Album of american colonies

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  • 1. Album of American Colonies Jimmy Hill Hist. 140
  • 2. Africans
    • The majority of Africans in colonial America were slaves
    • Every one of them was captured and forcefully taken from Africa, where they were committed into the Atlantic slave trade
    • The first ones arrived in Jamestown Virginia as indentured servants
    • The indentured servants could legally raise crops and cattle to purchase their freedom, if their owner allowed it
    • By the 1640’s several African families owned farms, because the race based slave system did not fully develop until the 1700’s
    • By 1775 Africans made up 20% of the American colonies
  • 3. Spanish
    • Vera Cruise was the first Spanish town founded in Mexico by Hernan Cortes
    • The Spaniard conquistadores conquered all of Mexico, and subdued all of its native inhabitants
    • After control was acquired over Mexico, Cortes lead the modernization of its towns and people
    • The Spaniards converted all natives to Catholicism and destroyed all who opposed
  • 4. Portuguese
    • The Portuguese committed to global exploration, and was the first global empire in history
    • Brazil was one of the first major Portuguese colonies in southern America
    • Brazil’s lush land and geographic location made it an optimum environment for sugar exploitation
    • Sugar was Portugal’s major export from South America
    • The Portuguese colonizers committed Amazonian natives to work the sugar plantations
    • One case in particular was Damiana de Cunha, she was a Caiapo native distinguished communal leader who acted as an interpreter and navigator for Portuguese colonists
  • 5. French
    • The majority of French colonization took place in Canada
    • The majority of North America was either claimed by the British or French
    • There was much conflict between the two major powers, leading to the seven years war
    • The war was concluded by Frances failure
    • New France was the major site of colonization in North America
    • The territory was divided by five colonies, each with independent administration; Canada, Acadia, Hudson Bay, Newfoundland, and Louisiana
  • 6. Dutch
    • The first Dutch settlements in Guyana and on the Amazon date from the 1590’s
    • Many Dutch colonies of that region were lost or abandoned by the end of the century
    • The Netherlands retained possession of Suriname until it gained independence in 1975
    • In 1609 the Dutch attempted to discover the Northwest Passage, claiming all land contacted for the United Provinces
    • They crossed through much of Canada and present day United States
  • 7. English
    • After the French and Indian war in 1763 England was considered the dominant power of the Americas
    • Jamestown was the first successful English settlement in North America
    • Jamestown was founded for the quick profit from gold mining, also for a permanent English foothold in North America
    • English appointed lords of colonies were only done so through hereditary rights, not through effectiveness
    • These lords decided on laws and conduct in the colonies
  • 8. Natives
    • French settled in Canada with hopes of converting natives to Christianity
    • Natives encountered by the French were from the; Algonquians, Montagnais, Hurons, and the Iroquois
    • The colonists had to adopt many of the native’s life styles, and traditions to survive
    • There was very much conflict between the natives and European settlers
    • European conversions lead to the demise of many native tribes, killed by other tribes for heresy
  • 9. Works Cited
    • Struggle & Survival in Colonial America
    • The Aztecs -Rise and Fall of an Empire-Serge Gruzinski
    • American Colonies -The Settling of North America-Alan Taylor
    • The American Revolution -Gordon S. Wood