Safety, refin. chapt.6
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Safety, refin. chapt.6






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Safety, refin. chapt.6 Safety, refin. chapt.6 Presentation Transcript

  • Chapter 6 Oxygen-Deficient Atmosphere (Asphyxiation) Prof.Dr. Ahmed A. S. Seifelnassr
  • Introduction • The potential release and accumulation of nitrogen gas into work areas may result in asphyxiating conditions due to the displacement of oxygen. Other harmful gases emitted by oil refineries include but are not limited to: sulphur dioxide (SO2), carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane, dioxins, hydrogen fluoride, chlorine, and benzene
  • • Prevention and control measures to reduce risks of asphyxiant gas release include: 1- Design and placement of nitrogen venting systems according to industry standards;
  • 2-Installation of an automatic Emergency Shutdown System that can detect and warn of the uncontrolled release of nitrogen (including the presence of oxygen deficient atmospheres in working areas), initiate forced ventilation, and minimize the duration of releases. 3-Implementation of confined space entry procedures as described previously with consideration of facility-specific hazards.
  • There are various Best Available Technologies (BAT’s) that are available for the reduction of air emissions such as NOx, SOx, and VOCs. NOx 1- Flue Gas Recirculation 2- Low NOx Burners 3- Ultra-Low NOx Burners 4- Selective Catalytic Reduction 5- Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction 6- Combination System
  • SOx 1- Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization Methods. 2-Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization (Spray Dryer Absorption) 3- Sulphur emissions can be minimized by installing high efficiency sulphur recovery units (Claus plants) in refineries and Claus tail gas treating process to bring sulphur recovery yield to 99% or more.
  • 4- Install mist precipitators (e.g. electrostatic precipitators or brink demisters ) to remove sulfuric acid mist; 5- Install scrubbers with caustic soda solution to treat flue gases from the alkylation unit absorption towers
  • VOCs 1- Adsorption Systems 2- Condensation Systems 3- Thermal Oxidation Systems 4- Flares 5- Steam Stripping 6- Tank Seals
  • • CO2 Capture In practice, refineries have a large number of process heaters scattered around the site. This makes capture of carbon dioxide (CO2) capture difficult, extremely expensive or even impractical. However, there is potential for capture of CO2 produced from power generation, hydrogen production and utilities, which represents half the refinery CO2 emissions.
  • CO2 Abatement. Potential methods for abating CO2 include: 1-Switching refinery fuels away from heavy high sulphur fuel oil towards fuel/natural gas; 2- Employing hydrogen pinch analysis techniques to optimise use and CO2 sequestration for Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR); 3- Gasification can be used to provide utilities and hydrogen, whilst at the same time allowing a single point source for CO2 capture.