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Gain's Course 2 Cadi Ayyad
Gain's Course 2 Cadi Ayyad
Gain's Course 2 Cadi Ayyad
Gain's Course 2 Cadi Ayyad
Gain's Course 2 Cadi Ayyad
Gain's Course 2 Cadi Ayyad
Gain's Course 2 Cadi Ayyad
Gain's Course 2 Cadi Ayyad
Gain's Course 2 Cadi Ayyad
Gain's Course 2 Cadi Ayyad
Gain's Course 2 Cadi Ayyad
Gain's Course 2 Cadi Ayyad
Gain's Course 2 Cadi Ayyad
Gain's Course 2 Cadi Ayyad
Gain's Course 2 Cadi Ayyad
Gain's Course 2 Cadi Ayyad
Gain's Course 2 Cadi Ayyad
Gain's Course 2 Cadi Ayyad
Gain's Course 2 Cadi Ayyad
Gain's Course 2 Cadi Ayyad
Gain's Course 2 Cadi Ayyad
Gain's Course 2 Cadi Ayyad
Gain's Course 2 Cadi Ayyad
Gain's Course 2 Cadi Ayyad
Gain's Course 2 Cadi Ayyad
Gain's Course 2 Cadi Ayyad
Gain's Course 2 Cadi Ayyad
Gain's Course 2 Cadi Ayyad
Gain's Course 2 Cadi Ayyad
Gain's Course 2 Cadi Ayyad
Gain's Course 2 Cadi Ayyad
Gain's Course 2 Cadi Ayyad
Gain's Course 2 Cadi Ayyad
Gain's Course 2 Cadi Ayyad
Gain's Course 2 Cadi Ayyad
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Gain's Course 2 Cadi Ayyad

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  • 1. Human and Natural Sciences HOW ARE THEY DIFFERENT?
  • 2. Natural Science  Definition - understanding nature of science through evidence, meaningful experiments, weighing of possibilities, testing hypothesis, and establishing theories, to get to conclusions.
  • 3. What is Human Science??  Definition - the study and interpretation of the experiences, activities, constructs, and artifacts associated with human beings - attempts to expand and enlighten the human being's knowledge of his or her existence
  • 4. A Historical perspective  The division between the natural and human sciences and the resulting neglect of the latter by historians and philosophers of science are the products of late 19th-century shifts in the classification of knowledge, which remapped the disciplines in order to sharpen the distinction between the human and the natural realms and therefore between the sciences dedicated to each.
  • 5. Natural vs. human science NATURAL  Knowing and explaining. human  Understanding. McGoun, S. 2011. Philosophy and Research course syllabus, Spring/Summer 2011
  • 6.  Talking about methodologies of rsearch in human sciences is significant at this stage
  • 7. Human science paradigms POSITIVIST INTERPRETIVE
  • 8. Traditional empiricist view (positivist paradigm)  There is no difference - both (must) use the same basic methodology,  ―It is important to realize that despite differences of method, interest, technique, subject matter, and degree, all scientific knowledge must be confirmed or verified; all must be justified by evidence or good reasons. The criteria for a good hypothesis (that it be falsifiable, simple, beautiful, general, etc.) apply equally. So do the ideals of science (reliability, precision, objectivity, testability, comprehensiveness, etc.) and the requirement that the justification for a claim be unremittingly criticized. Not every scientific explanation satisfies all of these goals equally well, but the goals are the same for all our organized empirical knowledge.‖
  • 9. Positivist paradigm  Reality is objectively given and can be described by measurable properties which are independent of the observer (researcher) and his or her instruments. http://www.qual.auckland.ac.nz/
  • 10. Positivist paradigm  Researchers use methods resembling those of the natural science as tools for understanding society.  Strictly formalized procedures for establishing and testing hypotheses.  What is emperical methodology? http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_sciences
  • 11. The Empirical Methodology True or false? The empirical methodology is based on testing the hypotheses that scientists make in the light of laboratory experiments or real life statistics so that only those hypotheses that scientists fail to refute by these methods are considered scientific hypotheses. EXAMPLE Hypothesis: ―women prefer to listen to jokes more than telling them‖ What human scientists should not do 1. Rely on their own impressions 2. Rely on what people think 3. Rely on what they believe women can do What scientists must do They can design contexts where women can freely tell jokes OR listen to them and then observe which preferences they would show in these contexts.
  • 12. Opposing position (interpretive paradigm)  Human and Natural Sciences are essentially different and (must) use different methods  ―The human sciences study meaningful phenomena whose nature is decisively different from the merely physical phenomena studied by the natural sciences, and whose study therefore require different methods ...... This is not to say that the human sciences do not study an objective reality about which we cannot have genuine knowledge. ―  R.D. Ingthorsson The Natural vs. The Human Sciences: Myth, Methodology and Ontology http://www.academia.edu/3553833/The_Natural_vs._Human_Sciences_Myth_Methodology_and_Ontology (Accessed September 2013)
  • 13. Interpretive paradigm  Human beings cannot be studied using models developed for the natural sciences because humans are qualitatively different from natural events. qualitatively  Humans have free will, purposes, goals, and intentions, so they should be studied as active agents. http://dcarballo0.tripod.com/commtheory/nm/interpretative.htm
  • 14. Main aim of interpretive paradigm  To understand phenomena through the meanings that people assign to them. http://fineartamerica.com/featured/edge-of-perception-dawid-michalczyk.html
  • 15. Basis for interpretive research  The philosophical bases of interpretive research are mainly hermeneutics and phenomenology.  Some other theories connected to interpretive paradigm: grounded theory, ethnography, ethno science, discourse analysis, conceptual description etc. Goulding, C. 1999. Consumer research, interpretive paradigms and methodological ambiguities. European Journal of Marketing. 859-873.
  • 16. The phenomenological method  Phenomenology is the study of our experience — how we experience. http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/phenomenology/
  • 17. Phenomenology as descriptive methodology  study of structures of consciousness (conscious experience) as experienced from the (subjective) first-person point of view  the descriptive methodology of human science, seeking to explore and describe phenomena as they present themselves in order to find their true meaning http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/phenomenology/ http://unenlightenedenglish.com/2010/09/existentialism-and-phenomenology-an-incredibly-brief-introduction
  • 18. “Rigorous science”  descriptions from a first-person point of view is needed to ensure that the phenomena is described exactly as it is experienced  so not as they appear to "my" consciousness, but to any consciousness ("rigorous science‖, objectivity) http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/husserl/
  • 19. Phenomenology – basic terminology Husserl’s intention was to develop a schema for describing and classifying subjective experiences of what he termed the life world.  Lifeworld: the everyday world we live in (―taken- for-granted‖). The world of lived experience (background).
  • 20. Phenomenology – basic terminology  The Lived Experience: lived by a person at a given time, in a given place (not e.g. only observed). It's already there and is part of our awareness.  various types of experience: thought, memory, emotion, desire, and social (including linguistic ) activity. http://www.sonoma.edu/users/d/daniels/phenomenology.html http://www.aare.edu.au/02pap/mos02453.htm
  • 21. Phenomenology – basic terminology  Consciousness: things that present themselves in the lived world, need to be part of the consciousness of a person, for them to be spoken of or referred to.  The fundamental structure of consciousness is intentional.  Intentionality: connectedness (direction) of the human being to the world. All human activity is always oriented. All thinking is always about something. All doing is always doing something.
  • 22. Simple phenomenological description  phenomenological description of an experience which shows the structure of the type of conscious experience I walk carefully around the broken glass on the sidewalk. subject – act – content – object refers to: intentionality – experience – lifeworld
  • 23. The Hermeneutic method Definition: The study of understanding and interpretation of linguistic and non-linguistic expressions  Traditional : interpretation of written texts  Modern : verbal and nonverbal forms of communication & aspects that affect communication Widely used in: Law, Archaeology, International relations, Sociology, Management, etc.
  • 24. The hermeunetic Methodology This methodology is founded on the idea that reality about Man can be deciphered from the symbolic productions of dance people. tales myths proverbs Color meaning s EXAMPLE QUESTION: what is Jemaa Elfnaa? We can study JE as a place of «wonders». It’s a Mystery place.
  • 25. Animals in JE halqas during the 70s and the 80s • Doves • Monkeys • roosters • Snakes • Hamsters • Donkey • Turtles • Scorpians • lizards
  • 26. JE is also a place where you can expect to find EVERYONE.
  • 27. «gay« dancers preachers JE is a place of Inconsistencies Pigeon tamers Snake charmers Elborate international food Exotic herbs drink: khoudenjal
  • 28. Soft oriental music Ecstatic African JE is, therefore, a place where you should expect to find EVERYTHING. music Jemaa Elfna, just like the city where it exists, is an exotic mixture of folly and sirenity. In this sense, JE is a Mystery Space that lends itself only to those who are willing to coexist with an extremely different other.
  • 29. HERE Four key aspects applied to the study of Human Science Observation Measurement Experiments Laws …What is the problem?
  • 30. Observation  We cannot directly observe other people’s mind  Questionnaires may be misleading or biased (= loaded questions)  Observing people may affect the way they behave (= observer effect)
  • 31. Measurement  Social phenomena are difficult to measure e.x.) ―How many thoughts have you had today?‖ Impossible to answer this because there is no way to measure thoughts.’
  • 32. Experiments  Human sciences study complex social situations in which it is difficult to run controlled experiments  Various moral considerations limit our willingness to experiment
  • 33. Laws  Human sciences are not very good at predicting things  Human sciences usually uncover trends rather than laws  Science laws are probabilistic in nature
  • 34. Conclusion  Human sciences seem to lack the explanatory power of the natural science  Since we typically explain human behavior in terms of its meaning and purpose, we may never be able to reduce the human sciences to natural science.
  • 35. Conclusion BIS Human science is the study and interpretation of human experiences, activities, constructs, and artifacts.

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