5. Project Quality Management
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The term “Quality” refers to the degree or amount to which a set of inherent or
impede ch...
Example;
If we have two wire cutters to cut wires of 5 mm. thickness, so each of them has the
quality needed but when we t...
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planned into projects to prevent errors rather than relying on inspections to catch
them.
Project participants need to ...
5.2 Perform Quality Assurance
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It is the process of applying and auditing the planned, systematic quality activities
...
3. A.R. Crosby theory [Prevention over Inspection]

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It has been developed by “Philip Crosby” - a businessman and ...
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The results of “Attribute Inspection” may be “Yes” or “Not”, while “Variable
Inspection” refers to actual measurements ...
Note: even the “Bell Curve” is flat and wide, the process may be still under control if
there is a wide range of results i...
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5. project quality management

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- The term “Quality” refers to the degree or amount to which a set of inherent or impede characteristics fulfills a number of predetermined stakeholders’ / sponsors’ requirements. Generally, “Quality Drives Productivity”

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5. project quality management

  1. 1. 5. Project Quality Management - The term “Quality” refers to the degree or amount to which a set of inherent or impede characteristics fulfills a number of predetermined stakeholders’ / sponsors’ requirements. Generally, “Quality Drives Productivity” 5 Groups Processes Initiation Planning 5.1 Plan Quality Execution 5.2 Perform Assurance Quality Monitoring and Controlling Closing 5.3 Perform Quality Control - Project quality management involves making sure the project meets the needs that it was originally created to meet, or in other words, that stakeholder expectations were met. - Quality is the result of meeting the triple constraints. A guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK Guide) states that quality management ensures "that the project will satisfy the needs for which it was undertaken," not just to meet or exceed the explicit and implicit requirements. The PMBOK Guide also says, "Quality is the degree to which a set of inherent characteristics fulfill requirements." This statement means that both stated and implied needs are understood through stakeholder analysis and then addressed in project scope management. Why is quality important? - To have greater chance of customer accepting the product or service. - Right quality ensures that customer will accept the product first time round. - Wrong quality means rework which is translated to money. Difference between Quality and Grade - “Grade” is a category assigned to products or services having the same functional use but different technical characteristics. By: Mohamed Salah ElDien Mohamed Aly, MSc, PMP®, DIT, MCAD
  2. 2. Example; If we have two wire cutters to cut wires of 5 mm. thickness, so each of them has the quality needed but when we talk about that one is made from Aluminum and the other is made from steel, we talk now about the “Grade”. - So, “Quality” is conformance to requirements, while “Grade” is the difference in technical characteristics. - “Low quality is a problem but low grade may not be a problem” Difference between Standards and Regulations - - “Standards” is a document that provides, for common and repeated use, the rules, guide lines, or characteristics for activities or their results, aimed at achievement of the optimum degree of order in a given context. “Regulations” is the requirements imposed by a governmental body. These requirements can establish product, process, or service characteristics, including applicable administrative provisions that have government-mandated compliance. Mandatory or not Description Example Standards It is not mandatory Regulations It is Mandatory It is a document that was established by consensus among a group of people or organizations to achieve some optimum results. The PMBOOK is considered to be American standards. It is a government issued description that specifies some form of product or process requirements. “Food & Drug Administration” FDA issues a lot of regulations in regard of drug and food safety. 5.1 Plan Quality: - - It is the process of identifying the quality requirements and/or standards for the project and product and determining as well as documenting how these will be implemented and achieved. Quality Planning typically receives the least attention and yet is the most critical element of Project Quality Management. This lack of attention primarily occurs due to insufficient understanding about quality and how it is an integral part of a project. The lack of an adequate Quality Plan inhibits the success of Quality Assurance and Quality Control efforts. This idea needs to be stressed: Quality is By: Mohamed Salah ElDien Mohamed Aly, MSc, PMP®, DIT, MCAD
  3. 3. - planned into projects to prevent errors rather than relying on inspections to catch them. Project participants need to be encouraged to devote sufficient time to Quality Planning. Quality Planning must not be taken lightly and management must be in full support of it. Inputs - - Enterprise environmental factors Organizational process assets Project scope statement Project management plan Tools & Techniques - Cost- benefit analysis Benchmarking. Design of experiments Cost of quality (COQ) Control Charts Statistical Sampling. Outputs - Quality management plan Quality metrics Quality checklists Process improvement plan Quality baseline Project management plan (updates) The Cost of quality includes all the costs to conform to the required quality of the project, including the cost to ensure conformance to requirements as well as the cost of nonconformance and finding the right balance. Modern quality management philosophy emphasizes preventing mistakes rather than detecting them later because the cost of nonconformance The costs associated with the cost of quality are: By: Mohamed Salah ElDien Mohamed Aly, MSc, PMP®, DIT, MCAD
  4. 4. 5.2 Perform Quality Assurance - - It is the process of applying and auditing the planned, systematic quality activities as well as quality control measurements to ensure that the project employs all the “appropriate quality standards and operational definitions” – known as quality metrics - needed to meet requirements. It should be performed throughout the project. May be performed by an internal or external organization, or designated members of the project team. Prevention-oriented Inputs Quality management plan Quality metrics Process improvement plan Work performance information Approved change request Quality control measurements - Tools & Techniques - Quality planning tools & techniques Quality control tools and techniques Quality audits Process analysis Outputs - Requested changes Organizational process assets (updates) Project management plan (updates) Project Documents (updates) Quality Management Systems and Approaches 1. Total Quality Management Theory “TQM” - - It is a Management Strategy that aimed at embedding awareness of quality to the entire project’s or organization’s processes. By another meaning, it is a team – focused quality management system that aims at continual increase in customer satisfaction at continually lower cost. This theory is usually used in manufacturing, education, industry, space, science. 2. W.E. Deming Theory or Approach - It is always known as “Plan – Do – Check - Act” or “PDCA”. Sometimes is known as “Continuous Improvement” approach. It is used in both “Perform Quality Assurance” as well as “Perform Quality Control”. “Plan” refers to establishing objectives and processes required to deliver results in accordance with the specifications. “Do” refers to implementing processes. “Check” refers to monitoring and implementing processes and results against the objectives as well as the specifications and also reports the outcomes. “Act” is the step of applying actions to the outcomes for necessary improvements. By: Mohamed Salah ElDien Mohamed Aly, MSc, PMP®, DIT, MCAD
  5. 5. 3. A.R. Crosby theory [Prevention over Inspection] - - - It has been developed by “Philip Crosby” - a businessman and an author -who said that “if you invest in a quality program, you will have greater savings than the actual cost of the project”. This theory is based on the fact that “Cost of quality or cost of conformance outweighs cost of non-conformance”. Cost of non-conformance may include “Cost of rework”, “Cost of repair”, “Production waste”, “Fixing processes cost”, “Cost to overcome loss of reputation or sales”. It is sometimes referred to as “Zero Defect Theory” and sometimes as “Do It Right the First Time” or “DIRTFT”. 4. Six Sigma Methodology - This methodology was originally developed by “Motorola” to systematically improve processes by measuring then eliminating defects. The basic of this methodology is to reduce probability of defect presence to 3.4 defects per one million opportunities. 5.3 Quality Control - It is the process of monitoring and recording results of executing the quality activities -throughout the life cycle of the project- to assess performance and recommend necessary changes as well as ways to eliminate causes of unsatisfactory results. - This process is basically focuses on process and aims at preventing the process from producing a poor quality product or service. - It is continuously producing results that are fed back to the appropriate process or processes. - There are two kinds of inspection during such process which are “Attribute Inspection” and “Variable Inspection” Inputs - - Quality management plan Quality metrics Quality checklist Organizational process assets Work performance Measurements Approved change request Deliverables Tools & Techniques - Cause and effect diagrams Control charts Flowcharts Histograms Pareto diagrams Run charts Scatter diagrams Statistical sampling Inspections Outputs - - Quality control measurements Validated defect repairs Quality baseline (updates) Requested changes Organization process assets (updates) Validated deliverables Project management plan (updates) By: Mohamed Salah ElDien Mohamed Aly, MSc, PMP®, DIT, MCAD
  6. 6. - The results of “Attribute Inspection” may be “Yes” or “Not”, while “Variable Inspection” refers to actual measurements for samples of the products. Difference between Precision and Accuracy - If you are accurate, you are off course precise, while you may be precise but not accurate and this is not acceptable. - For example; if you use your both hands to throw 2 balls from one hand to the other – like the clown does -, the height of the ball varies while the motion is regular and repetitive. So, motion is accurate but height is not precise. Height (cm.) Bell Curve 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 Steep Bell Curve “Means that the process is under control” control” No. of throws Flat & Wide Bell Curve “Means that the process is out of By: Mohamed Salah ElDien Mohamed Aly, MSc, PMP®, DIT, MCAD
  7. 7. Note: even the “Bell Curve” is flat and wide, the process may be still under control if there is a wide range of results is acceptable. By: Mohamed Salah ElDien Mohamed Aly, MSc, PMP®, DIT, MCAD

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