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Chemistry CH2 <ul><li>What is a substance? </li></ul><ul><li>Properties of Matter </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Extensive vs. Inte...
Substance <ul><li>recall – matter is anything that has mass and takes up space </li></ul><ul><li>Substance </li></ul><ul><...
Properties of Matter <ul><li>Extensive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Depends on the  amount  of matter in a sample </li></ul></ul>...
States of Matter <ul><li>SOLIDS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Definite shape and mass </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Particles are tig...
Physical Change  <ul><li>Some properties of the material change but  not  the composition </li></ul><ul><li>What about ice...
Mixtures <ul><li>What is a mixture? </li></ul><ul><li>Heterogeneous </li></ul><ul><li>Homogeneous </li></ul><ul><li>What i...
Mixture <ul><li>A  mixture  is a physical blend of 2 or more components.  (examples ???) </li></ul><ul><li>Heterogeneous  ...
Separating Mixtures <ul><li>we use their physical properties to separate </li></ul><ul><li>filtration  – separate solid fr...
Element vs Compound <ul><li>What is the difference? </li></ul><ul><li>Examples? </li></ul><ul><li>How is a chemical change...
Element vs Compound <ul><li>Element  – simplest form of matter that has a unique set of properties </li></ul><ul><li>Compo...
Symbols and Formulas <ul><li>What do they represent? </li></ul><ul><li>How? </li></ul><ul><li>Why? </li></ul><ul><li>Examp...
Symbols and Formulas <ul><li>Symbols are used to represent  elements </li></ul><ul><li>Berzelius developed the system of s...
Chemical Reaction <ul><li>Chemical rxn: one or more substances change into one or more new substances </li></ul><ul><ul><l...
Chemi Rxn, cont’d <ul><li>Clues to a chemical change </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transfer of energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C...
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Honor Chemistry 2

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Transcript of "Honor Chemistry 2"

  1. 1. Chemistry CH2 <ul><li>What is a substance? </li></ul><ul><li>Properties of Matter </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Extensive vs. Intensive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical Property </li></ul></ul><ul><li>States of Matter (3) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can you describe them? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Physical Change </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reversible vs Irreversible </li></ul></ul>
  2. 2. Substance <ul><li>recall – matter is anything that has mass and takes up space </li></ul><ul><li>Substance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Matter that has a uniform and definite composition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Every sample of a given substance has the same composition (and therefore the same intensive properties) </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Properties of Matter <ul><li>Extensive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Depends on the amount of matter in a sample </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: mass, volume </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Intensive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Depends on the type of matter in the sample, not the amount </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Physical properties </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quality that can be observed w/o changing the substance’s composition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used to identify a substance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: hardness, color, conductivity, malleability, MP, BP </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. States of Matter <ul><li>SOLIDS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Definite shape and mass </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Particles are tightly and orderly packed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Almost incompressible </li></ul></ul><ul><li>LIQUIDS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Particles are in close contact but arrangement is not rigid or orderly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Takes the shape of its container, but volume is constant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Form has indefinite shape, flows, almost incompressible </li></ul></ul><ul><li>GASES </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Particles are usually much farther apart than those in liquids, and in solid, and are therefore easily compressed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Take shape of container, can expand to fill any volume </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(gas at room temp, vapor if liquid or solid at room temp) </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Physical Change <ul><li>Some properties of the material change but not the composition </li></ul><ul><li>What about ice to liquid H 2 O? </li></ul><ul><li>boil, freeze, condense, break, split, grind, cut, crush </li></ul><ul><li>Reversible: melting, freezing </li></ul><ul><li>Irreversible: cutting, grinding </li></ul>
  6. 6. Mixtures <ul><li>What is a mixture? </li></ul><ul><li>Heterogeneous </li></ul><ul><li>Homogeneous </li></ul><ul><li>What is a phase? </li></ul><ul><li>How do we separate? </li></ul>
  7. 7. Mixture <ul><li>A mixture is a physical blend of 2 or more components. (examples ???) </li></ul><ul><li>Heterogeneous – the composition is not uniform </li></ul><ul><li>Homogeneous – the composition is uniform; also called a solution </li></ul><ul><li>Phase </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a part of a sample with uniform composition and properties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>homogeneous have 1 phase </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>heterogeneous have 2 or more phases </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Separating Mixtures <ul><li>we use their physical properties to separate </li></ul><ul><li>filtration – separate solid from liquid </li></ul><ul><li>Distillation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>process of purifying liquids by boiling and condensing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>any unwanted particles will remain in original container as solid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WHY? </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Element vs Compound <ul><li>What is the difference? </li></ul><ul><li>Examples? </li></ul><ul><li>How is a chemical change introduced? </li></ul>
  10. 10. Element vs Compound <ul><li>Element – simplest form of matter that has a unique set of properties </li></ul><ul><li>Compound </li></ul><ul><ul><li>substance containing 2 or more elements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>chemically combined </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>fixed proportion (ex water vs hydrogen peroxide) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Chemical change – change that produces matter with a different composition than the original </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Recall: physical change = melt, freeze, cut, grind) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cmpds usually have properties (physical and chemical) that are different than the elements they are made of </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sodium + Chlorine  Sodium chloride </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Symbols and Formulas <ul><li>What do they represent? </li></ul><ul><li>How? </li></ul><ul><li>Why? </li></ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul>
  12. 12. Symbols and Formulas <ul><li>Symbols are used to represent elements </li></ul><ul><li>Berzelius developed the system of symbols </li></ul><ul><ul><li>mostly based on Latin names of elements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>one or two letter chemical symbol </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Formulas represent compounds </li></ul><ul><li>Formula indicates the elements present in a compound with subscripts to show the proportion of elements in a cmpd </li></ul>
  13. 13. Chemical Reaction <ul><li>Chemical rxn: one or more substances change into one or more new substances </li></ul><ul><ul><li>reactant vs product </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Recall: chemical property is the ability of a substance to undergo a specific chemical change; ex iron + oxygen = rust </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical property </li></ul><ul><ul><li>used to id a substance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>seen when a substance undergoes a chemical change; composition always changes during chem change </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A chemical change is also called a chem rxn </li></ul>
  14. 14. Chemi Rxn, cont’d <ul><li>Clues to a chemical change </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transfer of energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Change in color </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Production of gas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Formation of a precipitate – a solid that forms and settles out of a liquid mixture </li></ul></ul><ul><li>During any chem rxn: the mass of the products is always equal to the mass of the reactants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Law of Conservation of Mass </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>in any physical change or chemical rxn, mass is conserved </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>mass can be neither created nor destroyed </li></ul></ul></ul>
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