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Honor Chemistry 2
Honor Chemistry 2
Honor Chemistry 2
Honor Chemistry 2
Honor Chemistry 2
Honor Chemistry 2
Honor Chemistry 2
Honor Chemistry 2
Honor Chemistry 2
Honor Chemistry 2
Honor Chemistry 2
Honor Chemistry 2
Honor Chemistry 2
Honor Chemistry 2
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Honor Chemistry 2

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Honor Chemistry ch2 powerpoint.

Honor Chemistry ch2 powerpoint.

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Transcript

  • 1. Chemistry CH2
    • What is a substance?
    • Properties of Matter
      • Extensive vs. Intensive
      • Physical Property
    • States of Matter (3)
      • Can you describe them?
    • Physical Change
      • Reversible vs Irreversible
  • 2. Substance
    • recall – matter is anything that has mass and takes up space
    • Substance
      • Matter that has a uniform and definite composition
      • Every sample of a given substance has the same composition (and therefore the same intensive properties)
  • 3. Properties of Matter
    • Extensive
      • Depends on the amount of matter in a sample
      • Example: mass, volume
    • Intensive
      • Depends on the type of matter in the sample, not the amount
    • Physical properties
      • Quality that can be observed w/o changing the substance’s composition
      • Used to identify a substance
      • Example: hardness, color, conductivity, malleability, MP, BP
  • 4. States of Matter
    • SOLIDS
      • Definite shape and mass
      • Particles are tightly and orderly packed
      • Almost incompressible
    • LIQUIDS
      • Particles are in close contact but arrangement is not rigid or orderly
      • Takes the shape of its container, but volume is constant
      • Form has indefinite shape, flows, almost incompressible
    • GASES
      • Particles are usually much farther apart than those in liquids, and in solid, and are therefore easily compressed
      • Take shape of container, can expand to fill any volume
      • (gas at room temp, vapor if liquid or solid at room temp)
  • 5. Physical Change
    • Some properties of the material change but not the composition
    • What about ice to liquid H 2 O?
    • boil, freeze, condense, break, split, grind, cut, crush
    • Reversible: melting, freezing
    • Irreversible: cutting, grinding
  • 6. Mixtures
    • What is a mixture?
    • Heterogeneous
    • Homogeneous
    • What is a phase?
    • How do we separate?
  • 7. Mixture
    • A mixture is a physical blend of 2 or more components. (examples ???)
    • Heterogeneous – the composition is not uniform
    • Homogeneous – the composition is uniform; also called a solution
    • Phase
      • a part of a sample with uniform composition and properties
      • homogeneous have 1 phase
      • heterogeneous have 2 or more phases
  • 8. Separating Mixtures
    • we use their physical properties to separate
    • filtration – separate solid from liquid
    • Distillation
      • process of purifying liquids by boiling and condensing
      • any unwanted particles will remain in original container as solid
      • WHY?
  • 9. Element vs Compound
    • What is the difference?
    • Examples?
    • How is a chemical change introduced?
  • 10. Element vs Compound
    • Element – simplest form of matter that has a unique set of properties
    • Compound
      • substance containing 2 or more elements
      • chemically combined
      • fixed proportion (ex water vs hydrogen peroxide)
    • Chemical change – change that produces matter with a different composition than the original
      • Recall: physical change = melt, freeze, cut, grind)
      • Cmpds usually have properties (physical and chemical) that are different than the elements they are made of
      • Sodium + Chlorine  Sodium chloride
  • 11. Symbols and Formulas
    • What do they represent?
    • How?
    • Why?
    • Examples
  • 12. Symbols and Formulas
    • Symbols are used to represent elements
    • Berzelius developed the system of symbols
      • mostly based on Latin names of elements
      • one or two letter chemical symbol
    • Formulas represent compounds
    • Formula indicates the elements present in a compound with subscripts to show the proportion of elements in a cmpd
  • 13. Chemical Reaction
    • Chemical rxn: one or more substances change into one or more new substances
      • reactant vs product
    • Recall: chemical property is the ability of a substance to undergo a specific chemical change; ex iron + oxygen = rust
    • Chemical property
      • used to id a substance
      • seen when a substance undergoes a chemical change; composition always changes during chem change
    • A chemical change is also called a chem rxn
  • 14. Chemi Rxn, cont’d
    • Clues to a chemical change
      • Transfer of energy
      • Change in color
      • Production of gas
      • Formation of a precipitate – a solid that forms and settles out of a liquid mixture
    • During any chem rxn: the mass of the products is always equal to the mass of the reactants
      • Law of Conservation of Mass
        • in any physical change or chemical rxn, mass is conserved
        • mass can be neither created nor destroyed

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