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Renaissance 1400-1700 There are in history ever-so-brief moments that explore with new ideas, new ways of expression, and triumphant masterpieces of art. The Renaissance was such a time Rather than trusting in superstitions and beliefs as in the Middle Ages, the world turned to human reason Major writings of ancient Greeks and Muslim Middle East in science, math, and culture were translated from Arabic to Latin. Now everyone had access to them and the world as they knew it…exploded with new ideas.
Giotto The Scrovegni Chapel, or Cappella degli Scrovegni, also known as the Arena Chapel is a church in Padua, Veneto, Italy. It contains a fresco cycle by Giotto, completed about 1305, that is one of the most important masterpieces of Western art
During the middle ages and before, pictures were painted on the wall and wood, usually with a mixture of color dye and egg yolk. That all changed radically with the Renaissance. Starting with Jan van Eyck (Netherlands) painters started to paint with slow drying, oil-based paints . These oil-based paints enabled the artist to slowly layer subtle different shades of hue and color to make very realistic skin tones. The oil-based paints were also superior at refracting light, resulting in very bright colors. Two well known Italian painters quickly became champions of this new painting – Leonardo da Vinci and Raphae l. One of the first oil paintings by Leonardo da Vinci is the Mona Lisa. Within 100 years every major painter of the Renaissance was painting in oils.
Note from the Future : until the invention of acrylics in the late 20th century, virtually every major artist in the world in the past 400 years after the Renaissance used oil as a major way of painting
Other sculptors were envious of Michelangelo’s success. They persuaded Pope Julius II to commission him to paint the ceiling b/c it would eliminate him from the competition in the world of sculpture. Everyone expected him to fail.
It took Michelangelo 4 years of painting on a scaffold to complete the work .
He tried to apply lessons of Christian faith to the found literature & philosophies of ancient Greek and Latin
Renaissance Humanists //www.mrdowling.com/images/704erasmus.jpg A person who studied the classics was called a humanist . Humanists recreated classical styles in art, literature, and architecture. Humanists believed that by studying the classics, they could understand people and the world better.
Niccolo Machiavelli was born in Florence, Italy (1469). He was a prominent statesman, but in 1512 he was accused of conspiring against the government.
Florence had just fallen into the hands of the Medicis, and Machiavelli was seen as a threat to their rule. He was tortured and imprisoned for three weeks, and then sent into exile.
He went to live on his family farm and began writing a pamphlet to try to gain the favor of the Medici family. That pamphlet became his masterpiece, The Prince (1532), which is full of practical advice on how rulers can stay in power. Among other things, he advocated killing potential rebels, and said that it's better to be feared than to be loved.
Machiavelli's main point in The Prince is that the most important task for a ruler is to keep his country secure and peaceful, using whatever means possible. Sometimes, this means doing things that most people would consider immoral, but Machiavelli said that that's just part of the job. He was cynical about human nature: he argued that it was natural for most people to be selfish, and so a great ruler has to accept that he lives in an immoral world.
He wrote, "A man who might want to make a show of goodness in all things necessarily comes to ruin among so many who are not good. Because of this it is necessary for a prince, wanting to maintain himself, to learn how to be able to be not good and to use this and not use it according to necessity."
He also argued that most people value their property more than the lives of their friends and family, and so in some situations it's okay for rulers to kill their citizens, but it's almost never okay to take away their property.
He wrote, "Men must be either pampered or crushed, because they can get revenge for small injuries, but not for grievous ones. So any injury a prince does a man should be of a kind where there is no fear of revenge." Despite Machiavelli's hopes, The Prince didn't win over the Medici’s. A few years later, a new republic was established in Italy, but his name had already become so associated with evil and violence that he wasn't able to get another government job for the rest of his life. He wrote two more books, and died in 1527
Court painter to the Duke of Burgundy, Philip the Good.
The Virgin and Chancellor Rolin , 1435.
Giovanni Arnolfini and His Wife (Wedding Portrait) Jan Van Eyck 1434
http://www.ibiblio.org/wm/paint/auth/eyck/arnolfini/arnolfini.jpg The Marriage of Giovanni Arnolfini and Giovanna Cenami; 1434 In the mirror at the back of the room we see the whole scene reflected from behind, and there, so it seems, we also see the image of the painter and witness. We do not know whether it was the Italian merchant or the northern artist who conceived the idea of making this use of the new kind of painting, which may be compared to the legal use of a photograph, properly endorsed by a witness. But whoever it was that originated this idea, he had certainly been quick to understand the tremendous possibilities which lay in Van Eyck's new way of painting. For the first time in history the artist became the perfect eye-witness in the truest sense of the term. Symbolic candle The solitary flame burning in bright daylight can be interpreted as the bridal candle, or God's all-seeing eye, or simply as a devotional candle. Another symbol is St Margaret (the patron saint of women in childbirth), whose image is carved on the high chairback. The mirror is painted with almost miraculous skill. Its carved frame is inset with ten miniature medallions depicting scenes from the life of Christ. Yet more remarkable is the mirror's reflection, which includes van Eyck's own tiny self-portrait, accompanied by another man who may have been the official witness to the ceremony. Symbol of faithfulness Almost every detail can be interpreted as a symbol. The companion dog is seen as a symbol of faithfulness and love. The fruits on the window ledge probably stand for fertility and our fall from Paradise. Even the discarded shoes are not thought to be incidental, but to signify the sanctity of marriage .
Jan van Eyck - Giovanni Arnolfini & His Wife (details)
Thomas More wrote a famous book called Utopia which was about an “ideal” society
Thomas More famously opposed the king and was beheaded.
What is it With these British kings And beheading! Author of Utopia … how ironic! Thomas More of England
The Impact of Printing The Renaissance saw the development of printing in Europe. Johannes Gutenber g of Germany played a crucial role in the process. Gutenberg’s Bible, printed about 1455, was the first European book produced from movable type.
The Impact of Printing Or the Impact of Computers Most papers and magazines are now digitalized. How has the computer changed communication today and an examination of current invasions of privacy?