks one’s fast.• Eating and Drinking• Intentionally Vomiting• Cupping• Ejaculation by touching• Sexual Intercourse• Menstruation or Post Natal Bleeding
  • Things which do not invalidate the fast• Eye drops, eardrops, tooth extraction and treatment of injuries donot invalidate the fast if nothing goes down the throat.• Medical tablets that are placed under the tongue to treat asthmaattacks etc, so long as you avoid swallowing any residue.• Insertion of anything into the vagina such as pessaries, or aspeculum, or the doctor’s fingers for the purpose of medicalexamination.• Insertion of medical instruments or IUD into the womb.• Anything that enters the urinary tract of a male or female , such asa catheter tube, or medical scopes, or opaque dyes inserted for thepurpose of x-rays, or medicine.• Fillings, extractions or cleaning of the teeth, whether with a siwakor toothbrush, so long as you avoid swallowing anything thatreaches the throat.
  • Things which do not invalidate the fast• Rinsing the mouth, gargling, sprays etc . so long as you avoidswallowing anything that reaches the throat.• Oxygen or anesthetic gases.• Anything that may enter the body via absorption through the skin,such as creams, poultices, etc.• Insertion of a fine tube via the veins for diagnostic imaging ortreatment of the veins of the heart or any part of the body.• Insertion of a scope through the stomach wall to examine theintestines by means of a surgical operation (laparoscopy).• Taking samples from the liver or any other part of the body, so longas that is not accompanied by administration of solutions.• Endoscopy, as long as that is not accompanied by administration ofsolutions or other substances.• Introduction of any medical instruments or materials to the brain orspinal column.
  • Things that are undesirable (makruh)• Exaggeration in sniffing water at the time of making Wudu• Using strong tasting toothpaste or strong moutwash• Taking a swim• To chew something like gum or rubber, providing there is noflavor• To taste food with the tip of ones tongue• To collect saliva in the mouth and swallow it in large quantity• To quarrel and use filthy and indecent language• To back bite• Eating too much, The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaahbe upon him) said:“The son of Adam fills no worse vessel thanhis stomach.” (Reported by al-Tirmidhi, no. 2380)
  • Things that are desirable (Mustahab)• It is recommended to eat the the suhur and delay it itsmaximum possible time• It is highly recommended to hurry up in breaking the fast• To break the fast before prayting maghrib and break the fastupon dates and if not then water• To read a lot of quran and give a lot of charity• It is wajib to stay away from lying, backbiting, swearing andcoursing• It is recommended to say if someone wrong you " I amfasting"• To say the following Dua upon breaking the fast: Thirst hasbeen quenched, the veins wetted and the rewards establishinsha allah
  • Components of a Fruitful Fast• 1. Suhur• Anas narrates the Prophet Muhammad (saw) said: Eat suhoor for in it there is baraka (blessing). [Sahih Muslim,Book 6, Chapter 9, Hadith 2412. Also reported in Sahih Al-Bukhari] In another narration Allah and His angels sendtheir salam on those who eat suhoor.• Prophet Muhammad (saw) said: I command you to have suhoor even if it is only a glass of water. [Musnad Ahmad]• Amr Ibn Al-Aas narrates The Prophet Muhammad (saw) said: The difference between us and previous nations iswe delay the suhoor and hasten the iftaar. [Sahih Muslim, Book 6, Chapter 9, Hadith 2413]• Abu Sa’eed Al-Khudri narrates Rasulullah (saw) said: Suhur is a blessed meal. Hence, do not abandon it, even if onejust takes a sip of water. Indeed, Allah and His angels send Salah (blessings) upon those who eat Suhur. [MusnadAhmad, Ibn Abi Shaibah]• 2. Break it as soon as the sun has set with dates• Sahl ibn Sa’d that the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “The people willcontinue to do well so long as they hasten to break the fast.” [Bukhaari/Muslim] In another narrations AbuHurayrah(ra) reported the additional phrase, “… because the Jews and Christians delay it.” Classed as hasan by al-Albaani in Saheeh Abi Dawood,• 3. Generosity [Video]• 4. More good deeds• 5. More charity• 6. More Qur’ān• 7. I‘tikāf the last 10 nights
  • Meritorious Acts During Ramadhan:• Searching for the Night of Decree• The Night of Decree (Laylatul-Qadr) is more virtuous and meritorious than one thousandmonths. It is the night of Ramadhan in which the Quran was brought from the highestheavens down to mankind. Allah ~ says in the Noble Quran interpretation of themeaning is: - "Verily, We have sent it (this Quran) down in the Night of Decree (Al-Qadr). And what will make you know what the Night of Decree is? The Night of Decree isbetter than a thousand months." (97:1-3)• Performing `Umrah During Ramadhan• Performing Umrah (lesser pilgrimage to Makkah) in Ramadhan is especially virtuousbecause it is equal in reward to Hajj (the major pilgrimage to Makkah).• The Prophet (Peace be upon Him) said:"Umrah in Ramadhan is equal (in reward) to Hajj-or he said "equal to (performing) Hajj with me." (Al-Bukhari and Muslim)
  • Meritorious Acts During Ramadhan:• The Night Prayer or Tarawih Prayers• Allahs Messenger (Peace be upon Him) has encouraged offering prayer at nightregularly. This prayer is known as the night prayer (Qiyamul-Layl) or (Tahajjud). DuringRamadhan this prayer is also call Tarawih. It is allowed to offer the Tarawih, at any timestarting from the conclusion of Isha (Night) prayer until the commencement of the Fajr(Dawn) prayer. The Prophet (Peace be upon Him) always prayed eleven Rakahs (units ofprayer) for the optional night prayer, whether it was during Ramadhan or any othertime of the year but it is allowed to pray more than 11 Rakahs InshaAllah• Tarawih, is a voluntary prayer by which a true believer intends to seek the pleasure ofAllah and draw near to Him. The Prophet said (Peace be upon Him): "Whoeverperformed the night prayer in Ramadhan with sincere faith and hoping for a rewardfrom Allah, then all his past sins will be forgiven." (Al-Bukhari• Giving Charity And Donations• One of the good deeds of this blessed month of Ramadhan is charity and benevolence,which is more virtuous than during the other months. The goal of giving charity anddonations is to attain the pleasure of Allah(S.W.T). “And whatever you spend in good, itwill be repaid to you in full, and you shall not be wronged.” (Quran 2:272)
  • Meritorious Acts During Ramadhan:• Increasing Ones Recitation of The Quran• The blessed month of Ramadhan is the month of the Quran, in which reciting theQuran according to ones ability is strongly recommended. The Messenger of Allah(Peace be upon Him) recited the Quran with the utmost concentration and deepcontemplation of its meanings. For Ramadhan is the month in which the Quran wasrevealed. Allah (S.W.T) says interpretation of the meaning is: -"The month of Ramadhan,in which the Quran was revealed; a guidance for mankind and clear proofs for theguidance and the criterion (between right and wrong)." (2:185)• Seclusion in the Mosque (I`tikaf)• One of the special deeds of Ramadhan is I`tikaf. Performing I`tikaf means to confineoneself in seclusion in a mosque for the purpose of worshipping Allah alone, leavingevery worldly and personal affair. The mind of the person who observes I`tikafconcentrates exclusively on the goal of pleasing Allah (S.W.T). He is engaged in varioustypes of worship, repentance, and beseeching Allahs forgiveness. He offers as manyvoluntarily prayers as he can, saying words of remembrance and invocations, etc. toAllah (S.W.T). In this sense, practicing I`tikaf is a combination of many acts of worship.
  • 10 wisdoms of Ramadan:• Fasting reminds us of the blessing of Allah on us, that he has given us food andwater. There are many who must fast by force for days on end, who do not havefood and water all year round• Fasting brings us closer to Allah by making us thankful. By taking a blessing awaywe are more appreciative when it comes back.• Fasting decreases our desire; desire for sins goes down out of sheer fatigue andhunger. That is why for young men who could not get married it is advised forthem to fast.• Everyone begins to attend masaajid frequently• We begin to pray the prayers on time and remember the times of prayer to theminute• Brotherhood increases. We see each other regularly in masaajid and iftaar parties.• All of us are reattached to the Quran (by either reading it or hearing it)• We increase in our charity. This is the point of giving zakat and zakat al fitr, to theextent that every single person including children must give this.• We increase in Duaa, especially at time of breaking the fast. The ProphetMuhammad (sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said a duaa made before a fast is hardlyever refused.• Gives us the realization that we can be better Muslims.
  • Tarawih:• Tarawih was intially with Prophet(saw) in congregation andthen revived by Umar(ra)• Its Manner: in 2’s praying with Imam until the imam finish• Its number 11 or 23• Important Mistake: Some people pray only 8 with imam andthen leave
  • Itikaf:• And do not fondle them whilst you are in itikaf in themosques(Surah Baqarah:187)• The prophet(saw) used to perform itikaf in the last ten days ofRamadan until he passed away(Bukhari/Mulim)• It is to be done in Masjid and not in homes• It is permissible for both men and women• It is from Sunnah to fast during I’tikaf• Actions not permitted during I’tikaf included: Visting the sick,looking after family matters, visiting people, buying andselling, kissing and fondling spouse.• Actions that are permitted include: All act of worship, tomove around the mosque, answering phone, teaching, goingout for food or a shower and toilet etc.
  • Zakatul Fitr:• Zakatul Fitr is obligatory charity in food items due at the endof Ramadan• Time of its obligation: Sunset on the last day of Ramadan• How much : 1 sa(Aprox 2.2kg) of Wheat, barley, rice, raisins,dates.• To whom: All poor people who need food• Can it be given in money ? According to the majority of thescholars(but not the Hanafi Madhab) it should not be given inmonetary
  • Virtues of Laylatul Qadr:• Laylatul Qadr is the most blessed night of the entire year. Qadr meansdivine destiny or power. On this night Allah reveals Qadr for the followingyear to the angels. We should ask Allah to bless us with what we want onthis night, like health, good deeds, children, jannah etc. It could be thatAllah will change qadr by our duaa, and Allah already knew that we wouldmake this duaa.• It is better than 1000 months. Allah sends down the angels and Gabriel(called ar-ruh). Gabriel hardly comes down to earth anymore. He is themost blessed of all angels and only used to come down for the prophetsto give them revelation and teach them, but on this night he comes down,and peace lasts until fajr. If we worship Allah in our entire lifetime. say 30-60 years, it is possible we will have much much more, something like 100sof years of ibada, if just this one night is accepted from us every year.• Abu Huraira narrates Rasulullah (sallAllahu alaihi wa sallam) said: He whoprayed on the Lailat-ul-Qadr (the Majestic Night) knowing that it is (thesame night) praying with faith and seeking reward (from Allah), his sinswould be forgiven. [Sahih Muslim, Book 4 (Kitaab As-Salah), Hadith 1665]
  • When is Laylatul Qadr ?• There are 46 saying regarding it• Most Authentic hadiths mention 27thRamadan• However stronger opinion is that it moves around, most probably in the last in thelast 10 days and most probably in the odd nights and most probable odd night is27thnight• Its sign :• Greater Sign: The sun comes out without any rays and the moon is like a halfplate of silver[Mulim 762]. The weather is neither hot nor cold. There are veryfew clouds in the sky and very little wind.[Ahentic ,ibn Khuzaimah 2190-2193]• Lesser signs: Dogs don’t burk, donkey doesn’t bray, cocks crow a lot• It may be that Allah shows it to some people in their dreams• What to say if you find yourself on Laylatul Qadr ?• Aisha (radiAllahu anha) narrates she asked the Rasulullah (saw) : Oh messenger ofAllah, if I find myself on the night of Laylatul Qadr, what should I say?Prophet(saw): Say Oh Allah you are forgiving and love to forgive so forgive me• (Allahumma innaka ‘afuyyun tuhibbul ‘afwa fa’fu’anna) [Jami Al-Tirmidhi]
  • Fasting outside of Ramadan• Fasting all or most of Sha’ban• A’ishah(ra) tells us: “I never saw the Prophet (peace be upon him) fastan entire month except for the month of Ramadân. I never saw himfast more often in any other month than he did in Sha`bân.” [Sahîh al-Bukhârî (1969) and Sahîh Muslim (1156)]• 6 days of Shawwal• Allahs Messenger (peace be upon him) says: "Whoever fasts themonth of Ramadan and then follows it with six days in Shawwâl, it willbe as if he had fasted the year through." [Sahih Muslim (1163)]• 9 Days of Dhil-Hijjah• Ibn Abbaas (ra) said that the Messenger of Allah(saw)said: "There areno days in which the righteous acts are more beloved to Allah than inthese days, meaning the ten (of Dhul Hijjah). They asked: OMessenger of Allah(saw), not even Jihaad in His way? He(saw) replied:Not even Jihaad in the way of Allah except for the man that goes outwith his life and his money and does not return with either of them"
  • Fasting outside of Ramadan• The days of Arafat and A’shurah• "Fasting the day of Arafat expiates the sins of two years: a past oneand a coming one. And, fasting the day of Aashura (the tenth of thelunar month of Muharram) expiates the sins of the past year."(Reported by Muslim.)• Fasting 13th, 14th and 15th of every month(White Days)• From ibn Abbas: That the messenger of Allah(saw) never used to leavefasting on “white days”, neither in travel, nor duringresidency[Authentic, Albani in Sahih Al-Jamil]• Every Monday and Thursday• From Usamah bin Zaid(ra): I saw Prophet of Allah (saw) used to fast onMonday and Thursday. So i asked him and he(saw) replied: Verilyactions are presented to Allah on Mondays and Thursdays and I lovethat my actions are raised whilst I am fasting.[Abu Dawud/Nasai]
  • Fasting outside of Ramadan• Every Second Day• Narrated Abdullah bin ‘Amr bin Al-’Aas(ra): Allah’s Apostle(saw) toldme, “The most beloved prayer to Allah is that of David and the mostbeloved fasts to Allah are those of David. He used to sleep for half ofthe night and then pray for one third of the night and again sleep forits sixth part and used to fast on alternate days.• Fasting the month of Muharram• The best prayer after the obligatory ones is the prayer in the middle ofthe night and the best fasting after the month of Ramadan is thefasting in the months that are Muharram
  • Days on which fasting is discouraged:• Singling out Rajab• Fasting only on Fridays• Fasting only on Saturday• Consecutively fast without breaking the fast• Fasting 11th– 13thof Dhul-Hijjah except for the one who doesnot have a sacrifice• The Day of Doubt which is the day before Ramadan. Forexample is when someone fasts on 30th since it was cloudyon 29th Sha’ban night just to be on a safe side. This is notallowed since Prophet(saw) has forbidden it
  • Days on which fasting is Prohibited/ NotRecommended:• Prohibited: On the two Days of ‘Eid• Not Recommended:• The day of Pagan religions i.e Christmas day, Diwali Dayetc.• Pick a special day which is not in accordance with Sunnahi.e Month of Rajab pagan used to fast• Only on Friday or only on Saturday• Immediately prior to Ramadan
  • Eid Prayer• Do not engage in vain waste of money and time• Praise Allah• Eid greetings: May Allah accept from us and from you• Even female in menstruation are recommended to go out andwitness the congregation, even if they cannot pray
  • Sunnahs and etiquettes on the day of EID• Doing ghusl before going out to the prayer.• Eating before going out to pray on Eid al-Fitr and after theprayer on Eid al-Adha (eat 3 dates after fajr)• Takbeer on the day of Eid• Offering congratulations• Adorning oneself on the occasion of Eid.• Going to the prayer by one route and returning by another.
  • May Allah accept from all of us