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Problem and situation analysis

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  • 1. Problem and Situation Analysis Public Sector Improvement Facility Project Resources
  • 2. Why conduct a problem/situation analysis?Define clearly:Who it is for:• Project management staff and partners?• People who will be affected by the initiative?• Donors?How the results will be used:• As a basis for project planning?• By project managers, staff, partners and stakeholders affected by the initiative?• As a funding proposal?• As a baseline analysis for impact evaluation?PSIF Project Resources Problem and Situation Analysis 2
  • 3. Purpose of the Problem Analysis• Understand how different problems affect different stakeholders and their priorities in addressing them• Analyse the situation in which the agency will be working• Identify a suitable area or sector to work in• Understand the complexities of a problem, its causes and how it is already being handled• Analyse the constraints and opportunities for development workPSIF Project Resources Problem and Situation Analysis 3
  • 4. Formulate the Problem• Brainstorm suggestions to identify a focal problem i.e. the central point of the overall problem• Record suggestions and present to group e.g. on butchers paper or post-it notes• Discuss each suggestion and agree on a single focal problem to be addressedPSIF Project Resources Problem and Situation Analysis 4
  • 5. Identify Cause & Effect: The Problem TreePSIF Project Resources Problem and Situation Analysis 5
  • 6. Develop the Problem Tree1. Identify immediate and direct causes of the focal problem2. Identify immediate and direct effects of the focal problem3. Construct a problem tree showing the cause and effect relationships for the problem4. Review the problem tree and verify that it is complete and valid.PSIF Project Resources Problem and Situation Analysis 6
  • 7. Case Study Part 1: Samoa Immigration Problem Tree AnalysisPSIF Project Resources Problem and Situation Analysis 7
  • 8. Develop the Objective Tree1. Reformulate the elements in the problem tree into positive desirable conditions2. Review the resulting means-ends relationships to assure the validity and completeness of the Objective Tree3. If necessary: • Revise statements • Delete unrealistic or unnecessary objectives • Add new objectives if requiredPSIF Project Resources Problem and Situation Analysis 8
  • 9. Case Study Part 2: Samoa Immigration Objective Tree AnalysisPSIF Project Resources Problem and Situation Analysis 9
  • 10. Identify Cause & Effect: The Fishbone (Ishikawa) DiagramPSIF Project Resources Problem and Situation Analysis 10
  • 11. Constructing the Fishbone Diagram• Prepare the basic fishbone framework• List the problem or issue to be addressed• Label each “leg” of the diagram: – Manpower, Machines, Methods, Materials• Alternative labels may include: – Place, Procedure, People, Policies; or – Surroundings, Suppliers, Systems, Skills• Brainstorm the factors affecting the problem in each leg• Keep asking “Why is this happening” until participants agree there is sufficient detail• Analyse the results to find the most likely causesPSIF Project Resources Problem and Situation Analysis 11
  • 12. Case Study Part 3: Samoa Immigration Fishbone DiagramPSIF Project Resources Problem and Situation Analysis 12
  • 13. Alternative Analysis1. Identify alternative cause & effect ladders or diagrams, as possible alternative options or activity components2. Eliminate objectives that are obviously not desirable or achievable (the “sore thumb”)3. Eliminate objectives being pursued by other projects or agencies4. Discuss the implications for affected groupsPSIF Project Resources Problem and Situation Analysis 13
  • 14. Develop a Conceptual ModelA conceptual model explains how:• The project will achieve the desired results in theory• The strategy will make the desired change• Clarify the relationship between the strategy, the expected results and the goal (or outcome) of the projectPSIF Project Resources Problem and Situation Analysis 14
  • 15. Example of a Conceptual Model Strategies / Intermediate Goal / Interventions Results OutcomeFor example: Increased Change in Change in Knowledge Attitudes practicesPSIF Project Resources Problem and Situation Analysis 15
  • 16. Developing the Conceptual ModelStep 1 Identify the goal (or outcome) of the project:• What are the specific problems affecting the stakeholder population or client group?• Which of these problems can we change?PSIF Project Resources Problem and Situation Analysis 16
  • 17. Developing the Conceptual ModelStep 2 Identify the intermediate results of the project:• What changes must occur in the human resources, equipment, work methods or materials (see the 4Ms in the Fishbone Diagram) to reduce the problem?PSIF Project Resources Problem and Situation Analysis 17
  • 18. Developing the Conceptual ModelStep 3 Identify the interventions of the project:• What activities can be undertaken that will achieve the changes identified in Step 2?• Why will these activities accomplish these changes?PSIF Project Resources Problem and Situation Analysis 18
  • 19. Evaluating the project feasibilityA Project can be evaluated on:• Technical feasibility- appropriateness, use of resources, market suitability, etc.• Financial (cost/benefit) feasibility- set-up/ recurrent costs, financial sustainability;• Social implications- distribution of benefits, gender issues, socio-cultural constraints, local involvement;• Environmental issues- impact, environmental costs vs. benefits.PSIF Project Resources Problem and Situation Analysis 19
  • 20. Selecting the Project Strategy1. Make an assessment of the project against the PSIF Eligibility Criteria2. Select one of the alternatives as the preferred strategy3. Prepare the Project Identification Brief (PIB)PSIF Project Resources Problem and Situation Analysis 20