0. project management framework (fundamentals)

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“A project is a temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product, service, or result. The temporary nature of projects indicates a definite beginning and end.”

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0. project management framework (fundamentals)

  1. 1. Project Management Framework (Fundamentals) You are guaranteed to get at least 5 questions from this section. Following are important topics you need to cover in this section Definitions of Project and Project Management Project “A project is a temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product, service, or result. The temporary nature of projects indicates a definite beginning and end.”, PMBOK Guide, 4th edition, 2008. - Temporary does not necessarily mean short in duration. - Temporary does not generally apply to the product, service, or result created by the project. - Progressive Elaboration is one of the main characteristics of the project. Project Specifications; - - A project is different from day-to-day business and it has a specific Start date and End date. The ongoing work effort is generally a repetitive process because it follows an organization’s existing procedures and that’s why Project is different from operations and maintenance...etc. A project creates a unique product, service, or result, although repetitive elements may be present in it. Because of the unique nature of projects, there may be uncertainties about the products, services, or results that the project creates. The end is reached when:  The stakeholders expectations are met or exceeded, or  - The project is terminated because its objectives will not or cannot be met, or the project is terminated because the need for it no longer exists. To determine if some activity is a project or not, ask the questions:  Is it unique?  Does the project have a limited time frame?  Is there a way to determine when the project is completed?  Is there a way to determine stakeholder satisfaction? By: Mohamed Salah ElDien Mohamed Aly, MSc, PMP®, DIT, MCAD
  2. 2. Project Stakeholders - - Stakeholders are those people or organizations with a vested interest in the project. They have something to either gain or lose as a result of the project. Stakeholders often have very different or conflicting objectives. Key stakeholders should be identified and contacted early on to get their input for the project overview, goals, and deliverables Forgetting an important stakeholder could be a project killer. The project sponsor, generally an executive in the organization with the authority to assign resources and enforce decisions regarding the project. He is a stakeholder. The customer is a stakeholder as are contractors and suppliers. The project manager and the managers from other departments in the organization are stakeholders as well. Cost, Risk and uncertainty vs. Time By: Mohamed Salah ElDien Mohamed Aly, MSc, PMP®, DIT, MCAD
  3. 3. Project Management “The application of knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques to describe, organizes, execute, and monitor the work of project activities in order to meet or exceed stakeholder requirements from a project.” Managing a project typically includes: - - Identifying requirements, Addressing the various needs, concerns, and expectations of the stakeholders as the project is planned and carried out, then, managing various constraints to accomplish objectives. Balancing the competing project constraints including, but not limited to:  Scope,   Resources, and  - Budget,  - Schedule,  - Quality, Risk. To manage Projects effectively those constraints should be divided into Phases and smallest possible sub phases. This iterative process should go up to the level where further division creates confusion rather than helping the project. In database terminology we call this as "Atomic level”. PMI defined 42 project management processes / Atomic processes to handle all aspects of a project life. PMBOK guide defines Knowledge Areas for the Project Managers. Managers will use these skills (Knowledge) to work on given INPUTS using TOOLS to produce OUTPUTS. Those are; 1. Project Integration Management 2. Project Scope Management 3. Project Time Management 4. Project Cost Management 5. Project Quality Management 6. Project Human Resource Management 7. Project Communications Management By: Mohamed Salah ElDien Mohamed Aly, MSc, PMP®, DIT, MCAD
  4. 4. 8. Project Risk Management. 9. Project Procurement Management PM processes apply to the 5 phases of a project life: 1. Initiating, 2. Planning, 3. Executing, 4. Monitoring and Controlling, and 5. Closing. Project, Program and Portfolio - A program is defined as a group of related projects managed in a coordinated - way to obtain benefits and control which not available from managing them individually. A project may or may not be part of a program but a program will always have projects. A portfolio refers to a collection of projects or programs and other work that are grouped together to facilitate effective management of that work to meet strategic business objectives. The projects or programs of the portfolio may not necessarily be interdependent or directly related Project Management Office (PMO) - - A project management office (PMO) is an organizational body or entity assigned various responsibilities related to the centralized and coordinated management of those projects under its domain. The responsibilities of a PMO can range from providing project management support functions to actually being responsible for the direct management of a project. A primary function of a PMO is to support project managers in a variety of ways which may include, but are not limited to:  Identifying and developing project management methodology, best practices, and standards;  Developing and managing project policies, procedures, templates, and other shared documentation (organizational process assets);  Coaching, monitoring, training, and oversight;  Monitoring compliance with project management standards, policies, procedures, and templates via project audits;  Managing shared resources across all projects administered by the PMO; and By: Mohamed Salah ElDien Mohamed Aly, MSc, PMP®, DIT, MCAD
  5. 5.  Coordinating communication across projects. Project Manager’s Role - Project managers are assigned by the performing organization to achieve the project objectives. - Project manager is in charge of all aspects of the project including, but not limited to:  Developing the project management plan and all related component plans,   - Keeping the project on track in terms of schedule and budget, Identifying, monitoring, and responding to risk, and  Providing accurate and timely reporting of project metrics. The project manager is the lead person responsible for communicating with all stakeholders, particularly the project sponsor, project team, and other key stakeholders. Good Project Manager’s Skills - Communication skills - Organizational and Planning Skills - Budgeting Skills - Problem Solving and Decision making - Negotiating and Influencing - Leadership Skills - Team Building and Human Resources By: Mohamed Salah ElDien Mohamed Aly, MSc, PMP®, DIT, MCAD
  6. 6. Project Triple-Constraint Project Organizational Structure - Organizational Structures; project organizations need to have a structure to deliver undertaken project. - There are 3 major types of organizations:  Functional Organizations  Projectized Organizations  Matrix Organizations  Weak Matrix organizations  - Strong Matrix organizations  Balanced Matrix organizations Variations and combinations may exist. The level of authority the project manager enjoys is denoted by the organizational structure. 1. Functional Organization; - Organizations is centered on specialties and grouped by function. - Each department will do its project work independent of others. - Each employee reports to only one manager. - It is important to know and respect the chain of command. - Project managers have little to no formal authority. By: Mohamed Salah ElDien Mohamed Aly, MSc, PMP®, DIT, MCAD
  7. 7. - Good communication, interpersonal, and influencing skills on the part of the project manager are required to bring about a successful project under this structure. By: Mohamed Salah ElDien Mohamed Aly, MSc, PMP®, DIT, MCAD
  8. 8. 2. Projectized Organization - Projectized organizations are nearly the opposite of functional organizations. It aims to develop loyalty to the project, not to a functional manager. - The focus of this type of organization is the project itself. - Most of the organization’s resources are involved in project work, - Team members are often co-located, - Project managers have a great deal of independence and authority. By: Mohamed Salah ElDien Mohamed Aly, MSc, PMP®, DIT, MCAD
  9. 9. 3. Matrix Organization - Matrix organizations are a blend of functional and projectized characteristics. - Weak matrix maintains many of the characteristics of a functional organization, and the project manager role is more of a coordinator or expediter than that of a true project manager. - Strong matrix has many of the characteristics of the projectized organization, and can have full-time project managers with considerable authority and fulltime project administrative staff. - Balanced matrix organization recognizes the need for a project manager; it does not provide the project manager with the full authority over the project and project funding. - Employees in a matrix organization report to one functional manager and at least one project manager. - It’s possible that employees could report to multiple project managers if they are working on multiple projects at one time. - Functional managers pick up the administrative portion of the duties and assign employees to projects. They also monitor the work of their employees on the various projects. - Project managers are responsible for executing the project and giving out work assignments based on project activities. - Project managers and functional managers share the responsibility of performance reviews for the employee. Strong Matrix Organization - The project managers have a great power. - They have the ability to strong-arm the functional managers into giving up their best resources for projects. - When competing for resources, project managers may negotiate resources among each other. By: Mohamed Salah ElDien Mohamed Aly, MSc, PMP®, DIT, MCAD
  10. 10. - Functional Manager handles only the administrative aspect of his employees’ life. Weak Matrix Organization - The functional managers have all the power in this structure. - Project managers are really project coordinators or expeditors with part-time responsibilities on projects in a weak matrix organization. - Project managers have little to no authority, just like in the functional organization. - On the other hand, the functional managers have a lot of authority and make all the work assignments. The project manager simply expedites the project. By: Mohamed Salah ElDien Mohamed Aly, MSc, PMP®, DIT, MCAD
  11. 11. Organizational Structure By: Mohamed Salah ElDien Mohamed Aly, MSc, PMP®, DIT, MCAD
  12. 12. Project Management vs. Organization Project Expediter, Coordinator, Manager - Depending on the type of Organization, the project manager’s role and power can be very limited - Project Expediter   - Acts primarily as a staff assistant As communications coordinator.  Cannot personally make or enforce decisions. Project Coordinator  has some power to make decisions  Has some authority  reports to a higher-level manager Organizational Process Assets - Processes & Procedures;  Organizational standard processes such as standards, policies By: Mohamed Salah ElDien Mohamed Aly, MSc, PMP®, DIT, MCAD
  13. 13.  Standardized guidelines, work instruction, proposal evaluation criteria, and performance measurement criteria   Financial control procedures  Procedures for prioritizing, approving, and issuing work authorization  - Templates Etc. Corporate Knowledge Base;  Process measurement databases  Project files  Historical information & lesson learned knowledge bases  Issue and defect management databases  Configuration management knowledge bases  Financial databases  Etc. Keynotes; - Be able to describe the difference between projects and operations. A project is temporary in nature with a definite beginning and ending date. Operations are ongoing. - Be able to denote some of the skills every good project manager should possess. Communication, budgeting, organizational, problem solving, negotiation and influencing, leading, and team building. - Be able to differentiate the different organizational structures. Organizations are usually structured in some combination of the following: functional, projectized, and matrix (including weak matrix, balanced matrix, and strong matrix). - Be able to name the five project management processes. Initiation, Planning, Executing, Controlling, and Closing. By: Mohamed Salah ElDien Mohamed Aly, MSc, PMP®, DIT, MCAD
  14. 14. Note: 1. A process is a set of interrelated actions and activities performed to achieve a pre-specified product, result, or service. Each process is characterized by its inputs, the tools and techniques that can be applied, and the resulting outputs. 2. To successfully deliver project, team needs to consider "Project related Processes" and "Product Related Process". Always remember - Product is the output that project produces and Project is work that needs to be done to produce the Product. PMBOK Guide 4th Edition considers Project related processes only. Triple Constraints: - Time, Cost, Scope are initially known as Triple constraints. This means that, if one of these constraints has been changed the other two constraints will be directly impacted. Project Management methodology is evolving Quality and Risk were also added to those constraints. PMBOK 4th Edition: Process ChartInitiation Planning Integration 1.1 Develop1.2 Develop Project Project Charter Management Plan Executing 1.3 Direct & Manage Project Execution Monitoring and Controlling Closing 1.4 Monitor & Control 1.6 Close Project Work Project or 4.5 Phase Perform Integrated Change Control Scope 2.1 Collect Requirements 2.2 Define Scope 2.3 Create Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) 2.4 Verify Scope 2.5 Control Scope Time 3.1 Define Activities 3.2 Sequence Activities 3.3 Estimate Activity Resources 3.4 Estimate Activity Durations 3.5 Develop Schedule 3.6 Control Schedule By: Mohamed Salah ElDien Mohamed Aly, MSc, PMP®, DIT, MCAD
  15. 15. Cost 4.1 Estimate Costs 4.2 Determine Budget Quality 5.1 Plan Quality 5.2 Perform Quality 5.3 Perform Quality Assurance Control 6.1 Develop Human Resources Plan 6.2 Acquire Project Team 6.3 Develop Project Team 6.4 Manage Project Team 7.2 Plan Communications 7.3 Distribute Information 7.4 Manage Stakeholder Expectations HR Communications 7.1 Identify Stakeholders Risk 8.1 Plan Risk Management 8.2 Identify Risks 8.3 Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis 8.4 Perform Quantitative Risk Analysis 8.5 Plan Risk Responses Procurement 9.1 Plan Procurements 4.3 Control Costs 7.5 Report Performance 8.6 Monitor and Control Risks 9.2 Conduct Procurements 9.3 Administer Procurements By: Mohamed Salah ElDien Mohamed Aly, MSc, PMP®, DIT, MCAD 9.4 Close Procurements

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