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Causes of stress
Causes of stress
Causes of stress
Causes of stress
Causes of stress
Causes of stress
Causes of stress
Causes of stress
Causes of stress
Causes of stress
Causes of stress
Causes of stress
Causes of stress
Causes of stress
Causes of stress
Causes of stress
Causes of stress
Causes of stress
Causes of stress
Causes of stress
Causes of stress
Causes of stress
Causes of stress
Causes of stress
Causes of stress
Causes of stress
Causes of stress
Causes of stress
Causes of stress
Causes of stress
Causes of stress
Causes of stress
Causes of stress
Causes of stress
Causes of stress
Causes of stress
Causes of stress
Causes of stress
Causes of stress
Causes of stress
Causes of stress
Causes of stress
Causes of stress
Causes of stress
Causes of stress
Causes of stress
Causes of stress
Causes of stress
Causes of stress
Causes of stress
Causes of stress
Causes of stress
Causes of stress
Causes of stress
Causes of stress
Causes of stress
Causes of stress
Causes of stress
Causes of stress
Causes of stress
Causes of stress
Causes of stress
Causes of stress
Causes of stress
Causes of stress
Causes of stress
Causes of stress
Causes of stress
Causes of stress
Causes of stress
Causes of stress
Causes of stress
Causes of stress
Causes of stress
Causes of stress
Causes of stress
Causes of stress
Causes of stress
Causes of stress
Causes of stress
Causes of stress
Causes of stress
Causes of stress
Causes of stress
Causes of stress
Causes of stress
Causes of stress
Causes of stress
Causes of stress
Causes of stress
Causes of stress
Causes of stress
Causes of stress
Causes of stress
Causes of stress
Causes of stress
Causes of stress
Causes of stress
Causes of stress
Causes of stress
Causes of stress
Causes of stress
Causes of stress
Causes of stress
Causes of stress
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Causes of stress

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  1. STRESS IS A PERSON’S PHYSICAL AND EMOTIONAL RESPONSE TO CHANGE.
  2. CLASSIFICATION OF STRESS <ul><li>POSITIVE STRESS </li></ul><ul><li>NEGATIVE STRESS </li></ul><ul><li>ACUTE STRESS </li></ul><ul><li>CHRONIC STRESS </li></ul>
  3. WHAT CAUSES STRESS ? <ul><li>LIFE EVENTS SUCH AS DIVORCE OR SEPARATION, DEATH OF A LOVED ONE, THE BIRTH OF A CHILD, MOVING, A MAJOR FINANCIAL SETBACK, EMPLOYMENT CHANGES OR BECOMING THE VICTIM OF A CRIME OR NATURAL DISASTER </li></ul><ul><li>DAILY EVENTS SUCH AS TRAFFIC CONGESTION, LONG COMMUTES, WORKING OVERTIME, DEADLINES, PERSONAL CONFLICTS, CAR TROUBLE, JOB STRESS, AND JUGGLING HOUSEHOLD CHORES AND CHILDCARE </li></ul><ul><li>ENVIRONMENTAL STRESSORS SUCH AS POLLUTION, WEATHER EXTREMES OR EXCESSIVE NOISE </li></ul><ul><li>PHYSICAL STRESSORS SUCH AS PHYSICAL INJURY, CHRONIC PAIN, TIRING PHYSICAL ACTIVITY (SUCH AS TRAVELING), AND UNSATISFIED PHYSICAL NEEDS SUCH AS HUNGER, THIRST OR LACK OF SLEEP </li></ul><ul><li>Continued…. </li></ul>
  4. 1. DEATH OF A SPOUSE 2. DIVORCE 3. MARITAL SEPARATION 4. IMPRISONMENT 5. DEATH OF A CLOSE RELATIVE 6. PERSONAL INJURY OR ILLNESS 7. MARRIAGE 8. FIRED FROM A JOB 9. MARITAL RECONCILIATION 10. RETIREMENT 11. ILLNESS OF A RELATIVE 12. PREGNANCY 13. SEXUAL PROBLEMS 14. BIRTH OR ADOPTION 15. BUSINESS READJUSTMENT Continued…
  5. 16. Change in financial status 17. Death of a close friend 18. Change to different work 19. Increased arguments with spouse 20. Mortgage or loan for major purchase 21. Foreclosure on mortgage or loan 22. Change in job responsibilities 23. Child leaving home 24. Problems with in-laws 25. Outstanding personal achievement 26. Spouse begins or stops work 27. Begin or end school 28. Change in living conditions 29. Changing personal habits 30. Problems with your boss Continued…
  6. 31. CHANGE IN WORK 32. HOURS/CONDITIONS 33. CHANGE IN RESIDENCE OR SCHOOL RECREATION 34. CHURCH OR SOCIAL ACTIVITIES 35. MORTGAGE OR LOAN 36. CHANGE IN SLEEPING HABITS 37. CHANGE IN FAMILY GATHERINGS 38. CHANGE IN EATING HABITS 39. VACATION 40. ANY FESTIVALS 41. MINOR LAW VIOLATION
  7. PREDISPOSING FACTORS FOR STRESS <ul><li>GENETIC FACTORS </li></ul><ul><li>INABILITY TO ADAPT </li></ul><ul><li>INADEQUATE RELAXATION RESPONSE </li></ul><ul><li>RESPONSE ACTIVITY VARIATIONS </li></ul><ul><li>AGE </li></ul><ul><li>PERSONALITY </li></ul><ul><li>ISOLATION </li></ul><ul><li>Environment </li></ul>
  8. SYMPTOMS OF STRESS <ul><li>Behavioral symptoms </li></ul><ul><li>Physical symptoms </li></ul>
  9. BEHAVIORAL SYMPTOMS <ul><li>TOO MUCH SLEEP ( HYPERSOMNIA ) OR TOO LITTLE SLEEP ( INSOMNIA ) </li></ul><ul><li>NIGHTMARES </li></ul><ul><li>NERVOUS HABITS LIKE NAIL-BITING OR FOOT-TAPPING </li></ul><ul><li>DECREASED SEX DRIVE </li></ul><ul><li>TEETH GRINDING </li></ul><ul><li>IRRITABILITY OR IMPATIENCE </li></ul><ul><li>CRYING OVER MINOR INCIDENTS </li></ul><ul><li>DREADING GOING TO WORK OR OTHER ACTIVITIES </li></ul>
  10. PHYSICAL SYMPTOMS <ul><li>MIGRAINE OR TENSION HEADACHES </li></ul><ul><li>DIGESTIVE PROBLEMS LIKE HEARTBURN OR DIARRHEA </li></ul><ul><li>SHALLOW BREATHING OR SIGHING </li></ul><ul><li>COLD OR SWEATY PALMS </li></ul><ul><li>JAW PAIN, NECK PAIN,SHOULDER PAIN </li></ul>
  11. EARLY WARNING SIGNS OF STRESS <ul><li>1.    Excessive fatigue </li></ul><ul><li>2.    Gastric disturbance </li></ul><ul><li>3.    Withdraw from social life </li></ul><ul><li>4.    Menstrual problems </li></ul><ul><li>5.    Speech difficulties </li></ul><ul><li>6.    More impatient </li></ul><ul><li>7.    Headaches </li></ul><ul><li>8.    Infertility </li></ul><ul><li>9.    Ulcers </li></ul><ul><li>10. Nail biting </li></ul><ul><li>11. Grinding teeth </li></ul><ul><li>12. Low blood sugar </li></ul><ul><li>13. High blood sugar </li></ul>
  12. EARLY WARNING SIGNS OF STRESS-2 <ul><li>   14. Need more sleep </li></ul><ul><li>15. Tired but can't sleep   </li></ul><ul><li>16. Sudden weight loss </li></ul><ul><li>     17. Sudden weight gain </li></ul><ul><li>     18. Low blood pressure </li></ul><ul><li>     19. High blood pressure </li></ul><ul><li>     20 .Lack of coordination </li></ul><ul><li>     21. Repeated influenza </li></ul><ul><li>     22. Repeated colds </li></ul><ul><li>     23. Muscle aches </li></ul><ul><li>     24. Hair loss </li></ul><ul><li>25. Chest pain </li></ul>
  13. EARLY WARNING SIGNS OF STRESS-3 <ul><li>1.      Forgetfulness </li></ul><ul><li>2.     Nervous talking </li></ul><ul><li>3.     Lower back pain </li></ul><ul><li>4.     Loss of appetite </li></ul><ul><li>5.     Increased appetite </li></ul><ul><li>6.     High cholesterol </li></ul><ul><li>7. High triglycerides </li></ul>
  14. Physical signs and symptoms of stress <ul><li>Increased heart rate </li></ul><ul><li>Pounding heart </li></ul><ul><li>Elevated blood pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Sweaty palms </li></ul><ul><li>Tightness of the chest, neck, jaw, and back muscles </li></ul><ul><li>Headache </li></ul><ul><li>Diarrhea </li></ul><ul><li>Constipation </li></ul><ul><li>Urinary hesitancy </li></ul><ul><li>Trembling </li></ul><ul><li>Being easily startled </li></ul><ul><li>Chronic pain and </li></ul><ul><li>Dysponea </li></ul><ul><li>Twitching </li></ul><ul><li>Stuttering and other speech difficulties </li></ul><ul><li>Nausea </li></ul><ul><li>Vomiting </li></ul><ul><li>Sleep disturbances </li></ul><ul><li>Fatigue </li></ul><ul><li>Shallow breathing </li></ul><ul><li>Dryness of the mouth or throat </li></ul><ul><li>Susceptibility to minor illness </li></ul><ul><li>Cold hands </li></ul><ul><li>Itching </li></ul>
  15. Emotional signs and symptoms of stress <ul><li>Irritability </li></ul><ul><li>Angry outbursts </li></ul><ul><li>Hostility </li></ul><ul><li>Depression </li></ul><ul><li>Jealously </li></ul><ul><li>Restlessness </li></ul><ul><li>Withdrawal </li></ul><ul><li>Decreased perception of positive </li></ul><ul><li>Experience opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Narrowed focus </li></ul><ul><li>Obsessive rumination </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced self-esteem </li></ul><ul><li>emotional response reflexes </li></ul><ul><li>Weakened positive emotional response reflexes </li></ul><ul><li>Anxiousness </li></ul><ul><li>Diminished initiative </li></ul><ul><li>Feelings of unreality or over-alertness </li></ul><ul><li>Reduction of personal involvement with others </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of interest </li></ul><ul><li>Tendency to cry </li></ul><ul><li>Being critical of others </li></ul><ul><li>Self-deprecation </li></ul><ul><li>Nightmares </li></ul><ul><li>Impatience </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced self-esteem </li></ul><ul><li>Insomnia </li></ul><ul><li>Changes in eating habits </li></ul>
  16. Cognitive/Perceptual Signs and Symptoms of Stress <ul><li>Forgetfulness </li></ul><ul><li>Preoccupation </li></ul><ul><li>Blocking </li></ul><ul><li>Blurred vision </li></ul><ul><li>Errors in judging distance </li></ul><ul><li>Diminished or exaggerated fantasy life </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced creativity </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of concentration </li></ul><ul><li>Diminished productivity </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of attention to detail </li></ul><ul><li>Orientation to the past </li></ul><ul><li>Decreased psychomotor reactivity and coordination </li></ul><ul><li>Attention deficit </li></ul><ul><li>Disorganization of thought </li></ul><ul><li>Negative self-esteem </li></ul><ul><li>Diminished sense of meaning in life </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of control/need for too much control </li></ul><ul><li>Negative self-statements and negative evaluation of experience </li></ul>
  17. Behavioral Signs and Symptoms of Stress <ul><li>Increased smoking </li></ul><ul><li>Aggressive behaviors (such as driving - road rage, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Increased alcohol or drug use </li></ul><ul><li>Carelessness </li></ul><ul><li>Under-eating </li></ul><ul><li>Over-eating </li></ul><ul><li>Nervous laughter </li></ul><ul><li>Compulsive behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Impatience </li></ul><ul><li>Withdrawal </li></ul><ul><li>Listlessness </li></ul><ul><li>Hostility </li></ul><ul><li>Accident-proneness </li></ul>
  18. Signs of Stress in The Workplace <ul><li>Stress Arousal Stage </li></ul><ul><li>Persistent irritability and anxiety </li></ul><ul><li>Bruxism and/or Insomnia </li></ul><ul><li>Occasional forgetfulness and/or inability to concentrate </li></ul><ul><li>Stress Resistance Stage </li></ul><ul><li>Absenteeism or tardiness for work </li></ul><ul><li>Tired and fatigued for no reason </li></ul><ul><li>Procrastination and indecision </li></ul><ul><li>Social withdrawal with cynicism </li></ul><ul><li>Resentful, indifferent, defiant </li></ul><ul><li>Increased use of coffee, alcohol, tobacco, etc. </li></ul>
  19. Jobs and stress <ul><li>The TUC identifies four main causes: </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental (noise, overcrowding, open plan offices, for child care facilities, for instance): </li></ul><ul><li>Contractual (low pay, shift work, excessive overtime, job insecurity); </li></ul><ul><li>Job designed (boring work, too much/little work, lack of job control): </li></ul><ul><li>Relationships (poor relations with colleagues, lack of communication, impersonal treatment). </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of self-esteem and a lack of control are two very common themes. </li></ul>
  20. Demands of the task  <ul><li>Excessive workloads are associated with increased rates of accidents and health problems (Mackay & Cox, 1978). The workload for mothers is particularly heavy because not only do they work outside of the home but also do most of the chores at home (Frankenhaeuser, 1991). Repetitive jobs that under utilise the workers abilities can produce stress. The evaluation of an employee's job or performance is also particularly stressful for both the supervisor and the employee (Quick and Quick, 1984). </li></ul>
  21. Responsibility for people's lives <ul><li>People working in the health professions need to take many life and death decisions instantly and experience appalling things, this leads to feelings of emotional exhaustion (Maslach & Jackson, 1982). The same applies to the police and fire fighters. </li></ul>
  22. Stress can result from other aspects of jobs: <ul><li>The physical environment of the job. Extreme levels of noise, temperature, humidity, or illumination cause stress (Mackay & Cox, 1978). </li></ul><ul><li>Perceived insufficient control. People experience stress when they have little influence over work procedures or the pace of the work (Cottington &House, 1987). </li></ul>
  23. Stress can result from other aspects of jobs: <ul><li>3 Poor interpersonal relationships. Stress increases when an employee's boss or colleague is socially abrasive, being insensitive to the needs of others or condescending and overly critical of the work other individuals do (Quick and Quick, 1984). </li></ul><ul><li>4 Perceived inadequate recognition or advancement. Workers feel stress when they do not get the recognition or promotions they believe they deserve (Cottington et al, 1986). </li></ul>
  24. Stress can result from other aspects of jobs: <ul><li>5 Job loss. The sense of job insecurity is stressful, particularly if the employee has little prospect of finding another job (Cottington et al, 1986). Unemployment is associated with stress, such as in people's loss of self-esteem and heightened blood pressure (Olafsson & Svensson, 1986). </li></ul>
  25. Retirement <ul><li>Retirement can be stressful because retired people have lost opportunities for social interaction and an important part of their identity. They may miss the power and influence they once hand, the structure and routines of a job, and the feeling of being useful and competent (Bohm & Rodin, 1985). In addition retired people often live on low incomes, which again produces stress. </li></ul>
  26. Life transitions <ul><li>Life transitions tend to be stressful (Moos and Schaefer, 1986). Changing from one phase to another in life is called a transition; examples include: </li></ul><ul><li>Starting school </li></ul><ul><li>Moving home </li></ul><ul><li>Reaching puberty </li></ul><ul><li>Starting college, especially away from home </li></ul><ul><li>Starting a career </li></ul><ul><li>Getting married </li></ul>
  27. Langer and Rodin (1976) <ul><li>A study carried out by Langer and Rodin (1976) attempted to discover the effects of giving people a greater sense of personal control. They compared two different wards in a nursing home for elderly people in Connecticut, USA. The residents in the two wards were of similar age, health and socioeconomic status, and they had been resident in the home for the same period of time on average (residents who were too uncommunicative or bedridden to take part were excluded from the study). </li></ul>
  28. Langer and Rodin (1976) <ul><li>Both groups of residents were given a talk, but the issue of personal responsibility was strongly stressed with one of them and not the other. Furthermore, residents in this first group were offered a plant each for their rooms and were asked where they wanted it placed. Additionally, they were allowed to choose which night to go and watch a film. Residents in the other group were simply given the plant and told which night to go and see the film. </li></ul>
  29. Langer and Rodin (1976) <ul><li>Even this fairly minimal manipulation of personal control seemed to have a dramatic effect. Residents who were given a greater sense of personal control were happier, more active, more alert and, when the researchers returned after eighteen months, were in better health and fewer had died. This study implies that having a greater sense of personal control actually helps to reduce stress. </li></ul>
  30. Commentary <ul><li>• There are methodological and ethical criticisms that can be made of Langer and Rodin’s study. The sam­ple was very limited (elderly Americans living in a particular care home). On the other hand, Langer and Rodin took care to avoid demand characteristics by not informing the residents, nurses or research assis­tants (who collected the data) of the purpose of the study. Controlled experiments on the damaging effects of stress in human beings can be very unethical. </li></ul>
  31. Commentary <ul><li>In this case, Langer and Rodin would argue that they did not harm anyone’s health, but actually improved it for those residents who were given a greater sense of control. On the other hand, when the experiment was over, we do not know whether the situation reverted to what it had been before, and it may be that being given a sense of control for three weeks, then having it removed again, did more harm than good in the long term. </li></ul>
  32. Commentary <ul><li>There are clear implications of this study for the way people are treated in residential homes. There is also a lesson to be learnt when developing therapy to help people suffering from extreme stress. If it is true that a low sense of personal control (that is, having a very external locus of control) can lead to stress, then in cases where this applies it may be beneficial for ther­apy to focus on shifting people’s locus of control from external to internal. </li></ul>
  33. Sources within the person <ul><li>Approach/approach conflict </li></ul><ul><li>This is the conflict produced when the choice is between two good strategies. For example needing to follow a diet and wanting to eat a fattening cake. These conflicts are easily resolved but the more important the decision seems to be, the more difficult it is for the person to solve the conflict. </li></ul>
  34. Sources within the person <ul><li>Avoidance/Avoidance conflict </li></ul><ul><li>This is the conflict produced when the choice is between two bad strategies. For example, the choice between two equally harrowing treatments for an illness. Patients often delay making a choice and might easily change their minds repeatedly. Patients might even change their doctor in the hope that they will be given an easier choice. They might even get somebody else to make the decision for them. This conflict is difficult to resolve and very stressful. </li></ul>
  35. Sources within the person <ul><li>Approach/Avoidance conflict </li></ul><ul><li>This is when a single goal has good points and bad points. For example giving up smoking might mean a gain in weight. </li></ul>
  36. Sources in the family <ul><li>Interpersonal conflict can arise from financial problems, from inconsiderate behaviour, and from opposing goals. Overcrowded conditions increases conflict over privacy and the use of family resources, such as the Bathroom. Major sources of stress in the family are the addition of a new family member, illness, infirmity, and death in the family. </li></ul>
  37. An addition to the family <ul><li>Obviously the mother will experience much stress during pregnancy and after the birth. But the father may also worry over money, or his wife's and baby's health, or fear that his relationship with his wife may deteriorate. </li></ul><ul><li>Parents may experience stress from their relationship with the baby. Each baby comes into the world with certain personality dispositions, which are called temperaments (Buss & Plomin, 1975). There are easy babies and difficult ones. Babies react differently to feeding, cuddling, bathing, and dressing. </li></ul>
  38. An addition to the family <ul><li>Difficult babies tend to cry a great deal. They resist new foods, routines, and people, and their patterns of Sleep, hunger, and bowel movements are hard to predict. About 10% of babies are classified as difficult displaying most of these traits fairly consistently, many others show some of these traits occasionally. Longitudinal studies have shown that children's temperaments are stable across time. Many traits continue for many years, although many difficult children show changes toward the development of easy traits (Carey & McDevitt, 1978). </li></ul>
  39. An addition to the family <ul><li>The arrival of a new baby can also be stressful to other children in the family (Honig, 1987). Much stress can be experienced in children aged two or three years old who do not want to share their parents with the new brother or sister. These children often show increased clinging to the mother and their sleeping and toileting problems also increase. Older children experience stress from the changes in the pattern of family interaction, such as when the parents introduce new rules. </li></ul>
  40. Family illness, disability, and death <ul><li>A working mother with a sick child will experience much stress. When children have a serious chronic illness, their families have to cope with stress over a long period. The amount of time needed to care for the child conflicts with other activities. The family also needs to make difficult decisions. They need to learn about the illness and how to care for their child. There is much expense and other children begin to feel left out. </li></ul>
  41. Family illness, disability, and death <ul><li>Adult sickness can also produce much stress in the family. If a principal breadwinner is ill there will be a strain on the family's financial resources. The family's time and personal freedom are curtailed producing changes in interpersonal relationships. </li></ul><ul><li>If an elderly person who is ill or disabled must live with and be careful by relatives, the stress for those in the household can be severe, especially if the person requires constant care and shows mental deterioration (Robinson & Thurner, 1986). </li></ul>
  42. Family illness, disability, and death <ul><li>If a parent dies children under about five years of age seem to grieve for the lost parent less strongly and for a shorter time than older children and adolescents do (Garmezy, 1983). Children's concept of death changes between four and eight years of age (Lonetto, 1980). Young children think death is reversible: the person will come back eventually. </li></ul>
  43. Family illness, disability, and death <ul><li>An adult whose child or spouse dies suffers a tremendous loss. Bereaved mothers reported that they had lost important hopes and expectations for the future (Edelstein, 1984). A mother who loses her only child loses her identity and role as a mother too. The loss of a spouse is especially stressful in early adult (Ball, 1976-77). </li></ul>
  44. Child abuse <ul><li>The stress caused by long-lasting psychological effects of sexual abuse in childhood has been found to increase the likelihood of certain diseases in old age. Women who were assaulted in their teens appeared to run greater risk of developing arthritis and breast cancer in later life, while Male victims are more likely to develop diseases of the thyroid than men who were not abused as children. 1,300 elderly middle-class participants were studied 12% of the women and 5% of the men reported unwanted sexual contact for childhood. </li></ul>
  45. Child abuse <ul><li>Breast cancer and arthritis were relatively common amongst participants who had suffered sexual abuse; the more sustained the abuse the higher the risk of developing the diseases. However those abused were less likely to suffer from hypertension, but this was probably due to survivor bias, in other words, people with hypertension tend to die younger, so do not feature in studies of elderly people. Stein and Barrett-Connor (2000). </li></ul>
  46. Environmental stress <ul><li>Crowded conditions can be stressful for three reasons: </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of control over interpersonal interaction, as when other people can overhear your conversation. </li></ul><ul><li>The restricted ability to move about freely or reduced access to resources, such as seats. </li></ul><ul><li>Intrusion into personal space (Sarafino, 1987). </li></ul>
  47. Environmental stress <ul><li>People exposed to hazardous substances in their environment worry for years about what will happen to them (Baum, 1988).  </li></ul><ul><li>People who lived near the three mile Island power plant in Pennsylvania, where a nuclear accident had happened suffered more stress more than a year after the accident than other residents near a similar facility (Fleming et al., 1982).  </li></ul>
  48. Stressors and stress response <ul><li>Stressors - produce stress Source of stressors can be Family (as when trying to cope with a newborn baby or when looking after a sick relative), Work or the Environment. </li></ul><ul><li>Stress response - response to stresssor </li></ul>
  49. Stressors and stress response <ul><li>Stressors - external - e.g. heat, crowding, noise, difficulties with a loved one or contact with a hated one. </li></ul><ul><li>internal - e.g. pain, thoughts, feelings. </li></ul><ul><li>But not straightforward - heat can be relaxing and crowds can be exciting. Individual differences. </li></ul>
  50. Other factors <ul><li>Other factors </li></ul><ul><li>Event </li></ul><ul><ul><li>negative - Divorce (-ve), Marriage (+ve) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Controllable or predictable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ambiguous - not sure what is happening. e.g. stuck on underground train without being informed. </li></ul></ul>
  51. Lundberg (1976) <ul><li>Using urine samples Commuters on crowded trains more stressed than in empty trains </li></ul><ul><li>but those that had been on the train since the start, showed less stress, even though they had been exposed to the crowded condition longer. </li></ul><ul><li>Being able to choose seat, control the situation, reduced the stress. </li></ul>
  52. Post - traumatic stress disorder and 'The Herald of Free Enterprise'. <ul><li>1) Re-experiencing phenomena. </li></ul><ul><li>Most of the children reported intrusive thoughts and some experienced full-blown flashbacks. </li></ul><ul><li>2) Avoidance or numbing reactions. </li></ul><ul><li>Detached from others Avoided not only ferry travel, but also the sea. Immediate aftermath - avoided shower or bath. Cyclical - reappear and disappear. Onset can be several months later. Just as severe. </li></ul>
  53.  
  54. Ambiguity <ul><li>Ambiguity can cause stress. Two types of ambiguity are: </li></ul><ul><li>Role ambiguity </li></ul><ul><li>Harm ambiguity. </li></ul>
  55. Role ambiguity <ul><li>Role ambiguity can occur in the workplace, for instance when there are no clear guidelines, standards for performance and no clear consequences. Role ambiguity is stressful because people are uncertain about what actions and decisions to make. </li></ul>
  56. Harm ambiguity <ul><li>Harm ambiguity occurs when people are not sure what to do to avoid harm. Stress will depend upon the person's personality, beliefs and general experience (Lazarus and Folkman, 1984). A person who is seriously ill and has no clear information might draw hope from this ambiguity, believing that they will get well. Another person in the same situation may believe that people are deliberately giving ambiguous information because the prognosis is poor. </li></ul>
  57. Controllability <ul><li>Controllability is another factor that will affect the perception of stress. People tend to appraise uncontrollable events as being more stressful than controllable events (Miller, 1979). There are two types of control: </li></ul><ul><li>Behavioural </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive. </li></ul>
  58. Controllability <ul><li>Behavioural control means performing some action. For example, being unable to take a tablet for a headache will make experiencing a headache less stressful. </li></ul><ul><li>In the case of cognitive control, we can affect the impact of the events by using some mental strategy, such as distraction or by developing a plan to overcome the problem. </li></ul>
  59. Link between stress and arousal
  60.  
  61. OUR BODY’S REACTION TO STRESS (GENERAL ADAPTATION SYNDROME (GAS)) <ul><li>ALARM REACTION </li></ul><ul><li>RESISTANCE OR ADAPTATION </li></ul><ul><li>EXHAUSTION </li></ul>
  62. ALARM REACTION <ul><li>MUSCLES TENSE </li></ul><ul><li>HEART BEATS FASTER </li></ul><ul><li>THE BREATHING AND PERSPIRATION INCREASES </li></ul><ul><li>THE EYES DILATE </li></ul><ul><li>THE STOMACH MAY CLENCH </li></ul>
  63. RESISTANCE OR ADAPTATION <ul><li>FATIGUE </li></ul><ul><li>CONCENTRATION LAPSES </li></ul><ul><li>IRRITABILITY AND LETHARGY </li></ul>
  64. EXHAUSTION <ul><li>DECREASED STRESS TOLERANCE </li></ul><ul><li>PROGRESSIVE MENTAL AND PHYSICAL EXHAUSTION </li></ul><ul><li>ILLNESS AND COLLAPSE </li></ul>
  65. Severe Exhaustion Stage <ul><li>Chronic sadness or depression </li></ul><ul><li>Chronic mental and physical fatigue </li></ul><ul><li>Chronic stress related illnesses (headache, stomach ache, bowel problems, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Isolation, withdrawal, self-destructive thoughts </li></ul>
  66. Figure 9.1 The General Adaptation System
  67. Evaluation of GAS <ul><li>A problem for GAS is that some stressors elicit a stronger emotional response than others do. The theory does not take account of psychosocial processes. A sudden increase in temperature, for example, would produce more emotion than a gradual increase. </li></ul>
  68. Evaluation of GAS <ul><li>Another problem for GAS is that cognitive appraisal is not taken account of. A study by Katherine Tennes and Maria Kreye (1985) found that intelligent schoolchildren experienced more stress on the day of an exam than unintelligent schoolchildren. Cortisol levels were measured in urine samples taken on regular school days and on days when tests were given. Intelligence test scores were obtained from school records. The results suggest that brighter children are more concerned about academic achievement. </li></ul>
  69. Evaluation of GAS <ul><li>To summarise, the GAS incorrectly assumes that all stressors produce the same physiological reactions and fails to take account of psychosocial factors in stress. Even so the GAS is basically a valid model of stress. </li></ul>
  70. Lazarus’s Cognitive Theory G. A. S. Healthy Adaptation or Illness Stressor Appraisal Selye assumed that stress depended only on the intensity of the stressor. Lazarus proposed that a mental process determines whether stress occurs.
  71. Lazarus and Folkman’s Theory Stressor Primary Appraisal: Is Stressor Negative? Can be negative if it involves harm or loss, threat, or challenge (chance to grow). Secondary Appraisal: Can I Control the Situation? If coping resources are adequate, then consider options: problem-focused or emotion-focused coping strategies. Yes No No Stress
  72. Lazarus and Folkman’s Theory <ul><li>Physiological component: Arousal, hormone secretion. </li></ul><ul><li>Emotional Component: Anxiety, fear, grief, resentment, excitement (if stress is from challenge). </li></ul><ul><li>Behavioral Component: Coping strategies (both behavioral and mental)—problem focused and/or emotion-focused. </li></ul><ul><li>The level of stress we experience depends mainly on the adequacy of our resources for coping and how much they will be drained by the stressful situation. </li></ul>The Stress Response
  73. Cognitive appraisal <ul><li>Lazarus and Folkman (1984) propose a model that emphases the transactional nature of stress.  Stress is a two way process; the environment produces stressors and the individual finds ways to deal with these. </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive appraisal is a mental process by which people assessed two factors: </li></ul><ul><li>Whether a demand threatens their well being </li></ul><ul><li>Whether a person considers that they have the resources to meet the demand of the stressor </li></ul>
  74. Cognitive appraisal <ul><li>There are two types of appraisal: </li></ul><ul><li>Primary </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary. </li></ul>
  75. Primary appraisal <ul><li>During the primary appraisal stage a person will be seeking answers as to the meaning of the situation with regard to their well being. One of three types of appraisals could be made: </li></ul><ul><li>It is irrelevant </li></ul><ul><li>It is good (benign-positive) </li></ul><ul><li>It is stressful. </li></ul>
  76. Primary appraisal <ul><li>Imagine there was a snow blizzard. You might consider that the blizzard would not affect you, as you do not have to go to work the following day. You might consider the blizzard a blessing because this means that your college exam would be postponed or you can go skiing! The situation could be stressful because you have few supplies and you need to get to the shops and driving would be hazardous. </li></ul>
  77. Primary appraisal <ul><li>Further appraisal is made with regard to 3 implications: </li></ul><ul><li>Harm-loss </li></ul><ul><li>Threat </li></ul><ul><li>Challenge. </li></ul>
  78. Harm-loss <ul><li>Harm-loss refers to the amount of damage that has already occurred. There may have been an injury. The seriousness of this injury could be exaggerated producing a lot of stress. </li></ul>
  79. Threat <ul><li>Threat is the expectation of future harm, for example the fear of losing one's job and income. Much stress depends on appraisals that involve harm-loss and threat. </li></ul>
  80. Challenge <ul><li>Challenge is a way of viewing the stress in a positive way. The stress of a higher-level job could be seen as an opportunity to expand skills, demonstrate ability, and make more money. </li></ul>
  81. Primary appraisal <ul><li>The stress transaction can be vicarious. Empathising with others who are in stress. An example of vicarious stress is a study, which involved showing college-student subjects a film, called &quot;Sub-incision&quot; (Speisman et al, 1964). The film showed a right of passage for young adolescent boys in a primitive society in which the underside of the penis is cut deeply from the tip to the scrotum using a sharp stone. </li></ul>
  82. Primary appraisal <ul><li>The subjects were divided into four groups. One group saw the film with no sound. Another group heard a soundtrack with a &quot;trauma&quot; narrative emphasising the pain, danger, and primitiveness of the operation. A third group heard a &quot;denial&quot; narration that denied the pain and potential harm to the boys, describing them as willing participants in a joyful occasion who &quot;look forward to the happy conclusion of the ceremony.&quot; </li></ul>
  83. Primary appraisal <ul><li>The fourth group heard a &quot; scientific&quot; narration that encouraged viewers to watch in a detached manner-for example, the narrator commented, &quot;as you can see, the operation is formal and the surgical technique, while crude, is very carefully followed.&quot; Physiological and self-report measures of stress were taken. The physiological measure was of the heart rate during the viewing of the film. The self-report measures were questionnaires that evaluated feelings of stress immediately after the film was shown. </li></ul>
  84. Primary appraisal <ul><li>Those who heard the trauma narration reacted with more stress than the control group (no sound); those who heard the denial and scientific narrations reacted with less stress than the control group. </li></ul><ul><li>Male Circumcision (Africa) </li></ul>
  85. Secondary appraisal <ul><li>Secondary appraisals occur at the same time as primary appraisals. A secondary appraisal can actually cause a primary appraisal. Secondary appraisals include feelings of not being able to deal with the problem such as: </li></ul><ul><li>I can't do it-I know I'll fail </li></ul><ul><li>I will try, but my chances are slim </li></ul><ul><li>I can do it if I get help </li></ul><ul><li>If this method fails, I can try a few others. </li></ul><ul><li>I can do it if I work hard. </li></ul><ul><li>No problem-I can do it. </li></ul>
  86. Secondary appraisal <ul><li>Stress can occur without appraisal such as when your car is involved in an accident and you haven't had time to think about what has happened. Accidents can often cause a person to be in shock. It is difficult for people to make appraisals whilst in shock as their cognitive functioning is impaired. </li></ul>
  87. Eustress and Distress <ul><li>Eustress </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The pleasurable stress that accompanies positive events. For example, a person may receive a $10,000 bonus and experience stress in deciding how to spend the money. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Distress </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The unpleasant stress that accompanies negative events. </li></ul></ul>
  88. Individual Differences and Stress <ul><li>Hardiness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is a person’s ability to cope with stress. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People with hardy personalities have an internal locus of control, are strongly committed to the activities in their lives, and view change as an opportunity for advancement and growth. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Optimism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is the extent to which a person sees life in relatively positive terms. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Is the glass half empty or half full?” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In general, optimistic people tend to handle stress better than pessimistic people. </li></ul></ul>
  89. Type a/type b (Friedman and Rosenman, 1974) <ul><li>Type a </li></ul><ul><li>Competitive, achievements orientation. Self-critical. No joy in accomplishments. </li></ul><ul><li>Time urgency. Impatient. Always on the go. Do several things at once. </li></ul><ul><li>Anger/hostility easily aroused to anger, which may be overt or covert. </li></ul>
  90. Type a/type b (Friedman and Rosenman, 1974) <ul><li>Type b </li></ul><ul><li>Low levels of competitiveness, time urgency and hostility. Easy going -philosophical. </li></ul>
  91. Type a/type b (Friedman and Rosenman, 1974) <ul><li>An experiment by Glass et al (1980) had participants playing a computer game against a confederate. The game was rigged so that it could not be won. A prize was offered. A structured interview determined whether participants were type a or type b. </li></ul>
  92. Type a/type b (Friedman and Rosenman, 1974) <ul><li>Half of each type were harassed by the confederate the other half played with that the confederate in silence. Several physiological measures were taken. Both type a and type b participants showed increases in stress. In the harassment condition type a showed more stress than type b. </li></ul>
  93. Type a/type b (Friedman and Rosenman, 1974) <ul><li>Factors that play a part in producing type a behaviour are: </li></ul><ul><li>Intrapersonal. Behaviour is produced as a result of controlling personal stress. </li></ul><ul><li>Interpersonal. They are more competitive and when insulted are more likely to be aggressive. </li></ul>
  94. Type a/type b (Friedman and Rosenman, 1974) <ul><li>3 Institutional. The is limited opportunity for promotion and therefore more competition. A demanding boss or teacher. </li></ul><ul><li>4 Cultural. The work ethic. The importance of having expensive status symbols. </li></ul>
  95. Suzanne Kobasa (1979) <ul><li>People who can handle stress possess 'hardiness'. There are three components </li></ul><ul><li>Control - can you control events? (See Locus of control) </li></ul><ul><li>Commitment - Sense of purpose, involvement. </li></ul><ul><li>Challenge - problems seen as an opportunity for personal growth. </li></ul>
  96. Suzanne Kobasa (1979) <ul><li>Kobasa (1979) - High stress executives 2 groups - high illness Vs low illness. Using questionnaire, the low illness group had more hardiness. </li></ul>
  97. Suzanne Kobasa (1979) <ul><li>Problems </li></ul><ul><li>People vary with their personality. Unlikely to be one type of person all of the time. </li></ul><ul><li>Only looked at white professional American men - may not be true of other groups. </li></ul><ul><li>Hardiness and social support correlate so what is attributed to hardiness could really be the effect of social support (Blaney & Ganellen, 1990). </li></ul>
  98. Figure 9.2 Causes and Consequences of Stress
  99. Common Causes of Stress: Organizational Stressors <ul><li>Task Demands </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stressors associated with the specific job a person performs. Some occupations are by nature more stressful than others. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Physical Demands </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stressors associated with the job’s physical setting, such as the adequacy of temperature and lighting. </li></ul></ul>
  100. Figure 9.3 Workload, Stress, and Performance
  101. Common Causes of Stress: Organizational Stressors <ul><li>Role Demands </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stressors associated with the role a person is expected to play. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Role ambiguity arises when a role is unclear. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Role conflict occurs when the messages and cues constituting a role are clear but contradictory or mutually exclusive. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Role overload occurs when expectations for the role exceed the individual’s capacity. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Interpersonal Demands </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stressors associated with group pressures, leadership, and personality conflicts. </li></ul></ul>
  102. Consequences of Stress: Individual Consequences <ul><li>Behavioral Consequences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The behavioral consequences of stress, such as alcohol abuse, may harm the person under stress or others. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Psychological Consequences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Psychological consequences relate to a person’s mental health and well-being. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Medical Consequences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Medical consequences affect a person’s physical well-being. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heart disease and stroke, among other illnesses, have been linked to stress. </li></ul></ul>
  103. Consequences of Stress: Organizational Consequences <ul><li>Performance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One clear organizational consequence of too much stress is a decline in performance. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Withdrawal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The most significant forms of withdrawal behavior are absenteeism and quitting. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Attitudes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stress can have a negative effect on job satisfaction, morale, organizational commitment, and motivation to perform at high levels. </li></ul></ul>
  104. Consequences of Stress: Burnout <ul><li>Burnout </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is the general feeling of exhaustion that develops when an individual simultaneously experiences too much pressure and has too few sources of satisfaction. </li></ul></ul>
  105. The end

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