Renaissance 1400-1700 There are in history ever-so-brief moments that explore with new ideas, new ways of expression, and triumphant masterpieces of art. The Renaissance was such a time Rather than trusting in superstitions and beliefs as in the Middle Ages, the world turned to human reason Major writings of ancient Greeks and Muslim Middle East in science, math, and culture were translated from Arabic to Latin. Now everyone had access to them and the world as they knew it…exploded with new ideas.
You might be asking…
Where did the Renaissance occur?
What does "renaissance" mean?
When did the Renaissance occur?
Who were the most influential people during the Renaissance?
Who were the great artists, musicians and writers during the Renaissance?
Why is the Renaissance important to us today?
The Dawn of the Renaissance
Italian Renaissance An Era of Awakening
Renaissance = Rebirth
Philosophical and artistic mov’t
Renew interest in Greek/Roman literature and life
Need to bring this in harmony w/ Christian teachings
New emphasis on power of human reason
New emphasis on advances in science and arts
Why Italy? $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$
Venice, Italy Venice full of wealthy, educated merchants
Venice During the Renaissance
Florence, Italy Florence full of wealthy, educated merchants Especially the Medici family Lorenzo de Medici
The Italian Renaissance The Cause
Trade with Byzantine
Trade with southeast Asia
Trade with Africa
Trade = Money and Italy has it!
Lorenzo the Magnificent 1478 - 1521 Cosimo de Medici 1517 - 1574
Florence Under the Medici Medici Chapel The Medici Palace
Commissioned to build the cathedral dome.
Used unique architectural concepts.
He studied the ancient Pantheon in Rome.
Used ribs for support.
Dome Comparisons Il Duomo St. Peter’s St. Paul’s US capital (Florence) (Rome) (London) (Washington)
The noble or aristocrat was expected to fulfill certain ideals.
The Italian Baldassare Castiglione expressed these in The Book of the Courtier.
He described the characteristics of a perfect Renaissance noble.
Nobles were expected to have talent, character, and grace.
Castiglione represented the humanist “gentleman” as a man of refinement and self-control.
Art and Patronage
Italians were willing to spend a lot of money on art.
Art communicated social, political, and spiritual values.
Italian banking & international trade interests had the money.
Public art in Florence was organized and supported by guilds.
Therefore, the consumption of art was used as a form of competition for social & political status!
The Art of the Italian Renaissance
Zeus or Poseidon c. 460-450 B.C.
Three Goddesses (Shestia, Dione, and Aphrodite) C. 438-432 B.C. Nike (Victory of Samothrace) c. 450 B.C.
Roman Senator and His Wife
Can you see any perspective?
Medieval Art Characteristics
Disproportionate and no perspective
All faces the same, unrealistic
2 dimensional, flat, and dull
180 degree relief statues
Storytelling, either about religion or warfare
Artists are craftsmen, works for guild
Giotto The Scrovegni Chapel, or Cappella degli Scrovegni, also known as the Arena Chapel is a church in Padua, Veneto, Italy. It contains a fresco cycle by Giotto, completed about 1305, that is one of the most important masterpieces of Western art
Side by Side Renaissance vs Middle Ages
Note perspective is achieved by outlining Note perspective is achieved by shading
Madonna and Child Fra Filippo Lippi, 1406-1469
Adoration of the Magi Sandro Botticelli
Dead Christ Andrea Mantegna, 1501
Characteristics of Renaissance Art
During the middle ages and before, pictures were painted on the wall and wood, usually with a mixture of color dye and egg yolk. That all changed radically with the Renaissance. Starting with Jan van Eyck (Netherlands) painters started to paint with slow drying, oil-based paints . These oil-based paints enabled the artist to slowly layer subtle different shades of hue and color to make very realistic skin tones. The oil-based paints were also superior at refracting light, resulting in very bright colors. Two well known Italian painters quickly became champions of this new painting – Leonardo da Vinci and Raphae l. One of the first oil paintings by Leonardo da Vinci is the Mona Lisa. Within 100 years every major painter of the Renaissance was painting in oils.
Note from the Future : until the invention of acrylics in the late 20th century, virtually every major artist in the world in the past 400 years after the Renaissance used oil as a major way of painting
5 Characteristics of Italian Renaissance Art
1. Realism & Expression
Expulsion from the Garden
First nudes since classical times.
2. Perspective Perspective! Perspective! Perspective! Perspective! Perspective! First use of linear perspective! Perspective! Perspective!
What you are, I once was; what I am, you will become.
3. Emphasis on Individualism
Batista Sforza & Federico de Montefeltre: The Duke & Dutchess of Urbino
Piero della Francesca, 1465-1466.
Isabella d’Este – da Vinci, 1499
“ First Lady of the Italian Renaissance.”
Great patroness of the arts in Mantua.
Known during her time as “First Lady of the World!”
4. Geometrical Arrangement of Figures
The Dreyfus Madonna with the Pomegranate
Leonardo da Vinci
The figure as architecture!
5. Artists as Personalities/Celebrities
Lives of the Most Excellent Painters, Sculptors, and Architects
The Renaissance 'Individual'
Leonardo da Vinci
The L’uomo universale
The Renaissance “Man”
Broad knowledge about many things in different fields.
Deep knowledge/skill in one area.
Able to link information from different areas/disciplines and create new knowledge.
The Greek ideal of the “well-rounded man” was at the heart of Renaissance education.
Self-Portrait -- da Vinci, 1512 1452 - 1519
Leonardo, the Sculptor
An Equestrian Statue
Leonardo, the Architect: Pages from his Notebook
Plan of the city of Imola, 1502.
Leonardo, the Scientist: Biology: ( Pages from his Notebook
An example of the humanist desire to unlock the secrets of nature.
Leonardo, the Scientist (Anatomy): Pages from his Notebook
Leonardo, the Inventor: Pages from his Notebook
A study of siege defenses. Studies of water-lifting devices. Leonardo, the Engineer: Pages from his Notebook
Leonardo, the Artist: From his Notebooks of over 5000 pages (1508-1519)
Leonardo, the Artist
The Virgin of the Rocks
Leonardo da Vinci
Mona Lisa – da Vinci, 1503-4 ?
A Macaroni Mona
A Picasso Mona
An Andy Warhol Mona
A “Mona”ca Lewinsky
Mona Lisa OR da Vinci??
Refractory Convent of Santa Maria delle Grazie Milan
The Last Supper - da Vinci, 1498 & Geometry
horizontal vertical Perspective! The Last Supper - da Vinci, 1498
A Da Vinci “Code”: St. John or Mary Magdalene?
Ninja Turtles Raphael Sanzio Donatelo Michelango Leonardo Da Vinci
Michelangelo Patron: Medici Family
Pieta Michelangelo, 1498-99 Michelangelo was 24 years old when he completed the Pieta
Michelangelo completed this in his 20s. Statue is given a place of honor outside Florence’s Palazzo Vecchio, the seat of the Medici gov’t
Other sculptors were envious of Michelangelo’s success. They persuaded Pope Julius II to commission him to paint the ceiling b/c it would eliminate him from the competition in the world of sculpture. Everyone expected him to fail.
It took Michelangelo 4 years of painting on a scaffold to complete the work .
The Sistine Chapel Details Creation of Man
Madonna and Child
School of Athens , Raphael
Raphael worked on this commission simultaneously as Michelangelo was doing the Sistine Chapel.
No Christian themes here.
Aristotle : looks to this earth [the here and now]. Plato : looks to the heavens [or the IDEAL realm]. The School of Athens – Raphael,
Birth of Venus – Botticelli, 1485 An attempt to depict perfect beauty.
He tried to apply lessons of Christian faith to the found literature & philosophies of ancient Greek and Latin
Renaissance Humanists //www.mrdowling.com/images/704erasmus.jpg A person who studied the classics was called a humanist . Humanists recreated classical styles in art, literature, and architecture. Humanists believed that by studying the classics, they could understand people and the world better.
Education in the Renaissance
Renaissance humanists believed that education could dramatically change human beings.
Humanists studied the Roman and Greek classics. Studied grammar, history, poetry, and rhetoric.
Most humanists still strong Christians so sometimes felt tension b/w their studies and religion
Following the Greek ideal, humanist educators also stressed physical education, including dancing.
The goal of humanist education was to create complete citizens.
Humanist schools provided the model for the basic education of the European ruling classes until the twentieth century.
Education in the Renaissance
Who is this? Machiavelli The Ultimate Gangster
Machiavelli and the New Statecraft
The Prince by Niccolò Machiavelli is one of the most influential works on political power in the western world.
It concerns how to get and keep political power.
Previously authors had stressed that princes should be ethical and follow Christian principles.
Machiavelli argued the prince’s attitude toward power should be based on understanding that human nature is self-interested.
Machiavelli video (20 minutes)
Niccolo Machiavelli was born in Florence, Italy (1469). He was a prominent statesman, but in 1512 he was accused of conspiring against the government.
Florence had just fallen into the hands of the Medicis, and Machiavelli was seen as a threat to their rule. He was tortured and imprisoned for three weeks, and then sent into exile.
He went to live on his family farm and began writing a pamphlet to try to gain the favor of the Medici family. That pamphlet became his masterpiece, The Prince (1532), which is full of practical advice on how rulers can stay in power. Among other things, he advocated killing potential rebels, and said that it's better to be feared than to be loved.
Machiavelli has never had a good reputation. Twentieth-century philosopher Bertrand Russell called The Prince "a handbook for gangsters."
Some people say Machiavelli was a big influence on dictators like Hitler and Stalin. Today, the word "Machiavellian" has come to mean "marked by cunning, duplicity or bad faith."
Machiavelli's main point in The Prince is that the most important task for a ruler is to keep his country secure and peaceful, using whatever means possible. Sometimes, this means doing things that most people would consider immoral, but Machiavelli said that that's just part of the job. He was cynical about human nature: he argued that it was natural for most people to be selfish, and so a great ruler has to accept that he lives in an immoral world.
He wrote, "A man who might want to make a show of goodness in all things necessarily comes to ruin among so many who are not good. Because of this it is necessary for a prince, wanting to maintain himself, to learn how to be able to be not good and to use this and not use it according to necessity."
He also argued that most people value their property more than the lives of their friends and family, and so in some situations it's okay for rulers to kill their citizens, but it's almost never okay to take away their property.
He wrote, "Men must be either pampered or crushed, because they can get revenge for small injuries, but not for grievous ones. So any injury a prince does a man should be of a kind where there is no fear of revenge." Despite Machiavelli's hopes, The Prince didn't win over the Medici’s. A few years later, a new republic was established in Italy, but his name had already become so associated with evil and violence that he wasn't able to get another government job for the rest of his life. He wrote two more books, and died in 1527
Take the Dear Abbey prompt awarded to you
Answer in a Machiavellian manner
Speak to your parents. Ask them: “does the end justify the means”
Write down their response and your comments.
The Northern Renaissance
Renaissance Art in Northern Europe
Should not be considered an appendage to Italian art.
But, Italian influence was strong.
Painting in OIL, developed in Flanders, was widely adopted in Italy .
The differences between the two cultures:
Italy change was inspired by humanism with its emphasis on the revival of the values of classical antiquity.
No. Europe change was driven by religious reform, the return to Christian values, and the revolt against the authority of the Church.
More princes & kings were patrons of artists.
Characteristics of Northern Renaissance Art
The continuation of late medieval attention to details.
Tendency toward realism & naturalism [less emphasis on the “classical ideal”].
Interest in landscapes.
More emphasis on middle-class and peasant life.
Details of domestic interiors.
Great skill in portraiture.
Begins in Flanders
Moves from there to France, Germany, and Spain
Jan van Eyck (1395 – 1441)
More courtly and aristocratic work.
Court painter to the Duke of Burgundy, Philip the Good.
The Virgin and Chancellor Rolin , 1435.
Giovanni Arnolfini and His Wife (Wedding Portrait) Jan Van Eyck 1434
http://www.ibiblio.org/wm/paint/auth/eyck/arnolfini/arnolfini.jpg The Marriage of Giovanni Arnolfini and Giovanna Cenami; 1434 In the mirror at the back of the room we see the whole scene reflected from behind, and there, so it seems, we also see the image of the painter and witness. We do not know whether it was the Italian merchant or the northern artist who conceived the idea of making this use of the new kind of painting, which may be compared to the legal use of a photograph, properly endorsed by a witness. But whoever it was that originated this idea, he had certainly been quick to understand the tremendous possibilities which lay in Van Eyck's new way of painting. For the first time in history the artist became the perfect eye-witness in the truest sense of the term. Symbolic candle The solitary flame burning in bright daylight can be interpreted as the bridal candle, or God's all-seeing eye, or simply as a devotional candle. Another symbol is St Margaret (the patron saint of women in childbirth), whose image is carved on the high chairback. The mirror is painted with almost miraculous skill. Its carved frame is inset with ten miniature medallions depicting scenes from the life of Christ. Yet more remarkable is the mirror's reflection, which includes van Eyck's own tiny self-portrait, accompanied by another man who may have been the official witness to the ceremony. Symbol of faithfulness Almost every detail can be interpreted as a symbol. The companion dog is seen as a symbol of faithfulness and love. The fruits on the window ledge probably stand for fertility and our fall from Paradise. Even the discarded shoes are not thought to be incidental, but to signify the sanctity of marriage .
Jan van Eyck - Giovanni Arnolfini & His Wife (details)
van der Weyden’s Deposition (details)
Albrecht Dürer (1471-1528)
The greatest of German artists.
A scholar as well as an artist.
His patron was the Emperor Maximilian I.
Also a scientist
Wrote books on geometry, fortifications, and human proportions.
Self-conscious individualism of the Renaissance is seen in his portraits.
One of the great German artists who did most of his work in England.
While in Basel, he befriended Erasmus.
Erasmus Writing , 1523
Henry VIII was his patron from 1536.
Great portraitist noted for:
Objectivity & detachment.
Doesn’t conceal the weaknesses of his subjects.
Artist to the Tudors Henry VIII (left), 1540 and the future Edward VI (above), 1543.
The English Were More Interested in Architecture than Painting Hardwick Hall, designed by Robert Smythson in the 1590s, for the Duchess of Shrewsbury [more medieval in style].
Burghley House for William Cecil The largest & grandest house of the early Elizabethan era.
The Low Countries
Pieter Bruegel the Elder (1525-1569)
One of the greatest artistic geniuses of his age.
Worked in Antwerp and then moved to Brussels.
In touch with a circle of Erasmian humanists.
Was deeply concerned with human vice and follies.
A master of landscapes; not a portraitist.
People in his works often have round, blank, heavy faces.
They are expressionless, mindless, and sometimes malicious.
They are types, rather than individuals.
Their purpose is to convey a message.
Bruegel’s, Tower of Babel , 1563
Bruegel’s, The Triumph of Death , 1562
New Philosophical Ideas
New Political Ideas
New Ideas in Education
The best known Christian humanist was Desiderius Erasmus.
He developed what he called “the philosophy of Christ,” meant to show people how to live good lives on a daily basis rather than how to achieve salvation.
He stressed inward piety, not external observance of rules and rituals.
Erasmus and Christian Humanism http://www.artchive.com/artchive/h/holbein/erasmus.jpg
To reform the Church, Erasmus wanted to spread the philosophy of Christ, educate people about Christianity, and criticize the abuses of the Church .
In his 1509 work The Praise of Folly, he especially criticized the monks.
Erasmus did not want to break away from the Church, as later reformers would.
Yet people of his day said, “Erasmus laid the egg that Luther hatched.” What does this mean?
Erasmus and Christian Humanism
Thomas More wrote a famous book called Utopia which was about an “ideal” society
Thomas More famously opposed the king and was beheaded.
What is it With these British kings And beheading! Author of Utopia … how ironic! Thomas More of England
The Impact of Printing The Renaissance saw the development of printing in Europe. Johannes Gutenber g of Germany played a crucial role in the process. Gutenberg’s Bible, printed about 1455, was the first European book produced from movable type.
The Impact of Printing Or the Impact of Computers Most papers and magazines are now digitalized. How has the computer changed communication today and an examination of current invasions of privacy?
List three characteristics of the Renaissance
Explain the three estates of Renaissance society.
Explain Renaissance education.
Describe artistic contributions of the Renaissance.
Describe Christian humanism
Describe Luther’s role in the Reformation
Describe religious changes in Switzerland, in England, and within the Catholic Church.