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Spatial Information From Stone to Cloud
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Spatial Information From Stone to Cloud

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Presentation about the evolution of spatial information from stone age to cloud computing technology....

Presentation about the evolution of spatial information from stone age to cloud computing technology.
Presented at the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Sharjah, United Arab Emirates
April, 2010

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  • It is estimated that approximately 80% of all information has a "spatial" or geographic component. (In other words, most information is tied to a place.)
  • Geometry Geometry represents the geographic features associated with real-world locations. Geographic features are abstracted into points, lines, or areas. Attributes Attributes provide descriptive characteristics of the geographic features. Behavior Behavior means geographic features can be made to follow certain types of editing, display, or analysis rules, depending on circumstances defined by the user.

Spatial Information From Stone to Cloud Spatial Information From Stone to Cloud Presentation Transcript

  • Spatial Information From Stone to Cloud… Presented by Eng. Mohamad Hassan Obeid Senior GIS Analyst
  • © RTA 2 010 What’s Spatial Information ?
    • Spatial Information describes:
      • Physical location of objects
      • Relationship between objects
    April, 2010
  • © RTA 2 010 Thinking Spatially…
    • Thinking about the world based on the space that objects and people fill.
    • "Spatial thinking is an ability to visualize and interpret location, distance, relationships, movement and change through space" ( Dr. Diana Sinton, University of Redlands )
    • We are thinking spatially everyday :
      • How to move from place A to place B ?
      • Where is the nearest bakery ?
      • What path is the shortest to reach the hospital ?
    April, 2010
  • © RTA 2 010 Early Spatial Information…
    • The early maps did not just provide directions but were an attempt to explain the world around them. Uses of Maps:
      • Topographic
      • Celestial
      • Cosmographic
    World map, circa 600 B.C., shows Babylon as a rectangle intersected by two vertical lines representing the Euphrates River. Small circles stand for surrounding kingdoms, and an ocean encircles the world. April, 2010
  • © RTA 2 010 T-O Maps A “T” and “O” map (“T-O”, with the letter T inside an O), is a type of medieval world map (7 th Century) The T is the Mediterranean, the Nile, and the Don (formerly called the Tanais) dividing the three continents, Asia, Europe and Africa, and the O is the encircling ocean. April, 2010
  • © RTA 2 010 Evolution of Spatial representation April, 2010
  • © RTA 2 010 Need for Spatial Analysis - An Early case Cholera Cases Soho, London 1854 Air Pollution or Drinking Water ? Map created by Dr. John Snow to locate the source of cholera cases April, 2010
  • © RTA 2 010
    • Cholera cases
    • Water pumps
    • Sewer pipes ~ 22 feet down, were leaking into the shallow water wells ~ 28 feet deep
    April, 2010
  • © RTA 2 010 Redefining Spatial Thinking Spatial Thinking is: The capacity to be able to include the spatial dimension in our thinking and problem solving. In other words: Solving problems within their spatial context
    • Almost all of the world’s problems exist in these dimensions:
      • Time
      • Space
      • Matter
    April, 2010
  • © RTA 2 010 It’s always about “Where?”… Where is the traffic jam ? What are the reasons ? Where are the areas that will be damaged in case of flood ? What precautions to take in case of heavy rain ? Where are the areas damaged by earthquake ? How to plan rescue ? Where I have low revenue ? How to improve business ? Where is the best areas to build a mall, school, hospital...? What are the needs ? April, 2010
  • © RTA 2 010 GIS – Integrating Spatial with Technology April, 2010
  • 480585.5, 3769234.6 483194.1, 3768432.3 485285.8, 3768391.2 484327.4, 3768565.9 483874.7, 3769823.0 Hardcopy Maps Digital Data Coordinates Orthophotos GIS – Sources of Spatial Information GPS © RTA 2 010 April, 2010 Spatial Data
  • It’s not only a question of where ? It’s also a question of what ? What is it? Where is it? Attribute Information Location Information GIS – Model of Spatial Information © RTA 2 010 April, 2010
  • Attributes Geometry Behavior Topological Rules Each feature corresponds to a record in the attribute table GIS – Spatial Information Elements © RTA 2 010 April, 2010 Streets Building outlines must not overlap parcel outlines
  • © RTA 2 010 GIS – Functions Query Analyze Store Display Capture Output Buildings Streets Reality Customers April, 2010
  • © RTA 2 010 How GIS Helps ? April, 2010
  • Technology is Changing the Role of GIS © RTA 2 010 April, 2010
  • GIS on the Web
    • A web map is a set of web map layers.
    • Each layer is based on a web map service.
    • Users author web map layers publish them as map services.
    • Users can combine a set of web map layers from multiple services in a web map application.
    Web Desktop Server © RTA 2 010 April, 2010
  • Web GIS make it easy to share spatial information © RTA 2 010 April, 2010 Online Sharing Layer packages Other data Use in GIS Desktop Serve Author using GIS Desktop
  • Google and Microsoft are good examples of Web GIS Microsoft Bing Maps Google Maps © RTA 2 010 April, 2010 Google Earth 3D
  • © RTA 2 010 “ Mashup” Mashup is a web hybrid application that combines data from more than one source into an integrated experience. With Web-based mapping providers (e.g. google and bing), users can easily create a map-based mashup with little or no capital investment. April, 2010
  • © RTA 2010 Mashup – Where to rent a House ? April, 2010
  • © RTA 2010 Mashup – Where to book a hotel ? April, 2010
  • © RTA 2010 Mashup – E-bay, Where are my items ? April, 2010
  • © RTA 2010 Mashup – Where is my ship ? April, 2010
  • © RTA 2010 Mashup – Where to park my car ? April, 2010
  • © RTA 2010 Mashup – Where is my car ? April, 2010
  • © RTA 2010 Mashup – Where is the bus ? April, 2010
  • “ Cloud Computing”
    • “ Cloud” is a Computing Evolution
    • A computing paradigm, like personal and enterprise computing, but centered on the web
    • “ Cloud computing” furnishes technological capabilities - commonly maintained off premises - that are delivered on demand as services via the Internet.
    • “ The Web is the OS”
    © RTA 2 010 April, 2010
  • Cloud Delivery Models
    • Processing
    • Storage
    • Networks
    • Platforms
    • Value Added Services
    • Online Content Software APIs
    • Development Tools
    • Middleware
    • End-user Applications
    © RTA 2 010 April, 2010
  • Benefits of Cloud Computing
    • Reduced cost – pay as you go
    • Reduced complexity – infrastructure is maintained for you
    • Reduced local IT cost – less staff needed to maintain your applications and data
    • Application and Storage capacity on demand – elastically scalable
    • Highly automated – minimal manual intervention
    • Increased Mobility – ubiquitous access
    © RTA 2 010 April, 2010
  • “ GIS on the Cloud” – GISCloud.com © RTA 2 010 April, 2010
  • “ GIS on the Cloud” – ArcGISOnline.com © RTA 2 010 April, 2010
  • “ GIS on the Cloud” – ArcGISOnline.com Public Cloud Application Infrastructure Platform © RTA 2 010 April, 2010 ArcGIS Desktop Web Maps ArcGIS Explorer ArcGIS Server ArcGIS Mobile ArcGIS Online Maps ArcGIS Online Services Business Analyst Online ArcGIS Online Sharing Online Support Resource Centers Hosted ArcGIS Server Online Data Centers
  • © RTA 2 010 Spatial Information Today “ People don’t need to know geography, they need to do geography…” Daniel C. Edelson Vice President for Education National Geographic Society April, 2010